Literature subrufus

Elliot, 1907

Callicebus subrufus

Type locality: Pachitea, Ucayali River, Peru. Altitude 400 to 500 feet.

Description: Allied to C. leucometopa, but colour entirely different. Face black; a narrow black bar on forehead above eyes, succeeded by a broader one of white; rest of head on top, neck, and entire upperparts bright russet, becoming more darker and more reddish on the rumps, the hairs being slate at base, then alternately ringed with slate and bright russet, or on the rump with slate and dark russet or reddish; arms to elbows and thighs to knees grey, the hairs being seal-brown at base, then russet, and tips grey, this colour overlying the rest; hands and feet and rest of limbs bright chestnut-red; sides of face, whiskers, inner side of limbs, throat, chest, and middle of abdomen bright chestnut-red; fingers and toes yellowish grey; tail, basal third black, with chestnut hairs mixed with black at the root, remainder light grey above, whitish beneath; hair on ears white.

Measurements: Size about equal to that of C. leucometopa.

Skull: occipito-nasal length 51mm; hensel 40; zygomatic width 35; intertemporal width 29; palatal length 18; breadth of brain-case 33; nasals broken; length of upper moral series 16; length of mandible 35; length of lower molar series 16.

Remarks: B.M. no. of type: 4.7.7.2.
While allied to C. leucometopa, the great difference in colour the present species exhibits makes it easily recognizable. In its yellowish-grey fingers and toes it shows a leaning towards C. ornatus, but in other respects it has no resemblance to that species.

Elliot, D.G. (1907). Descriptions of apparently new species and subspecies of mammals belonging to the families Lemuridae, Cebidae, Callitrichidae, and Cercopithecidae in the collection of the Natural History Museum. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 7 (20): 191-193.

Elliot, 1913

Callicebus subrufus

Synonyms: Callicebus subrufus (Elliot, 1907).

Type locality: Pachitea, Ucayali River, Peru. Altitude between 400 and 500 feet (British Museum).

Description: Allied to C. leucometopa, but colour entirely different. Face black; a narrow black bar on forehead above eyes, succeeded by a broader white one; rest of head on top, neck and entire upper parts bright russet, becoming darker and more reddish on the rump, the hairs being slate at base, then alternately ringed with slate and bright russet, or on the rump with slate and dark russet or reddish; arms to elbows, and thighs to knees, rest of outer side of limbs, hands and feet bright chestnut red; side of face, whiskers, inner side of limbs, throat, chest, and middle of abdomen bright chestnut red; fingers and toes yellowish grey; tail, basal third black, with chestnut hair mixed with black at the root, remainder light grey above, nearly whitish beneath; hairs on ears white.

Measurements: Size about equal to that of C. leucometopa.

Skull: occipito-nasal length, 51; Hensel, 40; zygomatic width, 35; intertemporal width, 29 ; palatal length, 18 ; breadth of braincase, 33; median length of nasals, 6? (broken); length of upper molar series, 15; length of mandible, 35; length of lower molar series, 16.

Remarks: While allied to C. leucometopa the great difference the present animal exhibits in its coloration makes it easily recognizable. In its grey fingers and toes it shows a leaning towards C. ornatus, but in other respects it has no resemblance to that species. The unique example in the Collection of the British Museum is fully adult, but not old.

Elliot, D.G. (1913). A review of the primates 1: 234-257.

Thomas, 1928a

Callicebus subrufus

Locality: Cumeria, at 1000’ asl. (4 specimens).

Remarks: The Cumeria specimens closely match Elliot’s type of subrufus, but the species is very nearly allied to cupreus, only differing by the presence of a white frontal band. The general body tone is more rufous than in leucometopa, and the ears are more prominently white.

Thomas, O. (1928a). The Godman-Thomas Expedition to Peru. – VII. The mammals of the Rio Ucayali.  Annals and Magazine of Natural History (10) 2: 253-254.

Cruz Lima, 1945

Callicebus cupreus subrufus

Synonym: Callicebus subrufus (Elliot, 1907).

Distribution: The known distribution is restricted to the locality of the type.

Description: Allied to C. cupreus leucometopus. Face black; a narrow black bar on forehead, above eyes, succeeded by a broader one of white; rest of head on top, neck, and entire upperparts bright russet, becoming darker and more reddish on the rumps, the hairs being slate at base, then alternately ringed with slate and bright russet or reddish; arms to elbows and thighs to knees grey, the hairs being seal-brown at base, then russet, and tips grey, this colour overlying the rest; hands and feet and rest of limbs bright chestnut-red; sides of face, whiskers, inner side of limbs, throat, chest, and middle of abdomen bright chestnut-red; fingers and toes yellowish-grey; tail, basal third black, with chestnut beneath; hairs on ears white (original description).

Remarks: Type in the British Museum.
In spite of the author’s statement that this species is readily recognized by its colouring, we have doubts as to its validity and its separation from either of the two preceding forms (= leucometopus and cupreus), the characteristics of the colouring of the forehead and of the fingers being involved in the question of more or less which we have just mentioned with respect to the preceding form. With reference to this and to the individual variability in the group, it is necessary to take into due consideration I. Geoffroy’s observations on the so-called C. discolor found in the regions near this same zone of the Ucayali, not only with respect to the colouring of the head, but also to that of the fingers. I. Geoffroy found a specimen with whitish fingers, which made him think that it represented a different species, but he abandoned this belief when he found whitish hairs around the nails on specimens with chestnut-coloured fingers.

