Literature donacophilus

D’Orbigny, 1836d'orbigny donacophilus 9x13

Callithrix donacophilus

(only name and plate of new species).

D’Orbigny, A.D. (1836). Voyage dans l’Amérique Méridionale, …  plate 5.

Lesson, 1838

Callithrix donacophilus

Description: This species is abundantly covered with a luxurious pelage, which is rather uniform grey speckled with brown. However the back is light reddish and the ears and tail are washed with pale blond.

(the “titi of the bamboos”)

Lesson, R.P. (1838). Compléments de Buffon, 2e édition Pp. 280-281.

Wagner, 1840

Callithrix donacophila

Synonyms: Callithrix donacophila (D’Orbigny, 1836).

Distribution: Colombia?

Description: From this species we only know the figure of d’Orbigny. The animal has a dense coat, dirty and light yellowish-brown, also on the forehead, and the hands are whitish, while they are in the other species (personata, melanochir) black.

Wagner, J.A. (1840). Schreber, die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach natur mit Beschreibungen.  Supplementband, Erste Abtheilung: Die Affen und Flederthiere Pp. 228-234.

Lesson, 1840

Saguinus personatus

Variation B: Callithrix donacophilus

Description: Pelage speckled grey and washed with reddish on the back, formed by thick and long hairs; face bluish, naked; side-whiskers dense; front whitish, forehead greyish; extremities whitish; naked parts of the hands brownish.

Lesson, R.P. (1840). Species des mammifères bimanes et quadrumanes pp. 161-167.

Schinz, 1844

Callithrix donacophilus

Synonym: Callithrix donacophilus (D’Orbigny, 1836).

Distribution: Colombia?

Description: Uniform dirty grey-brownish, the tail longer as the body. The hands whitish.

Schinz, H.K. (1844). Systematische verzeichniss aller bis jetz bekannte Säugethiere oder Synopsis Mammalium nach dem Cuvier’schen System 1: 80-83.

D’Orbigny, 1847

Callithrix donacophilus

Distribution: the forests and reeds that border the rivers in the Moxod province, Bolivia.

Description: the face is naked, blackish, the body grey-reddish, darker on the head and the belly. The tail is grey-brown. The hair of the body is ringed with black, white and red, that of the tail is of one colour.

D’Orbigny, A.D. and Gervais, P. (1847), Voyage dans l’Amérique Méridionale,… 4 (2): Mammifères P. 10.

Lesson, 1848

Callithrix donacophilus

Synonym: Callithrix donacophilus (D’Orbygny, 1836).

Distribution: Colombia?

Description: brown-greyish, with the hands paler.

Lesson, R.P. (1848). Etudes sur les Mammifères Primates. Revue Zoologique par la Societé Cuvierienne 11:232-233.

Boitard, 1848

Saguinus personatus

Synonyms: Saguinus personatus (Lesson, 1827); Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Cuvier, 1829); Simia personata (Humboldt, 1812); Cebus personatus (Blainville, 1839); Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823); Callithrix infulatus (Lichtenstein); Callithrix melanochir (Wied, 1820; Neuwied, 1821); Callithrix incanescens (Liechtenstein); Saguinus melanochir (Lesson, 1827); Cebus gigot (Spix, 1823); Pithecia melanochir (Cuvier, 1825); Cebus melanochir (Fischer, 1829); Cebus cinerascens (Spix, 1823); Callithrix donacophilus (D’Orbigny, 1847), etc. etc.

“This synonymy proves very well how badly know this animal is to the authors, and especially how much men like to create new species to connect their names to it and to throw difficulties in science. With the help of M. Lesson, we are trying to unravel the chaos”.

Description: ….We also find them with a grey speckled fur, washed with reddish on the back, the hairs being long and thick, the face naked, bluish, with thick whiskers. The forehead is whitish, the upper side of the head greyish, the extremities whitish, and the naked parts of the hands brown. This is the Callithrix donacophilus of d’Orbigny…..

Boitard, P. (1848). Dictionnaire Universel d’Histoire Naturelle 11:290-292.

I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1851

Callithrix donacophilus

Synonym: C. donacophilus (D’Orbigny, 1838, 1847).

Remarks: The Paris Museum has several specimens:
– a series of type specimens, one male and two females. From Bolivia, Santa Cruz de la Sierra province, brought by d’Orbigny in 1834. The figured animal has white hands; in an other they are greyish; in another, in general more washed with red, they are brown;
– brought in 1834 by d’Orbigny from the Moxos province, Bolivia. Much redder, only has white on the ears; dark tail;
– from Peru. Acquired in 1850. Resembles very much the preceding animal.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I. (1851).  Catalogue méthodique de la collection des mammifères. Part 1 Mammifères, Introduction et catalogues des primates pp. 39-41.

