Literature pallescens

Thomas, 1907

Callicebus pallescens

Type locality: Chaco of Paraguay; type from 30 miles north of Concepcion.

Description: Allied to C. donacophilus, d’Orbigny, with which it shares the greyish-white hands, feet and tail, but the head and body are almost of the same pale colour, so that the animal is one of the palest and most uniformly coloured species of the group. Size very small. Fur thick and soft; the longer hairs of back about 60, the shorter 35mm. in length. General colour of body pale greyish, suffused with pinkish buff; the long hairs indistinctively ringed with whitish and black, the under fur pinkish buff for its terminal half, its basal half dark brown. Under surface and inner side of limbs rufous, rather paler than in C. donacophilus. Head rather more yellow than back, owing to the hairs being tipped with yellow, but the difference is not conspicuous. Muzzle and lips whitish. Hands and feet greyish white. Tail also greyish white, but the hairs inconspicuously ringed with blackish.
Skull chiefly remarkable for its small size as compared with that of any other species.

Measurements: Head and body 365mm; tail 390mm; hind foot 84mm.

Skull: greatest length 58.5; basal length 44.5; zygomatic breadth 39; mastoid breadth 34.3; front of canine to back of m³ 18.2.

Remarks: In the absence of fresh specimens of C. donacophilus these skins from Paraguay were provisionally referred to that species. Now, however, a series of skins from Bolivia, nearly topotypical of d’Orbigny’s species, prove conclusively that the present form needs description.

Thomas. O. (1907). On Neotropical Mammals of the Genera Callicebus, Reithrodontomys, Ctenomys, Dasypus, and Marmosa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7) 20: 161-162.

Elliot, 1913

Callicebus pallescens

Synonyms: Callithrix pallescens (Thomas, 1907); Callithrix donacophilus (Gray, 1870).

Type locality: Chaco in Paraguay, 30 miles north of Concepcion (British Museum).

Description: Size small; fur thick, soft. Above pale greyish, generally suffused with pinkish buff, palest on rump; basal half of fur dark brown, remainder pinkish buff; long hairs ringed with black and white; under parts and inner sides of limbs rufous; hairs of head yellow and ringed with black; muzzle and lips whitish; hands blackish, white hairs on fingers; feet greyish white; outer side of arms with hairs buff at base, tips black; legs dark ochraceous; tail yellowish brown, hairs ringed with black, and white tipped.

Measurements: Total length, 755mm; tail, 390mm; hind foot, 84mm.

Skull: total length, 58.5 ; hensel, 43 ; zygomatic width, 38 ; intertemporal width, 36.7 ; median length of nasals, .90 ; length of upper molar series, 14.2; length of mandible, 45.5; length of lower molar series, 15.9.

Remarks: This is a pale yellowish brown species, with certain resemblances to C. donacophilus, but evidently quite distinct. The type is unique.

Elliot, D.G. (1913). A review of the primates 1: 234-257.

Cabrera and Ypes, 1940

Callicebus pallescens

Distribution: Chaco, Paraguay.

Description: Colour very much like C. donacophilus, but paler. Pale grey-reddish, more yellowish on the head and the under parts reddish. Is thought to be very rare.

Cabrera and Ypes (1940). Mamiferos Sud Americanos. Compana Argentina de Editores, Buenos Aires pp. 85-88.

Vieira, 1955

Callicebus pallescens

Synonyms: Callicebus pallescens (Thomas, 1907); Callicebus donacophilus (Gray, 1870).

Distribution: Paraguay, Brazil, Mato Grosso (Corumba).

Vieira, C. da C. (1955). Lista remissiva dos mamiferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 8 (10): 375-379.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus moloch pallescens

Synonym: Callicebus pallescens (Thomas, 1907).

Distribution: Paraguay.

Remark: This form, together with donacophilus and oenanthe, show some resemblance to each other that maybe when a revision of the genus will be done, oblige to separate them from moloch as a separate species.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus gigot pallescens (Thomas, 1907)

Synonyms: Callicebus pallescens (Thomas, 1907)

Type locality: 30 miles north of Concepción in the Paraguayan Chaco. Type in British Museum.

