Remarks: the Leiden museum has four individuals:
– two adult individuals, from Peru. Obtained from Frank;
– a female of mean age, one of the types of the species, from Bolivia. From the collections of d’Orbigny, 1834;
– a young individual, one of the types of the species, from Bolivia. From d’Orbigny.
(callicebus.nl: the two specimens from Peru are probably C. oenanthe, dark morph).
Jentink, F.A. (1892). Catalogue systématique des mammifères (singes, carnivores, ruminants, pachydermes, sirènes et cétacés). Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle des Pays Bas 11: 51-53.
Type locality: Moyobamba, N. Peru. 2700 feet. Type in British Museum.
Description: A pale grey species, much less rufous than other Peruvian forms. General colour above grizzled buffy greyish, not strongly rufous, paler than in any species except C. pallescens. Bases of the hairs blackish brown, then dull buffy, the ends tipped or ringed with dark brown. Hinder back and thighs warmer buffy, this colour extending down the hinder side of the legs. Under surface dull ochraceous rufous throughout, on body and inner side of limbs. A supraorbital band whitish. Crown pale buffy brownish. Hairs on ears grizzled greyish, like back. Hands and forearms pale brownish, nearly matching the crown; fingers dull whitish. Hind feet dull brownish ochraceous, the digits lighter. Tail grizzled brownish above and below, the end very slightly lighter.
Measurements: head and body 300mm; tail 392mm; hind foot 93mm; ear 30mm.
Measurements of skull: in publication.
Remarks: This well-marked species is widely different from any of the other titi monkeys of this part of S. America, as they are all much more strongly ochraceous, rufous, or grey. It is most similar to C. pallescens of the Paraguayan Chaco, but that is even lighter in colour, and, of course, can have no special relationship to it.
Thomas, O. (1924). New Callicebus, Conepatus, and Oecomys from Peru. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9) 14: 286-288.
Locality: Yurac Yacu
Description: Essentially similar to Mr. Rutter’s series of this striking and characteristic monkey from Moyobamba, but with longer and softer pelage, a difference no doubt seasonal. In consequence the whiteness of the face, hardly noticed in the original description, is here much more conspicuous, and contrasts with the general colour of the head and body.
Thomas, O. (1927). The Godman-Thomas Expedition to Peru. – V. On mammals collected by Mr. R.W. Hendee in the Province of San Martin, N. Peru, mostly at Yurac Yacu. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9) 19: 361-363.
Callicebus moloch oenanthe
Synonym: Callicebus oenanthe (Thomas, 1924).
Distribution: North of Peru, east of the Andes
Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.
Callicebus gigot oenanthe
Synonym: Callicebus oenanthe (Thomas, 1924)
Type locality: Moyobamba, North Peru. Type in British Museum.
Distribution: Known from the type locality and from Yurac Yacu, about 20 miles west-north-west of that locality.
Description: A pale-grey form, much less rufous than other Peruvian titis, all of which pertain to the cupreus group. General colour of upper parts “grizzled buffy greyish”, paler than in any other form except C. g. pallescens. Bases of dorsal hairs blackish-brown, then dully buffy, the tips dark brown. Hinder back and thighs warm buff, this colour extending distally on hinder surface of legs. Under parts dull ochraceous rufous on body and medial aspects of limbs. A whitish supraorbital bar; crown pale buffy-brown; hairs on ears grizzled greyish resembling back. Hands and forearms pale brownish, like crown; hind-feet dull brownish-ochraceous, but digits lighter. Tail grizzled brownish above and below, but tip slightly paler. The female differs in having the pelage longer and softer, possibly a seasonal change. Face white.
Measurements: head and body 300mm; tail 392mm; foot 93mm.
Skull: dimensions in publication.
Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy 4 (A): 98-147.
Callicebus moloch discolor
Synonym: Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy and Deville, 1848); Callithrix cuprea leucometopa (Cabrera, 1900); Callicebus leucometopa (Cabrera, 1917); Callicebus cupreus leucometopus (Cruz Lima, 1945); Callicebus subrufus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus paenulatus (Elliot, 1909); Callicebus cupreus napoleon (Lönnberg, 1922); Callicebus rutteri (Thomas, 1923); Callicebus oenanthe (Thomas, 1924); Callicebus moloch oenanthe (Cabrera, 1958); Callicebus gigot oenanthe (Hill, 1960); ?Saguinus moloch (Poeppig, 1839); Callithrix cuprea (Bartlett, 1871); Callicebus cupreus (Thomas, – not Spix- 1928); Callicebus cupreus cupreus (Sanborn, 1949).
Type locality: Peru, subsequently restricted to Sarayacu, Rio Ucayali, Loreto by I. Geoffroy (1851). Type in Paris Museum.