Wagner, 1855

Callithrix cinerascens **Callithrix donacophila

Synonyms: Callithrix donacophilus (D’Orbigny, 1836; Wagner 1840; I. Geoffroy, 1851).

Locality: Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Mochos, Bolivia.

Remarks: The full description that D. Orbigny gives, is limited to the following words: “The face is naked and blackish, the body red-grey, the head and the belly darker. The hairs of the body are annulated black, white and red, those of the tail uniformly coloured”.
I. Geoffroy comments that the depicted animal had white hands, another grey, while yet another animal, which was more reddish, had brown hands. From a fourth animal he comments that it was much redder, had white on the ears and a dark tail. He also mentions an animal from Peru that was much alike as the others.
From this short description, and the figure, it cannot be denied that C. donacophila and C. cinerascens show large similarities, and that both live in connected areas. As long as the French zoologist do not show in more precise descriptions the differences between both species, I think that I am allowed to lump both species.

Wagner, J. A. (1855). Schreber, die Saugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen.  Supplementband, Fünfte Abtheilung : Die Affen. 

Dahlbom, 1857

Callithrix donacophilus

Synonym: Callithrix donacophilus (D’Orbigny; I. Geoffroy).

Locality: Bolivia and Peru.

Description: all hands grey. The body hair has olive colour on top and outer sides, yellow-brown black and greyish of mixed shades. The abdomen and hind limbs and sometimes even the insides of the front limbs are rust-red.
The cheeks, the sides and front of the throat are either mixed shades or grey, never red, the tail is either grey or mixed shades, the chest and the inside of the front limbs vary in the same way or they are rust-red. The abdomen and hind limbs are always rust-red or rust-yellow.

Measurements: body 300-400mm; tail 400-500mm.

Dahlbom. A.G. (1856-1857). Zoologiska Studier, afhandlande Djurrikets naturliga familjer 1: 151-153.

Reichenbach, 1862donacophila 9x13

Callithrix donacophila

Synonyms: Callithrix donaciphilus (D’Orbigny)

Distribution: Peru; Province of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Province of Moxos, Bolivia.

Description: Face blackish, pelage grey, becomes more or less yellowish or reddish or brown; hands white, greyish, reddish or brown. Hairs black, white and red annulated, uniform grey-brown on tail. Animals from Moxos more reddish.

Measurements: head and body 300mm; tail a bit longer.

Reichenbach, 1862. Die Vollständigiste Naturgeschichte der Affen.

Gray, 1866

Callithrix donacophila (D’Orbigny)

Description: Fur soft, with abundant, elongated, stiffer hairs. The hands and feet white.

Gray, J.E. (1866). Notice of some new species of Callithrix in the collection of the British Museum. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (3) 17: 57-58.

Gray, 1870

Callithrix donacophilus

Synonyms: Callithrix donacophilus (D’Orbigny, 1836).

Distribution: Bolivia.

Description: Fur pale grey or reddish-black grey; chest and belly grey, or reddish grey; tail pale; hairs of tail grey, with dark tips; hands and feet grey, like the back.

Variation 1: Pale, whitish; hairs annulated with grey; hands and feet equally pale.
Variation 2: Fur darker, hairs annulated with black and grey; front of thighs reddish.
Variation 3: Fur darker, reddish-washed, especially on head and back; hair thicker, longer, softer; ears whitish; hands and feet blackish grey; belly and front of thighs reddish.

Gray, J.E. (1870). Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats in the collection of the British Museum pp. 54-57.

Schlegel, 1876

Callithrix donacophila

Synonym: Callithrix donacophila (d’Orbigny, 1836); C. cinerascens (Spix, 1823; Wagner, 1848).

Distribution: This monkey has been discovered by D’Orbigny, in Bolivia, but also comes from Peru (I. Geoffroy, 1851). The latter states that the individuals from the Mojas province and from Peru are much redder than those from St. Cruz de la Sierra and they have a dark tail.

Description: Under parts pale red, but only behind the throat. This tinge is, moreover, at a young age, little pronounced and reduced at the inner sides of the thighs. The hairs on the other parts are ringed dark-brown and grey-whitish. The latter tinge dominates on the tail and the sides of the body, where the hairs are lengthened. The upper side is more or less washed reddish. The ears are covered with whitish hairs.