Distribution: Confined, so far as known, to the Paraguayan Chaco, though Vieira records it from Corumbe in Mato Grosso.

Description: Fur thick and soft; longer hairs 60mm., shorter 35mm. Upper parts pale grey, suffused with pinkish-buff, palest on rump; basal parts of hairs dark brown, remainder pinkish-buff; but longest hairs with white and black annulations. Under parts and medial aspect of limbs rufous, paler than in donacophilus. Hair son crown yellow, with black annulations; muzzle and lips with short whitish hairs; hands blackish, the digits with some white hairs; feet greyish-white; arms laterally with hairs buff basally, tipped with black; legs dark ochraceous; tail greyish-white, the hairs annulated with black and tipped white.

Measurements: head and body 365mm; tail 390mm; foot 84mm.

Skull: dimensions in publication.

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Hershkovitz, 1963

Callicebus moloch donacophilus

Synonyms: Callithrix donacophilus (d’Orbigny, 1836); Callicebus moloch donacophilus (Carbrera, 1958); Callicebus gigot donacophilus (Hill, 1960); Callicebus pallescens (Thomas, 1907); Callicebus moloch pallescens (Cabrera, 1958); Callicebus gigot pallescens (Hill, 1960); Callicebus geoffroyi (Miranda Ribeiro, 1914); Callicebus cinerascens (Miranda Ribeiro, 1914); Callicebus remulus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1914).

Remarks: Callicebus moloch donacophilus is extremely pale in the southern and south-western part of its range. Elsewhere, it is difficult to distinguish from neighbouring races and allocations of some individuals may be arbitrary. Miranda Ribeiro (1914) referred one specimen from Urupá, Rio Jiparaná to Callicebus remulus. Another from the same locality was said to resemble much moloch but was described under the new name C. geoffroy. A third from higher up the Jiparaná at 12º S, was ascribed to Callicebus cinerascens but said to be much like C. melanochir of Bahia. The details of its colouration point only to donacophilus and true moloch. Geographically they are nearest the former to which they are assigned. A dominantly greyish specimen at hand from Puerto Casado, Rio Paraguay, north of Concepción, the type locality of pallescens, agrees very closely to the description and coloured figure of the type of donacophilus. Another specimen from Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, Bolivia is browner while one from Todos Santos, Cochabamba, with comparatively poorly developed ear tufts is warmly coloured throughout except for its greyish hands, feet and tail.


Hershkovitz, 1988

Callicebus donacophilus pallescens

Member of the donacophilus group.

Remarks: The geographical range of the Bolivian and Paraguayan Callicebus donacophilus includes parts of the upper Rio Beni drainage basin which also supports Callicebus brunneus, C. olallae and C. modestus. Probable contact between the species is not indicated by present information.

The C. donacophilus group is composed of small species; morphologically intermediate between the C. modestus and C. moloch groups, but nearer the latter.

Present geographic distribution of prototypes of the most primitive living species C. olallae, C. modestus, C. oenanthe, C. donacophilus, and the hypothetical prototype of the C. moloch group is rooted in the southwestern portion of the generic range, well beyond the Río Solimoes Amazons flood plain.

Herskovitz, P. (1988) Origin, Speciation, and Distribution of South American Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus (Family Cebidae, Platyrrhini), by Philip Hershkovitz . Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 140 (1): 240-272.

Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus donacophilus pallescens

Member of the donacophilus Group.

Synonym: Callicebus pallescens (Thomas, 1907).

Type locality: Thirty miles north of Conception, Chaco, Paraguay. Holotype in British Museum.

Distribution: West of the Rio Paraguay in the Gran Chaco of Paraguay, and Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

Description: Upper and outer sides of head and body and outer sides of limbs pale buff agouti, pelage extremely long, trunk shaggy; facial hairs nearly concealing skin, malar stripe well defined, blackish superciliary line weakly defined or absent.

Measurements: See publication.

