Callithrix gigot sp. nov.
Description: This species is larger than the others. The hands, feet, ears and contour of the face are black. The tail is very luxurious, the upper side pale red. The rest of the body is ash-grey, fading towards red. The hairs are very long, blackish on the root, the rest being brown-reddish, mixed and ringed with black and yellow-red. All hairs of the body are directed backwards. The face is dark brown, with some rigid black hairs on the cheeks; the lips and chin are covered with small white hairs, the hairs of the tail are all ferruginous.
Spix, J.B. de (1823). Simiarum et vespertiliarum Brasilienses species novea; … pp. 22-23.
Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Kuhl, 1820; Schinz, 1821); Callithrix gigot (Spix, 1823); Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein, 1823).
Wied, M. Prince of (1826). Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte Brasilien 2:114-121.
Synonyms: cinerascens is according to Temminck its young. Callithrix gigo – this name is given by Wied to his melanochir, on a way that we can think that it is a generic name.
Cuvier, G. (1829). Le Règne Animal, nouvelle édition 1: 104.
Callithrix gigot (Spix, 1823)
Remarks: The Prince of Neuwied has shown already earlier that this species is identical to his Callithrix melanochir, and this conformity would be clearer if the plate of Spix would have had the correct colouration.
Wagner, J.A. (1833). Critische Revision des brasilian. Affenarten. Isis von Oken 10(2):994.
Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Wied, 1826; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820); Callithrix Gigot (Spix, 1823); Callithrix cinerascens (Spix, 1823).
Wagner, J.A. (1840). Schreber, die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband, Erste Abtheilung: Die Affen und Flederthiere pp. 228-234.
Variation C: Callithrix melanochir
Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Wied-Neuwied, 1820; Desmarest, 1820; Kuhl, 1820; Lesson, 1829; Cuvier, 1829; Jardine, 1833); Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein, 1823); Saguinus melanochir (Lesson, 1827); Cebus gigot (Spix, 1823); Pithecia melanochir (Cuvier, 1825; Desmarest, 1827); Cebus melanochir (Fisher, 1829; Griffith, 1829).
Lesson, R.P. (1840). Species des mammifères bimanes et quadrumanes pp. 161-167.
Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Kuhl, 1820; Wied, 1826); Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein, 1823); Callithrix gigot (Spix, 1823); Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823); Callithrix cinerascens (Spix, 1823).
Schinz, H.K. (1821). Das Thierreich, eingetheilt nach dem Bau der Thiere als Grundlage ihrer Naturgeschichte und der vergleichenden Anatomie von den Herrn Ritter von Cuvier. Volume 1: 132-133.
Synonyms: Saguinus personatus (Lesson, 1827); Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Cuvier, 1829); Simia personata (Humboldt, 1812); Cebus personatus (Blainville, 1839); Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823); Callithrix infulatus (Lichtenstein, 1823); Callithrix melanochir (Wied-Neuwied, 1821); Callithrix incanescens (Liechtenstein, ?); Saguinus melanochir (Lesson, 1827); Cebus gigot (Spix, 1823); Pithecia melanochir (Cuvier, 1825); Cebus melanochir (Fischer, 1829); Cebus cinerascens (Spix, 1823); Callithrix donacophilus (D’Orbigny, 1847), etc. etc.
“This synonymy proves very well how badly know this animal is to the authors, and especially how much men like to create new species to connect their names to it and to throw difficulties in science. With the help of M. Lesson, we are trying to unravel the chaos”.
Remark: If the hairs are soft, long, luxurious, greyish, fading into brown on the back; the hands and face black; the tail whitish or tinges with white and yellow, with the tip greyish, it is the Callithrix melanochir of Wied-Neuwied and Desmarest, the Callithrix incanescens of Lichtenstein, the Saguinus melanochir of Lesson or the Cebus gigo of Spix.
Boitard, P. (1848). Dictionnaire Universel d’Histoire Naturelle 11:290-292.
Synonym: Callithrix Gigot (Spix, 1823).
Distribution: Bahia. C. gigot replaces the southern C. nigrifrons.