Remarks: I think that we can add to the synonyms of this species the C. cinerascens of Spix, observed by the voyager in the forests of Putumayo or Iça, on the border with Peru. Wagner reported that the only animal brought by Spix had the size of a C. cupreus. It must therefore have been a young individual, as C. donacophila is larger.
The museum in Leiden has four specimens. The first is a large adult from Peru, with a total length of 29 thumbs, of which the tail is 17. The red on the belly extends towards the chest. The second, also from Peru, is a smaller individual that resembles the first, but the back is strongly washed red and the tail darker. The red on the under parts of the third specimen is weakly pronounced and bordered to the inner sides of the limbs; the hairs of the sides, the back of the thighs and the underside of the basal part of the tail are lengthened and whitish. This animal origins from Bolivia, from the voyage of D’Orbigny. Finally there is another specimen from Bolivia, also from the voyage of D’Orbigny. The red is little pronounced, limited to the inside of the thighs. He is only 23 thumbs long, and agrees with the C. cinerascens of Spix.

Schlegel, H. (1876). Les singes, Simia. Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Pays-Bas 12 :230-241.

Jentink, 1892

Callithrix donacophila

Remarks: the Leiden museum has four individuals:
– two adult individuals, from Peru. Obtained from Frank;
– a female of mean age, one of the types of the species, from Bolivia. From the collections of d’Orbigny, 1834;
– a young individual, one of the types of the species, from Bolivia. From d’Orbigny.

Jentink, F.A. (1892). Catalogue systématique des mammifères (singes, carnivores, ruminants, pachydermes, sirènes et cétacés). Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle des Pays Bas 11: 51-53.

Forbes, 1896

Callithrix cinerascens

Synonym: Callithrix cinerascens (Spix, 1823); Callithrix donacophilus (D’Orbigny, 1826; Gray, 1870); Callithrix donacophila (I. Geoffroy, 1851; Schlegel, 1876).

Distribution: Mr. Bates observed this species at Serra dos Parentins, in the Lower Amazon region above the confluence of the Tapajos with the Amazon. It also extends to Bolivia and Peru.

Forbes, H.O. (1896). A Handbook of the Primates pp. 159-165 + plate 14.

Meerwarth, 1897

Callithrix donacophila

Synonym: Callithrix cinerascens

Distribution: Bolivia, Peru.

Description: Under and upper side different colours. The under side is vivid coppery or pallid red. Tail with long hairs at the base. Ventral side from the throat backwards and the inner side of the limbs pale-red. Hairs of the other parts of the body annulated brown and grey-white; predominantly grey-white on the tail. Washed with red on the back. Ears whitish.

Remarks: I agree with Forbes to unite cinerascens with donacophila.

Meerwarth, H. (1897-1898). Simios (macacos) do novo mundo. Boletin do Museo Paraense de Historia Natural y Etn. 2: 121-154.

Trouessart, 1898-1899

Callithrix cinerascens

Synonyms: cinerascens (Spix, 1823); donacophilus (d’Orbigny, 1826 ; Schlegel, 1876).

Distribution: Lower Amazonia, Sierra dos Parentins, east of Rio Tapajos; Peru; Bolivia.

Trouessart, E.L. (1898-1899). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium 1: 44-46.

Elliot, 1913

Callicebus donacophilus

Synonyms: Callithrix donacophilus (D’Orbigny, 1847; Wagner, 1840, 1855; I. Geoffroy, 1851; Dahlbom, 1856; Reichenbach, 1862; Schlegel, 1876).

Type locality: Province of Sara, Bolivia.

Distribution: Found in high forests, Province of Sara, Central Bolivia, alt. 2,100 feet.

Description: Top and sides of head reaching to the throat, varying from orange rufous and black to cinnamon rufous and black; upper parts varying from dark greyish brown to a reddish brown washed with grey, grading into deep russet on the rump; flanks, hairs broadly tipped with greyish white, forming a whitish fringe along the sides; arms to elbows like back; forearms silvery grey and black, the hairs black at base with silvery grey tips; outer side of legs grey and deep russet; inner side of limbs, and under parts dark cinnamon rufous, darkest on belly; hands and feet yellowish grey to iron grey; fingers and toes whitish; tail, greyish white at base, yellowish grey for the remainder; hairs on ears white; face covered with short white hairs.

Measurements: Total length, 745mm; tail, 415mm; foot, 90mm; ears, 35mm.

Skull: occipito-nasal length, 55.6; Hensel, 43.9; zygomatic width, 47.5; palatal length, 15.7; median length of nasals, 7.4; length of upper molar series, 14; length of mandible, 42.1; length of lower molar series, 16.

Remarks: The specimen from which D’Orbigny’s figure was taken is in the Paris Museum, and marked “type de la figure.” It is greatly faded, but still in the main corresponds to the description given above from fresh examples in the British Museum, obtained in practically the same locality from which D’Orbigny’s type came. The real type of C. donacophilus cannot be identified, as all the examples are marked as ‘types’ and there is no way of ascertaining which was the one originally described.