Cruz-Lima, E. da (1945). Mammals of Amazonia Vol. 1. General introduction and primates pp. 175-198.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus subrufus

Synonyms: Callicebus subrufus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus rutteri (Thomas, 1923); Callicebus cupreus subrufus (Cruz Lima, 1945).

Distribution: Eastern Peru, in the river-basin of the upper Ucayali.

Remarks: It seems to be evident that subrufus and rutteri, obtained both at the same locality and without much difference besides certain tinges of the colours, are synonymous.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus cupreus subrufus

Type locality: Pachitea, Rio Ucyali, Huanuco, Peru. Type in British Museum.

Distribution: Peru, valley of the Rio Ucayali.

Description: Differing from leucometopus in having the orange of the cheeks and forearms replaced by maroon. General texture of pelage softer and silkier than in leucometopus. Allied to the latter species, showing the narrow but more pronounced black frontal band succeeded by a broad white one; with remainder of crown bright russet, which colour occurs also on nape and remainder of upper parts, becoming darker and more reddish on rump. Individual hairs slate basally, then ringed alternately with slate and bright russet or reddish; arms to elbows and thighs to knees grey, hairs seal-brown at base, then russet, tips grey, the last overshadowing the rest; remainder of limbs, including hands and feet, chestnut-red, but fingers and toes pale yellowish-grey. Under parts as in cupreus. Tail with basal third black, a few chestnut hairs intermixed, rest of tail light grey above, whitish below. Ear-tufts white.

Measurements: males: head and body 325/335mm; tail 455/470mm; foot 98/98mm; ear 31/32mm; females: head and body 315/294mm; tail 440/430mm; foot 94/89mm; ear 30/28mm.

Skull: see measurements in publication.

Remarks: An ill-defined race. According to published records only known from the type skin. Lima suggested that is was merely an individual variant of typical cupreus or leucometopus. In the same part of the course of the Rio Ucayali Castelnau collected the type of discolor, now universally acknowledged as a synonym of cupreus. However, there are four other specimens in the British Museum labelled as subrufus, presumable by Thomas. These were collected by R.W. Hendee at Cumaria, Loreto, Peru, which is the same general area of the Ucayali as the type locality.

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Herskovitz, 1963

Callicebus moloch discolor

Synonym: Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy and Deville, 1848); Callithrix cuprea leucometopa (Cabrera, 1900); Callicebus leucometopa (Cabrera, 1917); Callicebus cupreus leucometopus (Cruz Lima, 1945); Callicebus subrufus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus paenulatus (Elliot, 1909); Callicebus cupreus napoleon (Lönnberg, 1922); Callicebus rutteri (Thomas, 1923); Callicebus oenanthe (Thomas, 1924); Callicebus moloch oenanthe (Cabrera, 1958); Callicebus gigot oenanthe (Hill, 1960); ?Saguinus moloch (Poeppig, 1839); Callithrix cuprea (Bartlett, 1871); Callicebus cupreus (Thomas, – not Spix- 1928); Callicebus cupreus cupreus (Sanborn, 1949).

Type locality: Peru, subsequently restricted to Sarayacu, Rio Ucayali, Loreto by I. Geoffroy (1851). Type in Paris Museum.

Description: (key to species:) general body colour grey, reddish or brown; under parts like back or sharply defined reddish orange or buff; hind feet black, brown, red or grey, tail grey or blackish with tip grey or grey mixed with black; throat like chest; forearms grey, red, dark brown sometimes blackish above; upper surface of hands grey to blackish never sharply contrasted with colour of upper side of wrists. Forehead grey sometimes edged with black or dominantly black to blackish brown and always well defined from posterior half of crown and nape, outer side of forearms grizzled or more or less uniformly reddish to dark brown. Forehead with grey band often thinly edged with black; under parts of body orange or reddish and always well defined from sides; forearms uniformly orange or reddish or contrasting grizzled on outer side; tail dominantly grey. Forearms and hind legs uniformly rufous above and below.

Measurements: see table in publication.

Remarks: Callicebus subrufus from Pachitéa, Rio Ucayali, was compared with leucometopus and ornatus. Its description applies to our near topotypes of discolor. Hill (1960) recognizes subrufus as “an ill-defined race” of C. cupreus “known only from the type skin”. He then gives measurements of the type skull and external measurements of the type and four other specimens recorded in 1928 from Cumeria, Rio Ucayali, by Thomas (supra cit.). Hill remarks that subrufus is from the same part of the Rio Ucayali as the type of Geoffroy’s discolor but treats the first as representative of a valid race and the second as a synonym of cupreus.


Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus cupreus discolor

Synonyms: Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy, 1848); Callithrix cuprea leucometopa (Cabrera, 1900); Callicebus subrufus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus paenulatus (Elliot, 1909); Callicebus napoleon (Lönnberg, 1922); Callicebus rutteri (Thomas, 1923).

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus cupreus

Synonyms: Callithrix cuprea (Spix, 1823); Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842); Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy and Deville, 1848); Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866); Callithrix cuprea leucometopus (Cabrera, 1900); Callicebus subrufus (1907); Callicebus ustofuscus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus egeria (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus paenulatus (Elliot, 1909); Callicebus toppinii (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus cupreus napoleon (Lönnberg, 1922); Callicebus rutteri (Thomas, 1923); Callicebus cupreus acreanus (Vieira, 1952) and Callicebus dubius (Hershkovitz, 1988).