Remarks: Callicebus oenanthe is a plane white-fronted titi from the highest altitudes recorded for the genus. It was compared with the similarly pale pallescens (= donacophilus) of the Paraguayan Chaco but individuals of Callicebus moloch ornatus of Colombia may be as pale or paler. The colour pattern of oenanthe however, is unmistakably that of discolor of which it appears to be a local variety. In the same vein, pallescens also proves to be a variety of the more broadly conceived and generally more warmly coloured donacophilus.
Member of the donacophilus group.
Remarks: Callicebus oenanthe, is isolated in the Peruvian montane forest at the western extreme of the generic range. The original descriptions and the geographic position suggests close affinities, if not identity, with nearest neighbour Callicebus cupreus discolor. Nevertheless, Callicebus oenanthe most nearly resembles Callicebus donacophilus of the Bolivian highlands about 2000 km to the south. The geographic gap between C. oenanthe and C. cupreus discolor may be less than 100 km. Additional collecting may reduce or even eliminate the hiatus. The morphological gap between the taxa, however, is too great to be bridged by presumptive geographically intermediate populations.
Present geographic distribution of prototypes of the most primitive living species C. olallae, C. modestus, C. oenanthe, C. donacophilus, and the hypothetical prototype of the C. moloch group is rooted in the southwestern portion of the generic range, well beyond the Río Solimoes Amazons flood plain.
Herskovitz, P. (1988) Origin, Speciation, and Distribution of South American Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus (Family Cebidae, Platyrrhini), by Philip Hershkovitz . Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 140 (1): 240-272.
Member of the donacophilus Group.
Synonym: Callicebus oenanthe (Thomas, 1924).
Type locality: Moyobamba, San Martin, Peru, altitude ca. 840 meters. Holotype in British Museum.
Distribution: Northern Peru; known only from the upper Rio Mayo valley in the department of San Martin; altitudinal range 750-950 m.
Description: Frontal blaze usually present, the buffy or whitish colour continuous with long cresting hairs bordering face; pale malar stripe present; sideburns, outer surface of limbs, and upper surface of cheiridia dominantly to entirely agouti; inner surface of limbs, chest, belly orange; entire tail dominantly dark brown agouti; body pelage thick, facial pelage longer than usual but not concealing skin; skull like those of the moloch group.
Measurements: See publication.
Comparisons: Distinguished from Callicebus cupreus by whitish or buffy facial fringe or ruff of crested hairs, malar stripe, outer surface of limbs and upper surface of cheiridia agouti; from C. caligatus and C. brunneus by pale frontal blaze usually present; from donacophilus by larger size, frontal blaze usually present, whitish ear tufts inconspicuous or absent, tail base dark brown agouti; from all other species of Callicebus by one or more of above characters.
Specimens examined: Total 6. Peru, San Martin: Moyobamba; Rio Seco; Yurac Yacu.
Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.
Aquino and Encarnacion, 1994
Distribution: This endemic species lives in cloud forests above 800 m asl. According to Hershkovitz, this species is distributed in the cloud forests of Peru, in the Department of San Martin and probably also in the southern part of the Department of Amazonas, although the only records come from the valley of the upper Rio Mayo.
Description: Pelage generally agouti-brown with fine, dense hair which is much longer than in other species of the genus. Crown with short greyish-brown hair, forehead generally with a white patch, face bordered by long buffy or whitish hair. Upper parts from the neck to the lumbar region and outside of arms predominantly agouti. Lumbar region and legs reddish-brown. Chin, under parts and inner sides of limbs reddish-orange. Tail brown-agouti.
Based on cranial measurements, the genus can be divided in five groups:
- the donacophilus group (including modestus, olallae, d. donacophilus and d. pallescens)
- the cupreus group (including caligatus, c. cupreus, c. discolor and c. ornatus)
- the moloch group (including brunneus, h. hoffmannsi, h. baptista, moloch and cinerascens)
- the personatus group (including p. personatus, p. nigrifrons, p. melanochir)
- the torquatus group (including t. lucifer, t. lugens, t. medemi, t. regulus, t. purinus and t. torquatus).
The group position of C. dubius remains uncertain; C. oenanthe and C. barbarabrownae were not examined.
Kobayashi, S. (1995). A phylogenetic study of Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: 1. Phyletic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36(1): 101-120.
Synonyms: Callicebus oenanthe (Thomas, 1924).
Distribution: Upper Mayo Valley, 750-950 m, northern Peru.
Description: (after Hershkovitz, 1990). Pelage thick, resembling that of C. olallae in general; frontal blaze usually present, continuous with long circumfacial crest; a pale malar stripe; limbs agouti; underside and inner surfaces of limbs orange; tail dark brown agouti.
Roosmalen et al., 2002
Type locality: Moyobamba, San Martín, Peru, at 840 m altitude. The holotype is an adult male, skin and skull in the British Museum of Natural History, London, U.K., no. 220.127.116.11, collected January 1924 by L. Rutter.