Description: It has the same dense and long fur of C. nigrifrons, and the same large head. It differs in colouration that instead of a yellow-brown colour the brown-grey dominates. The at their base dark brown hairs become speckled dirty brownish-yellow and blackish. The brownish-yellow becomes only on the loins a weak rusty-brownish hue, which is however almost completely covered by the dark tips of the hairs, and cannot be compared with the red-brown lower back of C. melanochir. The underside is not much lighter than the upper side. The forehead is bordered with a thin black stripe, while the hairs are here completely black, or only have a thin yellowish ring below the tip. If these rings become wider, the colour of the head turns speckled brownish-yellow and black. The hairs around the lips are dirty-whitish. The four hands are black; the naked skin also dark coloured. The tail of this specimen dirty rusty-brown-reddish mixed with black; towards the tip paler. In a specimen from Vienna is the tail at the base rusty-red, on the second half dirty yellowish-white.
Remark: this species resembles very much C. nigrifrons, therefore I though before that they were identical. Now that I have seen two additional specimens in Vienna, I hold them for two different species, even though there is a risk that C. gigot might proved to be only a constant northern variety of C. nigrifrons or melanochir.
Wagner, J.A. (1848). Callithrix. Springaffe. Beitrage zur kenntniss der Säugthiere Amerikas Abhandlungen des Königl. Akademie des Wissenschaften München 5: 446-457.
I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1851
Synonym: C. gigot (Spix, 1823).
Remarks: The Paris Museum has one specimen, from Obidos village (Amazon), Brazil. Was sent in 1847 from the voyage of Castelnau and Deville. The description of Spix is that imperfect, its figure is that bad, that we do not address this monkey to C. gigo without any doubts. Our animal has the same distribution of colours, but the nuances much darker, as C. personatus; the head is black and not only the front; but a certain number of speckled hairs that are still present on the head show that when the animal was young only the front was black.
Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I. (1851). Catalogue méthodique de la collection des mammifères. Part 1 Mammifères, Introduction et catalogues des primates pp. 39-41.
Synonym: Callithrix Gigot (Spix, 1823; Wagner, 1848)
Distribution: Bahia area.
Description: size as other species, but the colour dirty brown-grey, on the lower back more red-brownish; underside only little paler as upper side. On the forehead a thin black band, the hands black. Tail red-brownish, the tip being paler.
Burmeister, H. (1854). Systematische Ubersicht des Thiere Brasiliens 1: 30-32.
Synonym: Callithrix Gigot (Spix, 1823; Wagner, 1848).
Remarks: This species is very much alike C. nigrifrons, therefore I regarded them before, when I only had the specimen of Spix available for examination, as the same species. Now that I have seen two more specimens in Vienna, which are completely the same, and are of a different locality, I think that it is better to separate both species, although there is a risk that in the future we might see that the C. Gigot is only a northern variety of C. nigrifrons or melanochir.
In size and length of the hairs this species agree completely with C. nigrifrons, including the large head. It differs in the colouration that, instead of having yellowish-brownish tones, it is brown-grey. The hairs of the upper side with a dark-brown base are further speckled brown-yellowish and blackish. The brownish-yellow becomes only on the lower back a weak rusty-brownish hue, which is covered by the dark tips, and cannot be compared to the rusty-brown lower back of C. melanochir. The underside is not much lighter than the upper side. The front of the head has a thin black band, as the hairs are almost completely black with only a very thin yellowish ring below the tip. As the rings become wider, the colour of the head becomes speckled brown-yellowish and black. The hairs around the lips are dirty white. The four hands are black. The tail is turbid rusty-brownish mixed with black, lighter towards the tip. The base of the tail of one of the specimens in Vienna rusty-red, the second half being dirty yellowish-white; in the other the tail is completely rusty-coloured, but the tip is missing.
Measurements: head and body 412mm; tail 475mm.
Wagner, J. A. (1855). Schreber, die Saugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband, Fünfte Abtheilung : Die Affen.
Synonym: Callithrix Gigot (Spix, 1823).