Elliot, D.G. (1913). A review of the primates 1: 234-257.

Osgood, 1916

Callicebus donacophilus

Localities: Todos Santos, Bolivia.

Description: These are almost wholly russet brown on the upper parts, the hairs being faintly annulated with darker and without any distinct greyish areas. The hands and feet and tail are abruptly greyish in sharp contrast. The median under parts and the inner sides of the legs are bright clear tawny.

Osgood, W.H. (1916). Mammals of the Collins-Day South American expedition. Fieldiana – zoology 10 (14):214

Rode, 1938

Callithrix donacophilus

Synonym: Callithrix cinerascens (Spix, 1823)

Specimen 96a (682/513) – Holotype.

Locality: Bolivia, Santa Cruz de la Sierra province in 1834.

Remarks: Brought along by D’Orbigny. Adult female, reasonable condition, skull in mounted specimen.

Specimen 96b (683/514) – Paratype.

Locality: Santa Cruz in 1834.

Remarks: Brought along by D’Orbigny. Adult, moderate condition, skull in mounted specimen.

Specimen 96c (684/515) – Paratype.

Locality: Santa Cruz in 1834.

Remarks: Brought along by D’Orbigny. Adult, reasonable condition, skull in mounted specimen.

Specimen 96d (685/516) – Paratype.

Locality: Bolivia, Santa Cruz de Mejos in 1834.

Remarks: Brought along by D’Orbigny. Adult, bad condition, no skull.

Rode, P. (1938). Catalogue des Types de Mammifères du muséum national d’histoire naturelle – 1, Ordre des Primates pp. 34-36.

Cabrera and Ypes, 1940

Callicebus donacophilus

Distribution: Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

Description: Colour dull brownish; reddish on the head. The colour of the under parts and interior of the extremities is dark reddish.

Cabrera and Ypes (1940). Mamiferos Sud Americanos. Compana Argentina de Editores, Buenos Aires pp. 85-88.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus moloch donacophilus

Synonyms: Callithrix donacophilus (D’Orbigny, 1835 and 1847); Saguinus personatus variation B (Lesson, 1840); Callithrix cinerascens (Forbes, 1894 – part); Callicebus donacophilus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus geoffroyi? Miranda Ribeiro, 1914 = nom nud.); Callicebus modestus (Lönnberg, 1939).

Distribution: Central and northern Bolivia, and west of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus gigot donacophilus

Synonyms: Callithrix donacophilus (D’Orbigny, 1847)

Type locality: Mojos (Moxas), Province of Sara, Bolivia. No holotype preserved. Several specimens in Paris Museum marked as “type”.

Distribution: Bolivia and Peru. Osgood (1916) reported two specimens from Todos Santos on the Rio Chaparé, affluent of the Rio Mamoré.

Description: A predominantly dark-grey form, with decided rufous tinge, but subject to some individual variation. Gray (1870) recognized several varieties, but his “var. 1” probably represents the allied race pallescens, for typical donacophilus is darker.
Distinguished from typical gigot by the darker tinge of the upper parts, which are more grizzled, and by the conspicuous white hairs on the ears, the les rufous tail and by the distinct whitish area on the dorsum of the base of the tail (sometimes lacking individually); also by the generally shorter hairs, and by the whitish hands and feet and the usually entirely rufous or buffy under parts. Face black, but well covered with short, stiff white hairs, except around eyes. A distinct black supraorbital fringe. Forehead and crown rusty wood-brown, each hair yellow or buff at base with a black band following and then alternately brown and black annulations distally. Dorsum of body with longer hairs, individually dark grey basally for about half of the shaft then buff with a subterminal black band within the buff. Hairs on flanks similar but much longer. Hairs on under parts colcolorous throughout, short and soft, predominantly rufous or buff. Tail with long white hairs at base above, shorter and more grizzled over the rest, bit lengthening again towards tip, which bears a terminal tuft some 50mm. long. Forearms and hind-limbs with many white-tipped hairs; hands and feet with mostly white, with a few short black hairs interspersed. Female is similar to the male but more greyish and less brown dorsally, the rump inclining to rufous in many individuals.

Measurements: head and body 340/330/330/335/320/320/300mm; tail 440/415/445/490/460/430 /380mm; foot 92/90/90/100/80/80/85mm.

Skull: dimensions in publication.

Remarks: According to Krieg (1930), Mojos is in the damp tropical zone as distinct from the forest of Chaco, which is characterized by dry winters. Presumably the different climatic conditions concerned are factors in the differentiation of pallescens from donacophilus.