Distribution: Northern Peru, only known from the upper Río Mayo valley, Department of San Martín, altitudinal range 750–950m.
Description: Frontal blaze buffy or whitish, continuous with long cresting whitish hairs bordering the face; malar stripe present, whitish; sideburns, crown, outer surface of limbs, cheiridia and tail uniformly and dominantly to entirely dark brown agouti; inner surface of limbs, chest, and belly orange; pelage thick, that of the face longer than usual but not concealing the skin. Distinguished from Callicebus discolor by whitish or buffy facial fringe or ruff of crested hairs, presence of a malar stripe, and outer surface of limbs, cheiridia and tail dark brown agouti.
van Roosmalen, G.M.; van Roosmalen, T. and Mittermeier, R.A. (2002). A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10(Suppl.): 1-52.
Rowe and Martinez, 2003
Locality: animals were heard but not seen at the field site of the university, near Moyobamba (06°03.555’S, 076°56.933’W, 897m).
Rowe, N. and Martinez, W. (2003). Callicebus sightings in Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador. Neotropical Primates 11(1): 32-35.
Localities: Pabloyacu (06°03’51.3”S, 76°56’31.4”W, altitude 951-1200 m asl); Tarangue about 10 miles upriver from the city of Moyobamba (05°58’43.7”S, 76°59’27.5”W, altitude 800- 840 m asl). Shimpiyacu (05°50’32.3”S, 77°05’48.6”W, altitude 820-910 m asl). Comunidad Nativa San Juan, part of the Comunidad Nativa Bajo Naranjillo (05°49’7.3”S, 77°17’24.3”W, altitude 811-844 m asl). Three miles from the city of Moyobamba (06°00’S, 76°58’W 804-807m asl) (plus a list of localities where the species was reported).
Remarks: All individuals seen at Pabloyacu most closely resembled the drawing by S. Nash in Van Roosmalen et al. (2002), with a whitish frontal blaze and orange chest, belly, and inner arms. However, coat colour appeared to be light brown agouti, rather than dark brown agouti. All C. oenanthe seen at Tarangue had a lighter coat colour than was indicated in Van Roosmalen et al. (2002). Coat colour was a buff agouti, with a whitish frontal blaze. The chest, belly and inner arms were uniformly orange, but lighter in colour and contrasting less with the back coloration than those at Pabloyacu. My field assistant also reported one individual at, Tarangue, of the same general appearance, but with a black transverse blaze and light brown agouti crown and sideburns, with no white facial hairs. All individuals seen at Ampliación Shimpiyacu were markedly darker than is indicated in the description of Hershkovitz (1990) and the illustration in Van Roosmalen et al. (2002). At Shimpiyacu, C. oenanthe had a very dark brown agouti coat colour, with a white frontal blaze that contrasted markedly with the dark brown agouti colour of the crown and sideburns. The white blaze was also wider than individuals from other sites. In addition, the chest, belly, and underarms were a red-orange.
Perhaps of note is that C. oenanthe near the banks of the Río Mayo differs in color from populations of C. oenanthe in the Aguaruna territory to the northeast. If conservation efforts intend to protect both colour morphs, then action will need to be taken outside of native lands as well.
De Luycker, 2006
Distribution: restricted to the upper Río Mayo valley (Alto Mayo). Species observed near the town of Moyobamba (6°01′31′′S, 76°59′33′′W); reported to live in native Aguaruna community of Yarau and other native communities to the north (Morroyacu and Nuevo Jerusalen).
Description: Pelage colour of all individuals was light brown agouti, not dark brown agouti, and the ventral areas (chest, belly, inner limbs) were orange, not red-orange. This differs markedly with the darker coloration of the individuals photographed by Noel Rowe (2003). Mark (2003) reported pelage coloration differences between individuals seen close to the Río Mayo and those in areas to the northeast. This strongly suggests colour morphs or possible subspeciation.
The pelage of the adults and the young differed in the degree of distinctiveness of the white frontal blaze and the strength of the orange coloration of the chest, belly, and inner limbs. The adult male and female differed in pelage coloration as well; this may, however, be individually based rather than an overall species characteristic. Further research is needed to confirm this.
Boveda et al., 2009
Distribution: the species is not endemic to the Alto Mayo Valley, as earlier authors suggested, but its distribution extends into the Bajo Mayo and Huallaga Central.
Localities: the publication contains a list with 74 localities from which the species was reported, 40 localities at which Callicebus was heard and 35 localities where Callicebus oenanthe was observed.
Remarks: We discovered that in the region just north of the Rio Huayabamba Callicebus oenanthe is replaced by another, as yet undescribed species of Callicebus, which is lacking the white face-mask and has more orange-reddish under parts (callicebus.nl: later, unpublished data indicated that this is probably a local variant of oenanthe).