Comparisons: Distinguished from other titis by extreme pallor and shagginess of agouti coat; sideburns, cheiridia, forehead, and outer side of extremities uniformly agouti, the parts not contrastingly coloured, the conspicuous whitish ear tufts excepted.

Specimens Examined: Total 19. Brazil – Mato Grosso: Corumba; Fazenda Acurizal, Pantanal. Paraguay – Alto Paraguay: Puerto Casado; Chaco: Fortin Madpejon, Cerro Leon, 50 km WNW; San Salvador, opposite; Nueva Asuncion:Trans-Chaco Road, 19 km WSW km 588,; Presidente Hayes: Conception, 30 km N, (holotype); Fort Wheeler; Puerto Pinasco.

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Kobayashi, 1995

Callicebus donacophilus pallescens

Based on cranial measurements, the genus can be divided in five groups:

  • the donacophilus group (including modestus, olallae, d. donacophilus and d. pallescens)
  • the cupreus group (including caligatus, c. cupreus, c. discolor and c. ornatus)
  • the moloch group (including brunneus, h. hoffmannsi, h. baptista, moloch and cinerascens)
  • the personatus group (including p. personatus, p. nigrifrons, p. melanochir)
  • the torquatus group (including t. lucifer, t. lugens, t. medemi, t. regulus, t. purinus and t. torquatus).

The group position of C. dubius remains uncertain; C. oenanthe and C. barbarabrownae were not examined.

Kobayashi, S. (1995). A phylogenetic study of Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: 1. Phyletic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36(1): 101-120.

Brooks, 1996

Callicebus moloch

Distribution: The range of Callicebus is restricted to north-eastern Paraguay. Animals were observed at Cerro Leon, Cerro San Miguel and Estancia San José.


Anderson, 1997

Callicebus donacophilus pallescens

Synonyms: Callicebus pallescens (Krieg, 1930); Callicebus donacophilus pallescens (Hershkovitz,
1988, 1990: Kobayashi, 1990, 1995); Callicebus moloch (Parker et al., 1993).

Localities: Santa Cruz: 3 km N Avapo and 7 km S of rio Grande; rio Parapeti, Guaripembi.

Remarks: Hershkovitz (1988) listed two subspecies for C. donacophilus but did not list specimens or localities for them. Subsequently, he (Hershkovitz, 1990) restricted the subspecies to Paraguay and Brazil and referred his Bolivian material to C. d. donacophilus. However, he had not seen the four specimens here referred to C. d. pallescens. Callicebus pallescens was described by Thomas (1907), type locality “30 miles [= 48 km] N of Concepcion,” in the Chaco of Paraguay. With so few specimens, these subspecific assignments remain quite tentative.

Anderson, S. (1997). Mammals of Bolivia, Taxonomy and Distribution. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 231: 1-652.

Tejedor, 2000

Callicebus pallescens?

Remarks: A platyrrhine skull held by the Mammalogy Section of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires, is undoubtly attributable to Callicebus, and came from the Argentine province of Formosa. In Paraguay, C. donacophilus pallescens reaches the Plicomayo River, a geographic boundary between Paraguay and Argentina, but there are no reports from the Argentine border.


Groves, 2001

Callicebus pallescens

Synonyms: Callicebus pallescens (Thomas, 1907).

Distribution: West of the Rio Paraguay in the Gran Chaco, and the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

Description: (after Hershkovitz, 1990). Pelage extremely long, shaggy, around face nearly concealing skin; very pale; dorsum very pale buffy or greyish agouti; limbs buffy agouti.

Remarks: This is an extraordinary distinctive species. Why Hershkovitz (1990) ranked it as a subspecies of C. donacophilus is quite unexplained.


Roosmalen et al., 2002

Callicebus pallescens

Type locality: 30 miles north of Concepción, Chaco, Paraguay. The holotype is an adult male, skin and skull, in the British Museum of Natural History, no. 94.3.6.1, collected October 1893 by J. Bohls.

Distribution: West of the Río Paraguay, south to about 23°S and west to about 61°30’W, in the xeric forest of the northern and central Chaco boreal in Paraguay, and in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (Hershkovitz, 1990; Stallings, 1985).