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Hershkovitz, 1963

Callicebus moloch donacophilus

Synonyms: Callithrix donacophilus (d’Orbigny, 1836); Callicebus moloch donacophilus (Carbrera, 1958); Callicebus gigot donacophilus (Hill, 1960); Callicebus pallescens (Thomas, 1907); Callicebus moloch pallescens (Cabrera, 1958); Callicebus gigot pallescens (Hill, 1960); Callicebus geoffroyi (Miranda Ribeiro, 1914); Callicebus cinerascens (Miranda Ribeiro, 1914 (not Spix?)); Callicebus remulus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1914 – not Thomas).

Type locality: Moxos province, Bolivia. The specimen of the original description is a coloured figure only with the name in caption published in 1836. According to Rode (1938), the selected lectotype is an adult female in the Paris Museum.

Distribution: Southern Amazonian and northern Paraguayan river basins; in western Bolivia from the Rio Mamoré in the departments of Beni, Cochabamba and Santa Cruz, north in south central Brazil to the Rios Guaporé and upper Jiparaná in the State of Guaporé est into the upper Rio Paraguay basin in Mato Grosso and south into Chaco region of Paraguay. Altitude range to approximately 500m asl.

Description: (key to species:) general body colour grey, reddish or brown; under parts like back or sharply defined reddish orange or buff; hind feet black, brown, red or grey, tail grey or blackish with tip grey or grey mixed with black; throat like chest; forearms grey, red, dark brown sometimes blackish above; upper surface of hands grey to blackish never sharply contrasted with colour of upper side of wrists. Forehead like crown, grey to reddish brown and not defined from nape; outer sides of forearms coarsely ticked greyish, buffy or brown. Sides of head not defined from crown; upper portion of pinna conspicuously tufted whitish, tail dominantly greyish throughout.

Measurements: see table in publication.

Remarks: Callicebus moloch donacophilus is extremely pale in the southern and south-western part of its range. Elsewhere, it is difficult to distinguish from neighbouring races and allocations of some individuals may be arbitrary. Miranda Ribeiro (1914) referred one specimen from Urupá, Rio Jiparaná to Callicebus remulus. Another from the same locality was said to resemble much moloch but was described under the new name C. geoffroy. A third from higher up the Jiparaná at 12º S, was ascribed to Callicebus cinerascens but said to be much like C. melanochir of Bahia. The details of its colouration point only to donacophilus and true moloch. Geographically they are nearest the former to which they are assigned.
A dominantly greyish specimen at hand from Puerto Casado, Rio Paraguay, north of Concepción, the type locality of pallescens, agrees very closely to the description and coloured figure of the type of donacophilus. Another specimen from Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, Bolivia is browner while one from Todos Santos, Cochabamba, with comparatively poorly developed ear tufts is warmly coloured throughout except for its greyish hands, feet and tail.

Specimens examined: Bolivia – Cochabamba: Todos Santos; Santa Cruz: Santa Cruz. Paraguay – Chaco: Puerto Casado.


De Boer, 1974

Callicebus moloch donacophilus

1 male individual, unknown origin.
Diploid number 2n = 50. 24 biarmed and 26 acrocentric chromosomes.

The X chromosome is a medium sized nearly metacentric element; the Y is an extremely small biarmed chromosome.

Remark: The cytological information suggests that the forms cupreus and ornatus on the one hand, and donacophilus on the other, may be more than only subspecifically distinct.

Boer, L.E.M. de (1974). Cytotaxonomy of Platyrrhini. Genen Phaenen 17: 28-37.

De Vivo, 1985

Callicebus moloch

Locality: Rondonia, Nova Brasilia (11º09’S 61º34’W); Nova Colina (10º48’S 61º43’W).