Remarks: The description of Spix is that imperfect, the figure is that bad, that it is impossible to determine with precision the characters that distinguishes this species, that is, according to him, grey-brownish with the tail reddish; the hands and around the face black. The individual brought to us by Castelnau and Deville offers rather well all these characters. It has a body covered with long hairs, slightly brindled, with a grey-brownish on the foresides and sides, more reddish towards the middle of back and the handquarters. This reddish colour seems to have been noticed by Spix on some individuals: the body, he says, “draws sometimes to red”. “The head is black: it looks like the animal has small hood of that colour, that is never pure: the hairs are not only grey at their base, but most of them have a small grey zone towards their tip: the black of the head is therefore a bit brindled. It is the same for the lower part of the limbs. The hands are completely black. The tail is reddihs. The size is the same as that of C. personatus.
Castelnau, F. de (1855). Animaux nouveaux or rares recueillis pendant l’expédition dans les parties centrales de l’Amérique du Sud, de Rio de Janeiro a Lima, et de Lima au Para; exécutée par ordre du gouvernement Français pendant les années 1843 a 1847. Anatomie pp. 10-13.
Synonym: Callithrix gigo (Spix, I. Geoffroy).
Description: Hands black. The hair is fine, soft and somehow woolly with redder colour, which is a mixed brown-yellow, black and grey. The back is sometimes rust-red. The tail is either grey; grey-black; mixed black, grey and rust-red; or totally rust-red. Head is totally black, sometimes with insignificant grey mixed shades, it can be same on the side of the face. A cross-shaped mark under the throat and the inside of the limbs are black.
Measurements: body 450mm; tail 460mm.
Dahlbom. A.G. (1856-1857). Zoologiska Studier, afhandlande Djurrikets naturliga familjer 1: 151-153.
Synonyms: Callithrix gigot (Spix, I. Geoffroy).
Distribution: Obidos on the Amazon, Brazil (I. Geoffroy).
Description: Hairy, brown, ashy-grey. Tail reddish-brown. Hands, especially the feet, hairy and black. Ears and sides of the head black. Chin and throat without beard. Hairs on body 62mm long, at base brown-black, in the middle with a dirty brown band, towards the tip dirty white and black annulated. Hairs on head shorter, but longer than in nigrifrons, black at base, white-reddish at the tip. Above the eyes till the root of the nose black. The hairs of the tail have a rusty-coloured base, are speckled pale rusty and black. On the underside the hairs are fluffy ashy-grey. The hands and feet are bushy, completely black. Face thick, black, somewhat hairy.
Measurements: Head and body: 500mm; tail 500mm.
Remarks: more robust and hairy as C. nigrifrons. The specimen of Castelnau and Deville has the same markings as the animal of Spix, but is darker, not pale on the forehead, but the head black, however the speckled hairs on the head show that in young animals only the forehead is black.
Reichenbach, H.G.L. (1862). Die Vollständigiste Naturgeschichte der Affen.
Synonyms: Callithrix gigo (Spix, 1823); Callithrix cinerascens (Spix, 1823).
Description: Crown nearly all black, slightly grey-dotted; sides of the face, gular band, and inside of the limbs black.
Variation: Throat white.
Gray, J.E. (1870). Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats in the collection of the British Museum pp. 54-57.
Synonym: Callithrix gigot (Spix, 1823).
Distribution: Spix obtained this monkey in the coastal forests near Ilhéos, south de Bahia. The two individuals of the Vienna Museum are also from Bahia. Our individual came from Nouvelle-Fribourg, situated between Parahyba and the mountains north of the Rio de Janeiro bay.
Description: General tinge formed by black hairs with pale grey rings, black on the hands and forehead. This monkey resembles C. melanochir, both by its form and by the tinge of its fur; but it differs by the following characteristics: the ears are covered by black hairs – and not by greyish hairs – there is a thin black frontal band and the back is little or not washed with red. We can add that, at least in our individual, the tail is a very pronounced red, something that I have not observed in C. personata.
Remarks: The individual indicated by I. Geoffroy (Catalogue, 1851) under this name doesn’t seem to belong to our species. It was brought along by Castelnau and Deville from the environments of Obidos, village situated on the northern bank of the lower Amazon.