Description: Trunk shaggy, pelage extremely long, upper and outer sides of head and body, and outer sides of limbs pale buff agouti; facial hairs nearly concealing skin, malar stripe well-developed, blackish superciliary fringe (almost) absent; tail pale buff agouti not contrasting with rest of body. Distinguished from Callicebus donacophilus and other titis by extreme pallor and shagginess of pale buff agouti coat; tail, cheiridia, forehead, and outer side of limbs uniformly pale buff agouti, not contrastingly coloured except for the conspicuous whitish ear tufts (Fig. 5- this is actually a C. oenanthe! – callicebus.nl).

van Roosmalen, G.M.; van Roosmalen, T. and  Mittermeier, R.A. (2002). A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10(Suppl.): 1-52.

Barros et al., 2003

Callicebus donacophilus pallescens

Two specimens of Callicebus donacophilus pallescens (male and female) housed at the National Centre of Primates, FUNASA, Ananindeua, Pará State, Brazil.

The diploid number of the specimens studied here is 2n=50. The autosomal complement is composed by 9 biarmed and 15 acrocentric pairs. The X chromosome is a medium submetacentric, while the Y is a small biarmed chromosome.

Remarks: Cytogenetics studies have demonstrated a high chromosomal variability among karyotypes of Callicebus species. Egozcue et al. (1969) and Benirschke and Bogart (1976) described the karyotype of Callicebus torquatus with 2n=20 chromosomes, the lowest diploid number found in Primates. Barros et al. (1999, 2000) described a new karyotype in Callicebus torquatus ssp. with 2n=22, and suggested the occurrence of in-tandem fusion events in the karyotipic evolution of torquatus group. The other species of Callicebus have diploid numbers ranging from 2n=42-50 chromosomes (Minezawa and Borda 1984, Pieczarka and Nagamachi 1988; Minezawa et al. 1989; Nagamachi et al. 1999; Rodrigues et al. 2001; Nagamachi et al. 2003). Stanyon et al. (2000) published a similar karyotype to that found by Minezawa and Borda (1984) but they identified the specimen as C. moloch. The karyotype of C. donacophilus was described by Minezawa and Borda (1984) in specimens from Bolivia, with 50 chromosomes. This karyotype was composed of 6 subtelocentric pairs, 5 metacentric or submetacentric pairs, 13 acrocentric pairs, a medium submetacentric X and a small metacentric Y.

Barros, R.M.S; Nagamachi, C.Y; Pieczarka, J.C.; Rodrigues,L.R.R.; Neusser, M.; de Oliveira, E.H.; Wienberg, J.; Muniz, J.A.P.C.; Rissino, .D. and Muller, S. (2003). Chromosomal studies in Callicebus donacophilus pallescens, with classic and molecular cytogenetic approaches: Multicolour FISH using human and Saguinus oedipus painting probes. Chromosome Research 11: 327-334.

Dumas et al., 2005

Callicebus pallescens

2n=50. Chromosomes 1–12 are biarmed chromosomes while chromosomes 13–24 are acrocentrics.

Remarks: A fibroblast cell line from a single male, was obtained from the Coriell Institute for Medical Research and described in the catalogue as Callicebus moloch pallescens (Paraguayan titi), repository number AG06115. This cell line was studied previously in Stanyon et al. 2000 and reported as Callicebus moloch. Further information on this cell line was obtained from Coriell and, according to the taxonomic revisions of Groves (2001) and van Roosmalen et al. (2002); this cell line belongs to the species Callicebus pallescens.

Dumas, F.; Bigoni, F.; Stone, G.; Sineo, L. and Stanyon, R. (2005). Mapping genomic rearrangements in titi monkeys by chromosome flow sorting and multidirectional in-situ hybridization. Chromosome Research 13: 85–96.

Mercado and Wallace, 2010

Callicebus pallescens

Distribution: In Bolivia C. pallescens only has four registrations, in the south of Santa Cruz.

The full text of the publication can be found here.