Literature napoleon

Lönnberg, 1922

Callicebus cupreus napoleon

Type locality: near the river Napo, alt. 2500 f.

Description: These small monkeys resemble mostly Callicebus subrufus, as the following description proves. Face nearly naked only with some short sparsely set whitish hairs on the lips and in a line from the fore-head down on the nose. In addition to these there are several longer, black, probably sensory bristles above and on either side of the nose, and there is also a sparse growth of red hair from the sides of the head in direction towards the nose. A very narrow black, frontal bar and behind the same a broad white, semi lunar band. Behind the latter the crown of the head and the occiput are something between “fawn” and “rust red”, more red in front a little paler on the occiput, where the hairs are rather suddenly lengthened. The back is duller in colour, something between fawn and burnt umber a little more fawn on the rump. The hairs are almost black at their base for more than a third, then ringed with dirty whitish and dark brown, but with fawn-coloured tips. On the lower back the paler colour becomes more fawn, and the dark rings are les apparent. Shoulder, sides of the body and thighs grizzled grey by means of whitish and dark brown or blackish rings to the hairs. The flanks are a little overlaid with brownish. Sides of the head, whiskers, throat and entire lower side, inside of limbs, outside of limbs up to elbow and knee, hands and feet, inclusive fingers and toes, most similar to Ridgeway’s “burnt siena” with an inclination to “Sandford’s brown” of the same authors “colour standards” 1912. The base of the tail is grizzled like the flanks with more or less fawn-coloured tips. The greater part of the tail is, however, speckled greyish white and black, because the hairs have long whitish or putty-coloured tips, and below them very broad black rings, the bases being whitish, sometimes with a narrow black ring some distance above the root and separated from the broad sub apical black ring by a white ring. The hairs on top of the ears are whitish, but inside the same and on their lower parts red like the whiskers etc.

With regard to the colour this animal appears to resemble C. leucometopa (Latorre), but the latter differs by the colour of the head, which is said to be iron-grey. C. subrufus (Elliot) differs in having the fingers and toes “yellowish grey”. C. ornatus (Gray) is still more different and has .i. “outer sides of limbs grey” and “hands and feet yellowish grey” etc. C. remulus (Thomas) has also the outer sides of the limbs greyish brown, hand and feet greyish white, etc. C. toppini (Thomas) has the hairs on the proximal two thirds of the tail tipped with black. Thomas considers the last form to be allied to C. cupreus (Spix), and it is rather probable, that the present form, as well those enumerated above, are to be regarded as geographical subspecies of C. cupreus. From the latter the present specimens differ with regard to the colour of the top of the head, which Elliot, who examined the type, describes as “grey” and “buff-yellow on fore head”. The colour of the back also appears to be different. Another thing is, that Thomas has stated that C. cupreus has no black hairs on the forehead, while these, as mentioned above, in the present specimens form a narrow bar on the forehead.
C. paenulatus (Elliot) appears also to belong to the same group, but, although it is similar with regard to the colour of the lower parts and legs, it seems to be very different in having a “mantle”, which is said to be ‘tawny ochraceous uniform, extending behind the shoulders; middle of the back dark hair brown, grading into tawny ochraceous on the rump” (Elliot); and Thomas speaks about an “elongated mantle, paler than the rest of the back” in the same species. This is, of course, entirely different from the condition of the present specimens, in with the hairs are nearly of equal size all over the upper parts, about 40mm., or a little more, perhaps partly 45mm. on the neck. Likewise the hairs are ringed everywhere on the body, so that there is no trace of a pale and unicoloured mantle.

Measurements: The two specimens from Napo are both alike. The one, which has been described above as the type, is an old male with much worn teeth. The length of head and body is about 34,5cm in both specimens. The length of the tail is, when moistened, 38,5cm. The length of the hind foot is in one specimen 85mm, in the other 90mm.
With regard to the dimensions C. cupreus appears to be very different as Elliot, who has measured the type, says that its total length is 900 and the tail 290mm. The proportions of C. paenulatus are also different from those of the present form, but in another direction as it has a long tail measuring 520mm. with a total length of 850mm.

Skull: The skull of the type is unfortunately somewhat broken. It has a very characteristic appearance with a rather deep depression in the frontal region behind the roof of the orbits. Total length (approximately) 59 mm; occipitonasal length 54 mm; width of brain case 34 mm. The teeth of the present form appear to be larger than in C. cupreus, because the length of the upper molar series is, although the teeth are rather much worn, about 14,5mm, and the length of the lower moral series is 16 mm (against resp. 14 and 15 mm in C. cupreus).