Schlegel, H. (1876). Les singes, Simia. Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Pays-Bas 12 :230-241.
Von Pelzen, 1883
Synonym: Callithrix Gigot (Wagner, 1848, 1855; Schlegel, 1876).
Remarks: Two specimens collected by H. Sellow and H. Kammerlacher.
Pelzen, A. von (1883). Brasilische Säugethiere pp. 19-20.
In September last a specimen of the rare monkey Callithrix gigot, Spix, died in the Society’s Gardens, and came into my hands for dissection. It seems to me that a few short notes on its anatomy may be of use.
The hair was long and soft, slightly woolly over the trunk. On the forehead it was shorter and more thickly set; over the limbs shorter and loose. The general colour of the dorsal surface was reddish grey, redder behind, more ashy over the forehead and limbs. A typical hair from the back was about two inches long; black at the root for half an inch, then cream-coloured for three quarters of an inch, the tip being ringed with chestnut and black. The muzzle and chin were black, with a few short, strong, white hairs; a black line ran up the nose and round the eyes, the lids of which were white with black lashes. The long hairs of the brows were black. The forehead was thickly covered with pale grey hairs. Slightly tipped with black; and a faint black ridge ran across it between the ears. The ears themselves were black, covered with short black hairs except for a small grey tuft at the postero-external angle. In front of the ears a very light grey band passed over the cheek, being continued above on to the forehead, below on to the chest.
The throat was naked, the skin in this region being of a bright pink colour. The limbs had their inner surfaces pale grey, while the hands and feet are black. The tail was red, the hair being more bushy at the base than at the apex, which might, however, be an effect of friction during confinement.
Measurements: head and body 350mm; tail: 337mm.
Weldon, W.F.R. (1884). Notes on Callithrix gigot. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 52: 6.
Remarks: the Leiden museum has one individual: an adult, from Nouvelle Fribourg, Brazil. From the collections of M. Beske.
Jentink, F.A. (1892). Catalogue systématique des mammifères (singes, carnivores, ruminants, pachydermes, sirènes et cétacés). Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle des Pays Bas 11: 51-53.
Synonyms: Callithrix gigot (Spix, 1823; Schlegel, 1876; Weldon, 1876); Callithrix gigo (Gray, 1870).
Distribution: Brazil, Bahia, and the country between the Parahyba and the mountains to the north of the Bay of Rio de Janeiro.
Description: Hair about two inches long, soft and slightly woolly over the trunk; hair on the forehead short and more thickly set; that over the limbs short and loose. General colour of the back reddish-grey behind, more ashy over the forehead and limbs; the hair black at the base, cream-coloured further up, the tips ringed with chestnut and black. Muzzle and chin black, with few short, strong, white hairs; a black line along the nose and round the eyes; the eyelids white; the eye-lashes and long eye-brows black; forehead thickly covered with loose grey hairs, slightly tipped with black; a faint ridge across the brow between the ears; the ears black, covered with soft black hairs, except for a small grey tuft at their hind outer angle. In front of the ears a light grey band over the cheeks, continued above on to the forehead, below to the chest; throat naked, light pink; under surface of the limbs pale grey; the hands and feet black; tail red, the hair bushy at its base.
Measurements: Body 35,6cm; tail 34,3cm.
Forbes, H.O. (1896). A Handbook of the Primates pp. 159-165.
Distribution: On the coast till the Rio S. Matthaeus and Bahia.
Description: Under and upper side the same colour, never coppery; hands and feet black, tail covered with hairs of the same length. Colour predominantly black-grey, speckled, hands and feet pure black as is the front of the head. Back black-grey, hairs of the ears ink-black. Black stripe on front. Tail reddish.
Meerwarth, H. (1897-1898). Simios (macacos) do novo mundo. Boletin do Museo Paraense de Historia Natural y Etn. 2: 121-154.
Synonym: gigot (Spix, 1823; I. Geoffroy and Castelnau, 1855; Schlegel, 1876; Weldon, 1884; Pelzeln, 1883).
Distribution: Southern Brazil, Bahia, Ilhéos, Mountains in region of Rio de Janeiro; New-Freibourg.