Remarks: The Nova Colina skin, although more reddish on its under parts than other specimens I have examined of C. moloch (C. moloch moloch sensu Hershkovitz, 1963), is here assigned to this species because it presents the upper parts of limbs grizzled grey with lighter hands and feet, greyish crown and brownish dorsum, becoming greyish brown on the sides.
The records from Rondonia are the south-westernmost of C. moloch, a species previously known only from the state of Para, between the rivers Tapajos and Tocantins. Miranda-Ribeiro (1914) reported C. remulus, a junior synonym of C. moloch, from Urupa, a locality adjacent to Ji-Parana, Rondonia, but I found no specimens from this locality in the Museu Nacional. Miranda-Ribeiro did not describe the skins he assigned to C. remulus and Hershkovitz (1963) judged the specimens to be misidentified C. moloch donacophilus, in which he was followed by later authors. C. cineracens (sic) Spix 1823, was also reported by Miranda-Ribeiro from the headwaters of the Jiparana, then in Mato Grosso, now in Rondonia. One skin from this locality I have seen at the Museu Nacional is not C. moloch and is also quite distinct from donacophilus, which Hershkovitz (1963) thought to be the correct identification of the specimen.
Callicebus geoffroyi of Miranda-Ribeiro, 1914, type locality Urupa, Rondonia, was named after a single skin but was not formally described except for a comment on its similarity to a plate by I. Geoffroy (1844, plate 3) captioned as moloch Hoff. but that Miranda-Ribeiro did not consider to represent “true” moloch. I have not found the holotype of C. geoffroyi in the Museu Nacional but the skin of MNRJ 2925, without locality, is identified by Miranda-Ribeiro himself as geoffroyi (see also Avila-Pires, 1963). This skin is in poor condition but it compares favourably with I. Geoffroy’s plate which, in my opinion, represents an individual of C. moloch. The Museu Nacional specimen differs from the Nova Colina skin by having lighter throat and forehead. This type of variation, however, is found in other series of C. moloch I have examined. Therefore C. geoffroyi Miranda-Ribeiro should be considered a junior synonym of C. moloch Hoffmannsegg, 1807, and not of C. moloch donacophilus D’Orbigny, 1835, as proposed by Hershkovitz (1963).


Hershkovitz, 1988

Callicebus donacophilus donacophilus

Member of the donacophilus group.

Remarks: The geographical range of the Bolivian and Paraguayan Callicebus donacophilus includes parts of the upper Rio Beni drainage basin which also supports Callicebus brunneus, C. olallae and C. modestus. Probable contact between the species is not indicated by present information.

The C. donacophilus group is composed of small species; morphologically intermediate between the C. modestus and C. moloch groups, but nearer the latter.

The distribution of C. olallae, C. modestus, C. brunneus and C. donacophilus donacophilus, correlate with Brown’s single postulated refuge 22 (yungas). Present geographic distribution of prototypes of the most primitive living species C. olallae, C. modestus, C. oenanthe, C. donacophilus, and the hypothetical prototype of the C. moloch group is rooted in the southwestern portion of the generic range, well beyond the Río Solimoes Amazons flood plain.

Herskovitz, P. (1988) Origin, Speciation, and Distribution of South American Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus (Family Cebidae, Platyrrhini), by Philip Hershkovitz . Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 140 (1): 240-272.

Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus donacophilus donacophilus

Member of the donacophilus Group.

Synonym: Callithrix donacophilus (d’Orbigny, 1836).

Type locality: “In the woods and among the reeds bordering the rivers [of the Rio Mamore basin] in the province of Moxos, Republic of Bolivia”. Holotype represented by a coloured figure of animal captioned “Callithrix donacophilus, d’Orb[igny]” in the “Atlas” of the Mammals of the “Voyage dans l’Amerique Meridionale”, issued 1836 as a separate folio without text. The holotype, apparently an adult, sex unknown, was presumably preserved mounted, perhaps with skull in skin, in the exhibition galleries of the Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris. I did not find the specimen in the museum collection.

Distribution: West central Bolivia in the upper Rios Mamore-Grande and San Miguel basins, Beni and Santa Cruz provinces; altitudinal range between 100 and 500 m above sea level.

Description: Upper and outer parts of head, body, outer, and inner sides of forelimbs buffy to orange agouti, the parts not contrasting; cheiridia like arms and legs or slightly paler; under parts of body uniformly orange or brownish orange; tail mixed blackish and buffy with base distinctly paler, pencil undistinguished; ears hairy, conspicuously tufted whitish.

Measurements: See publication.

Comparisons: Distinguished from Callicebus donacophilus pallescens by more saturate coloration throughout, pelage less shaggy; from Callicebus moloch by agouti sideburns not contrasting with agouti parts of head and trunk; from brunneus by pale agouti forehead, forearms, legs, and paler under parts; from C. cupreus discolor by absence of whitish frontal blaze, sideburns agouti like crown; from C. oenanthe by conspicuous whitish ear tufts and absence of whitish facial fringe or suborbital tufts; from C. personatus and C. torquatus by buffy or brownish agouti forehead, cheiridia greyish agouti, tail mixed buffy and blackish, and whitish ear tufts.

Specimens examined: Total 38, all from Bolivia: Beni, Camiaco ; Cochabamba: Mision San Antonio; San Antonio; Todos Santos; “Yungas”; Santa Cruz: Bella Esperanza, Cercado; Buenavista; Camino de Santa Cruz a Clara, Cercado; Cupesi, Cercado; El Valle, Cercado; Rio Surutu; Santa Cruz de la Sierra; Sara.