Remarks: If thus all is taken together, the present specimens appear to be easily distinguished from other forms of Callicebus, although the differences are not so very great.

Lönnberg, E. (1922). A third contribution to the Mammalogy of Ecuador. Arkiv för Zoologi 14(20): 3-6.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus leucometopa

Synonyms: Callithrix caligata (Pelzeln, 1883 – partly); Callithrix cuprea leucometopa (Cabrera, 1900); Callicebus leucometopa (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus cupreus napoleon (Lönnberg, 1922); Callicebus cupreus leucometopus (Cruz Lima, 1945).

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus cupreus napoleon

Synonym: Callicebus cupreus napoleon (Lönnberg, 1939).

Type locality: Rio Napo, Ecuador. Type in Stockholm Museum.

Distribution: known only from the type locality where two specimens were obtained.

Description: Allied to subrufus. Forehead with narrow black superciliary band followed by a white bar; crown between fawn and rust-red, redder anteriorly, paler towards occiput, where hair becomes suddenly longer. Upper parts of body duller, between fawn and burnt umber, more fawn on rump, the hairs with black bases, followed by whitish and dark-brown annulations and fawn tips, the darker zones less apparent on lower back. Shoulders, flanks and lateral aspect of thighs grizzled grey due to alternating whitish and blackish or dark-brown rings on individual hairs. Cheeks, throat and under parts generally, and lateral aspect of limbs below elbow and knee, also hands and feet, burnt sienna inclining slightly towards Sanford’s brown. Base of tail grizzled like flanks, but hairs with fawn tips; rest of tail speckled grey and black, the hairs having long whitish or putty-coloured tips succeeding on broad black zones. Hairs at upper part of ears whitish, but on concavity and lower parts like whiskers.

Measurements: of male type: head and body 345mm; tail 385mm; foot 85mm.

Skull: see measurements and description in publication.

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Hershkovitz, 1963

Callicebus moloch discolor

Synonyms: Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy and Deville, 1848); Callithrix cuprea leucometopa (Cabrera, 1900); Callicebus leucometopa (Cabrera, 1917); Callicebus cupreus leucometopus (Cruz Lima, 1945); Callicebus subrufus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus paenulatus (Elliot, 1909); Callicebus cupreus napoleon (Lönnberg, 1922); Callicebus rutteri (Thomas, 1923); Callicebus oenanthe (Thomas, 1924); Callicebus moloch oenanthe (Cabrera, 1958); Callicebus gigot oenanthe (Hill, 1960); ?Saguinus moloch (Poeppig, 1839); Callithrix cuprea (Bartlett, 1871); Callicebus cupreus (Thomas, – not Spix- 1928); Callicebus cupreus cupreus (Sanborn, 1949).

Remark: The status of Callicebus cupreus napoleon is hardly better than that of a topotype of leucometopus.


Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus cupreus discolor

Synonyms: Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy, 1848); Callithrix cuprea leucometopa (Cabrera, 1900); Callicebus subrufus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus paenulatus (Elliot, 1909); Callicebus napoleon (Lönnberg, 1922); Callicebus rutteri (Thomas, 1923).

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus cupreus

Synonyms: Callithrix cuprea (Spix, 1823); Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842); Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy and Deville, 1848); Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866); Callithrix cuprea leucometopus (Cabrera, 1900); Callicebus subrufus (1907); Callicebus ustofuscus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus egeria (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus paenulatus (Elliot, 1909); Callicebus toppinii (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus cupreus napoleon (Lönnberg, 1922); Callicebus rutteri (Thomas, 1923); Callicebus cupreus acreanus (Vieira, 1952) and Callicebus dubius (Hershkovitz, 1988).

Remarks: Hershkovitz (1990) recognized four different taxa here: C. cupreus cupreus, C. cupreus discolor, C. caligatus and C. dubius. The first two were said to be predominantly phaeomelanic, the second two more eumelanic; in C. c. cupreus and C. caligatus there is no frontal band or just a small, agouti median tuft; in C. c. discolor and C. dubius there is a variable developed white frontal blaze. The distributions of the four, taken as a group, are coterminous, but the two easterly forms have the frontal blaze whereas the two westerly ones are without it, so that at the very least there is a remarkable parallelism between phaeomelanic and eumalenic species in their geographical variation. I suggested (Groves, 1992) that this odd situation could be resolved if the eumelanic and phaeomelanic “species” are actually morphs of a single species.