Trouessart, E.L. (1898-1899). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium 1: 44-46.
Distribution: Southern Brazil, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro; New-Freibourg.
Trouessart, E.L. (1904-1905). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium. Quinquennale Suppl. Pp. 25-26.
Synonyms: Callithrix gigot (Spix, 1823; I. Geoffroy, 1851; Wagner, 1855; Dahlbom, 1856; Castelnau, 1855; Reichenbach, 1862; Schlegel, 1876; von Pelzeln, 1883; Weldon, 1884; Forbes, 1894). Callithrix gigo (Gray, 1870).
Type locality: Near Ilheos, south of Bahia, Brazil. Type in Munich Museum.
Distribution: South of Bahia near Ilheos, (Spix); New Freibourg, between the Rio Parahyba and the mountains north of Bay of Rio de Janeiro, (Schlegel).
Description: Male: face naked, black; narrow line on forehead and side of face; ears, hands and feet black; hairs on top of head short, black with greyish white tips; hairs on upper parts long, woolly, blackish brown at base, remainder reddish brown; limbs and flanks like back but darker, and blackish on outer side; under parts yellowish grey; tail cinnamon rufous, with many black hairs intermingled (Ex. type Munich Museum). Female: has the lower back decidedly reddish, otherwise like the male.
Measurements: Total length, 975mm; tail, 520mm; foot, 105mm.
Skull: occipito-nasal length, 58; Hensel, 46; zygomatic width, 38; intertemporal width, 31; palatal length, 20; breadth of braincase, 33 ; median length of nasals, 9 ; length of upper molar series, 15; length of mandible, 43; length of lower molar series, 18.
Remarks: Spix’s figure of this species, like that of C. nigrifrons, in no way represents the type, which is a darker animal and of quite a different colour. Spix’s description however is fairly correct.
Elliot, D.G. (1913). A review of the primates 1: 234-257.
Cabrera and Ypes, 1940
Distribution: Coast of Brazil, from Parahyba till Ilheos.
Description: Resembles much C. melanochir. Is also greyish, drawing towards reddish on the lower back, but has a black line on the head, and also black ears; but a grey band passes in front of them, from the front of the throat; his hands and feet are black, and the tail reddish.
Cabrera and Ypes (1940). Mamiferos Sud Americanos. Compana Argentina de Editores, Buenos Aires pp. 85-88.
Synonyms: Callithrix gigot (Spix, 1823), Callithrix gigo (Gray, 1870).
Distribution: Bahia (Ilheus; Rio Jucurucu); Espirito Santo; Rio de Janeiro (Novo Fribrugo).
Vieira, C. da C. (1955). Lista remissiva dos mamiferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 8 (10): 375-379.
Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Kuhl, 1820); Callithrix gigot (Spix, 1823); Saguinus melanochir (Lesson, 1827); Cebus melanochir (Fischer, 1829); Saguinus personatus variation (Lesson, 1840); Callithrix gigo (Gray, 1870); Callicebus melanochir (Elliot, 1913); Callicebus gigot (Elliot, 1913).
Distribution: East Brazil, from the Bahia State to the Rio de Janeiro.
Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.
Callicebus gigot gigot (Spix, 1823)
Type locality: Near Ilheus, south of Bahia, Eastern Brazil. Type in Münich Museum.
Distribution: Coastal tract of S.E. Brazil from north of Bahia (?Rio Itapicurú) southwards to the Rio Paraiba. Material in British Museum has provenance Lamarao in Bahia. Schlegel gives locality New Freiburg, between the Rio Paraíba and the mountains north of Rio de Janeiro.
Description: Hair 50mm long, soft and rather woolly on the trunk; shorter and more thickly planted on crown, shorter and looser on limbs. Distinguished from all other races by the black-haired ears, hands and feet. General colour of upper parts ashy-grey, especially on crown, for-part of body and limbs, but more reddish-grey posteriorly. Individual hairs black based, cream coloured for major part of shaft and annulated near tip with chestnut and black alternately.