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Kobayashi, 1995

Callicebus donacophilus donacophilus

Based on cranial measurements, the genus can be divided in five groups:

  • the donacophilus group (including modestus, olallae, d. donacophilus and d. pallescens)
  • the cupreus group (including caligatus, c. cupreus, c. discolor and c. ornatus)
  • the moloch group (including brunneus, h. hoffmannsi, h. baptista, moloch and cinerascens)
  • the personatus group (including p. personatus, p. nigrifrons, p. melanochir)
  • the torquatus group (including t. lucifer, t. lugens, t. medemi, t. regulus, t. purinus and t. torquatus).

The group position of C. dubius remains uncertain; C. oenanthe and C. barbarabrownae were not examined.

Kobayashi, S. (1995). A phylogenetic study of Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: 1. Phyletic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36(1): 101-120.

Anderson, 1997

Callicebus donacophilus donacophilus

Synonyms: Callithrix donacophilus (d’Orbigny, 1836; I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire,1851; Gerrard, 1862); Callithrix donacophila (Schlegel, 1876); Callicebus donacophilus (Elliot, 1913; Osgood, 1916; Rode, 1938; Hill, 1960); Callithrix cinerascens (Rode, 1938); Callicebus gigot donacophilus (Hill, 1960, part – mapped all Bolivian area for Callicebus under this name). Callicebus moloch donacophilus (Cabrera, 1958; Hershkovitz, 1963; Pilleri, 1979; Kinzey, 1982; Minezawa and Valdivia Borda, 1984; Anderson, 1985; Iseki et al., 1985; Brown and Rumiz, 1986; Emmons and Feer, 1990; Tarifa, 1991). Callicebus donacophillos (Arce Pereira et al., 1963). Callicebus moloch (Napier, 1976); Cabot et al., 1986); Suarez Morales, 1986; Garcia and Braza, 1987; Garcia and Tarifa, 1989; Stearman, 1990; Garcia and Tarifa, 1991; Parker et al., 1993); Callicebus moloch donacephilus (McLaren et al., 1984); Callicebus donacophilus donacophilus (Hershkovitz, 1987; Anderson, 1993; Anderson et al., 1993).

Localities: Beni: Venecia; Reserva Biologica del Beni; 10 km E San Antonio de Lora; province of Moxos; Camiaco. Cochabamba: mouth of río Chapare; Campamento Yuqui; Todos Santos; San Antonio. Santa Cruz: province of Sara; San Miguel (Rincón?); río Surutut; Buenavista; Cotoca; Santa Cruz de la Sierra; Puerto Suarez.

Remarks: Hershkovitz (1988) listed two subspecies for C. donacophilus but did not list specimens or localities for them. Subsequently, he (Hershkovitz, 1990) restricted the subspecies to Paraguay and Brazil and referred his Bolivian material to C. d. donacophilus. However, he had not seen the four specimens here referred to C. d. pallescens. Callicebus pallescens was described by Thomas (1907b: 161), type locality “30 miles [= 48 km] N of Concepcion,” in the Chaco of Paraguay). With so few specimens, these subspecific assignments remain quite tentative.

Anderson, S. (1997). Mammals of Bolivia, Taxonomy and Distribution. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 231: 1-652.

Ferrari et al., 2000

Callicebus donacophilus

Distribution: This species’ distribution is clearly associated with open habitats, such as the swampy grasslands of the Pantanal and the Paraguayan Chaco, which suggests that C. donacophilus may be restricted in Rondonia to the Guaporé grasslands in the extreme south of the state.

Ferrari, S.F.;  Iwanga, S.; Messias, M.R.; Ramos, E.M.; Ramos, P.C.S.; da Cruz Neto, E. and Coutinho, P. E.G. (2000). Titi Monkeys (Callicebus spp., Atelidae: Platyrrhini) in the Brazilian State of Rondônia. Primates, 41 (2): 229-234.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus donacophilus

Synonyms: Callithrix donacophilus (d’Orbigny, 1836)

Distribution: Both banks of the Rio Marmoré, in West-Central Bolivia, at 100-500 m.

Description: (after Hershkovitz, 1990). Pelage thick, long; buffy to orange agouti above; ear tufts white; little or no trace of black brow fringe; a buffy malar stripe; underside orange; limbs orange agouti, hands buffy; tail buffy to blackish.

Measurements: Small in size, females larger than males; head plus body length 278-330 mm in male, 305-420 mm in female.


Roosmalen et al., 2002

Callicebus donacophilus

Type locality: Río Mamoré basin, province of Moxos, Bolivia. The holotype, an adult of unknown sex, is depicted as “Callithrix donacophilus d’Orb(igny)” in the “Atlas of the Mammals of the Voyage dans l’Amérique Méridionale”, published in 1836 as a separate folio without text. The animal must have been mounted and exhibited in the galleries of the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle in Paris, France, but was not found in the museum collection (Hershkovitz, 1990) (callicebus.nl: the holotype is still present in th MHNH collection).

Distribution: Upper Ríos Mamoré-Grande and San Miguel basins, Beni and Santa Cruz Provinces, west central Bolivia.

Description: Lacking distinct sideburns; upper and outer parts of head and body, and outer and inner sides of limbs buff or greyish agouti to dominantly orange agouti, not contrasting; forehead like crown; blackish superciliary fringe absent; most of chest and belly uniformly orange; upper surface of cheiridia buffy or buffy agouti, paler than forearms; tail buffy mixed with blackish, contrastingly paler at base; ears very hairy, with whitish tufts.
Distinguished from Callicebus pallescens by more saturated coloration, whitish ear tufts, and less shaggy pelage; from Callicebus brunneus by well-developed malar stripe, pale agouti forehead, forearms, legs, cheiridia, paler under-parts and lacking distinct sideburns; from Callicebus modestus by well-developed malar stripe, overall buffy to orange agouti instead of light brownish to reddish agouti coloration and lack of distinct sideburns; from Callicebus olallae by well-developed malar stripe, overall buffy to orange agouti instead of reddish brown agouti coloration, lack of distinct sideburns, and lack of a blackish facial fringe.

van Roosmalen, G.M.; van Roosmalen, T. and  Mittermeier, R.A. (2002). A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10(Suppl.): 1-52.

Martinez and Wallace, 2007

Callicebus donacophilus

Distribution: We found groups of C. modestus between Yacuma and Maniqui Rivers, and groups of both species in the riverine forests of the Maniqui River. Subsequently we investigated reports of the presence of C. modestus to the east of the Mamoré River (M. Herrera, pers. comm. to R. Wallace), but instead were able to verify the presence of Callicebus donacophilus at this location. Additional observations of C. donacophilus east of the Maniqui and Mamoré Rivers suggest that neither C. modestus nor C. olallae occur further east of the Maniqui River.

The full text of this publication can be found here.


Auricchio, 2010

Callicebus donacophilus

Locality: Bolivia Sta Cruz de la Sierra Provincia de Cercado (17°60’S 63°20’W). MS Corumbá (19°00’S 57°38’W).

Auricchio, P. (2010). A morphological analysis of some species of Callicebus. Neotropical Primates 17(2): 47-58.

Mercado and Wallace, 2010

Callicebus donacophilus

Distribution: west Beni Department, limited by the eastern margin of the Beni River.

The full text of the publication can be found here.


Martinez and Wallace, 2013

Callicebus donacophilus

Localities: Coquinal community at Rogaguado Lake (12°58’15.24”S, 65°51’33.30” W), located to the northwest of Santa Ana de Yacuma (their northernmost distributional limit).

Description: Individuals showed characteristic grayish brown agouti pelage dorsally with the tail lighter than the body. This color pattern clearly contrasts with the reddish coloration of the body fur of both C. modestus and C. olallae, with the latter having a dark gray tail pelage. The conspicuous white ear tufts and a similar coloration on the mouth area of the face, together with the light grayish coloration of hand and feet pelage were other features useful to distinguish this species from the endemic Callicebus that have relatively small ear tufts with a different gray tone on the fur of hands and feet. Juveniles of C. donacophilus also showed an almost white tail as well as characteristic head coloration patterns where white ear tufts are small and almost all of the face had abundant grayish fur, with only the eyes and part of the nose and mouth darker (endemic Callicebus juvenile heads have almost the same color pattern as adults). An important observation was the orange coloration in the ventral region of the body, arms and legs on some adult males, apparently a color variation related to the reproductive season (K. Dingess, pers. comm. 2007).

Remarks: The presence of C. donacophilus at Rogaguado lake is somewhat surprising given the relative isolation of this forest from others where this species has been registered. The Amazonian forest north of this lake is the nearest major forest block and it is actually connected by the narrow gallery forest of the Yata river. However, the absence of the Callicebus sp. from Australia at Rogaguado suggests that this gallery forest may not serve as a corridor. The nearest records of C. donacophilus to Coquinal are at Venecia ranch south of the Maniqui river (Anderson 1997) and at the Huacaraje community near Blanco river on the opposite side of the Mamoré river (Martínez & Wallace 2007), perhaps suggesting that historically forest connections existed between Rogaguado and the southern forests. Paleo-geographical studies of the forest-savanna complex including archeological aspects related to ancient grassland management need to be taken into account in future explanations of Callicebus distributions in the Beni Department.

Martínez, J. and Wallace, R.B. (2013). New information about the distribution of Callicebus (Pithecidae, Primates) in northern Beni Department, Bolivia. Ecología en Bolivia 48(1): 57-62.