Face, except eyelids (which are white) black, with a line of short black hairs on nose, another along supreorbital region and a third along sides of the face; eyelashes black; ears black and clothed thickly with short, black hairs, except sometimes at posterior-superior angle, where they may be grey; prauricular region with light-grey band, continued upwards to forehead and below on to the throat and chest, but median part of throat naked and light pink (Weldon). Under parts yellowish-grey; hands and feet black; tail cinnamon-rufous, with some black hairs interspersed and without light basal area dorsally. Female similar to male, but posterior part of back more decidedly rufous, as in C. g. donacophilus.
Measurements: head and body 260/225/330/360/358mm; tail 95/260/395/430/345mm; foot 80/75/97/97mm.
Skull: dimensions in publication.
Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy 4 (A): 98-147.
Callicebus melanochir or Callicebus gigot
Synonym: Callithrix gigot
Remark: Type specimen present in Munich collection.
Kraft, R. (1983). Die von JB Spix beschriebenen neotropischen Primaten und Chiropteren Verzeichnis der in der Zoologischen Staatssammlung München. Spixiana Supplement . 9:429-441.
Callicebus personatus melanochir
Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Wied-Neuwied, 1820); Callithrix incanescens (Kuhl, 1820); Callithrix gigot (Spix, 1823 – part).
Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.
Callicebus personatus barbarabrownae
Synonyms: Callithrix gigot (Spix, 1823 – part, colour pl. only, not type description in text, p. 22); Callithrix Gigot (Wagner, 1833 – part, reference to original colour plate only); Wagner, 1848 – “a northern variety of nigrifrons or melanochir”); Callithrix gigot (Kraft, 1983 – part, not holotype, reference to original color plate of Spix); Callithrix gigot (Reichenbach, 1862; Gray, 1866); Callithrix gigo [sic] (Gray, 1870); Callicebus gigot (Elliot, 1913 – part, characters ex original coloured figure); Callicebus gigot gigot (Hill, 1960 – part); Callicebus personatus (Napier, 1976); Callicebus personatus melanochir (Kinzey, 1982 – part).
Remarks: The colour plate of Callithrix gigot Spix (1823, pi. 16) indicates an animal distinct from the one named melanochir three years earlier by Wied-Neuwied (1820, p. 258). Nonetheless, Wied-Neuwied (1826) regarded the two forms as identical but likely had in mind the description in text. Few authors followed this decision, although Cabrera (1958) includes gigot in the synonymy of melanochir. Judged by the original colour plates only, Callithrix melanochir and C. gigot are indeed distinct, as noted earlier by Wagner (1833, 1848). Callicebus personatus melanochir is figured as a basically greyish-bodied animal with reddish back, forehead greyish, crown in front blackish, tail variegated. The figured Callithrix gigot is entirely buffy-bodied, with brow line blackish, crown buffy, tail buffy like trunk. Spix’s (1823) original description of the holotype of gigot, however, is of a very different animal. Elliot (1913) had already noted that “Spix’s figure [of gigot] … in no way represents the type, which is a darker animal and of quite a different colour. Spix’s description, however, is fairly accurate.” The type specimen of gigot I examined in the Munich Museum, and that of a topotype in the Rio Museum (MNR 1 1201) from Ilheus, conform fairly well to that of Wied-Neuwied’s melanochir. On the other hand, the trunk of a specimen (FMNH 20444) from Bandeira do Melo, Rio Paraguacu, NW of Ilheus, is dominantly buffy as figured for gigot, its tail deep reddish as described for gigot. The series of British Museum specimens from Formosa (2) and Lamarao (6) in the same region NW of Ilheus, exhibit the same figured characters of gigot.
If Ilheus is indeed the type locality of gigot, and nothing in Spix’s text indicates otherwise, then gigot as originally described and represented by the mounted type specimen in the Munich Museum is indistinguishable from Wied-Neuwied’s C. p. melanochir. On the other hand, the FMNH skin only from Bandeira de Melo, the BM material from Formosa and Lamarao, together with Spix’s figure of a titi mistakenly labelled gigot, represent the distinct population of the northernmost known geographic limits of the species, here named C. p. barbarabrownae.