Literature rutteri

Thomas, 1923

Callicebus rutteri

Type locality: Puerto Leguia, Peru, altitude 1500 f. (type in British Museum)

Distribution: Rio Pachitea, Upper Ucayali, Peru.

Description: A reddish-brown species with bright red head and limbs, and a black and grey tail. Back warm reddish brown, not as greyish as in caligatus and its allies. Head rufous, the cheeks and underside brighter and richer, a deep rich “morocco-red”; forehead with a narrow band of whitish, no so broad as in leucometopa, nor so whitish as in subrufus. Hairs on ears red. Limbs brilliant rufous distally above and wholly below, the shoulders and hips more brownish, like the back, but without the distinct greyish area found in subrufus. Hands and feet wholly rich rufous, except that there are a few whitish hairs at the tip of the toes. Throat, chest, and narrowed middle area of belly bright rufous, in continuity with the inner side of the fore-limbs. Tail greyish black proximally, the tip for about three inches above and eight inches below white or greyish white.

Dimensions: Head and body 242mm; tail 390; hand foot 85mm; ear 30mm.

Remarks: This very handsome titi monkey, which I have named in honour of its collector, would appear to be nearest to C. subrufus, Elliot, of which the type is in the British Museum. It differs, however, by its generally more rufous colour, the more rufous crown, the absence of the marked greyish areas on the shoulders and hips, and by its practically wholly rufous hands and feet.

Thomas, O. (1923). Three new mammals from Peru. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9)12:692.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus subrufus

Synonyms: Callicebus subrufus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus rutteri (Thomas, 1923); Callicebus cupreus subrufus (Cruz Lima, 1945).

Distribution: Eastern Peru, in the river-basin of the upper Ucayali.

Remarks: It seems to be evident that subrufus and rutteri, obtained both at the same locality and without much difference besides certain tinges of the colours, are synonymous.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus cupreus rutteri

Synonym: Cllicebus rutteri (Thomas, 1923).

Type locality: Puerto Leguia, Rio Pachitea, Upper Ucayali, Peru. Type in British Museum.

Distribution: Known only from the type locality.

Description: Allied to subrufus and napoleon. A reddish-brown species with white brown-band, bright red head and limbs but distinctly more rufous; tail black and grey; Pelage soft as in subrufus. Head rufous, the cheeks and throat brighter and entire under parts a deep rich “morocco-red”; forehead with narrow whitish band, not as broad as in leucometopus nor so pure white as subrufus. Hairs on ears red. Limbs brilliantly rufous distally, shoulders and hips more brownish, like back, but lacking the distinct greyish area occurring in subrufus. Hands and feet uniformly rufous, except for a few whitish hairs at tips of toes. Tail greyish-black proximally, the tip white or greyish-white in the distal 74mm above and 196mm below.

Measurements: of the type: head and body 242mm; tail 390mm; foot 85mm; ear 30mm.

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Hershkovitz, 1963

Callicebus moloch discolor

Synonyms: Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy and Deville, 1848); Callithrix cuprea leucometopa (Cabrera, 1900); Callicebus leucometopa (Cabrera, 1917); Callicebus cupreus leucometopus (Cruz Lima, 1945); Callicebus subrufus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus paenulatus (Elliot, 1909); Callicebus cupreus napoleon (Lönnberg, 1922); Callicebus rutteri (Thomas, 1923); Callicebus oenanthe (Thomas, 1924); Callicebus moloch oenanthe (Cabrera, 1958); Callicebus gigot oenanthe (Hill, 1960); ?Saguinus moloch (Poeppig, 1839); Callithrix cuprea (Bartlett, 1871); Callicebus cupreus (Thomas, – not Spix- 1928); Callicebus cupreus cupreus (Sanborn, 1949).

Remarks: Callithrix cupreus leucometopa from the junction of the Rios Napo and Aguarico is the first representative of the white-fronted race to be unambiguously defined and named as such. Comparisons were made with the description of cupreus, caligatus and ornatus but the earlier named discolor was dismissed by Cabrera as an absolute synonym of cupreus. Our specimens from the upper and lower Rio Napo and from the north bank of the Maranon (Rio Nanay) are indistinguishable and completely representative of leucometopus. Collectively, they are more grey les red on upper parts including crown than our near topotypes of discolor but the original Sarayacu discolor is said to be grey crowned. Five specimens from Tingo Maria, Rio Huallaga, at the southern extreme of the range, have smaller frontal bands, approximately as in our Rio Ucayali discolor, but otherwise are indistinguishable from topotypical leucometopus.
Callicebus subrufus from Pachitéa, Rio Ucayali, was compared with leucometopus and ornatus. Its description applies to our near topotypes of discolor. The status of Callicebus cupreus napoleon is hardly better than that of a topotype of leucometopus. Callicebus rutteri from the Rio Pachitéa, upper Rio Acayali, has about the same relationship to subrufus from the banks of the same river. Our specimens from Puerto Victori, Rio Pachitéa, are representative of both rutteri and subrufus.


Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus cupreus discolor

Synonyms: Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy, 1848); Callithrix cuprea leucometopa (Cabrera, 1900); Callicebus subrufus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus paenulatus (Elliot, 1909); Callicebus napoleon (Lönnberg, 1922); Callicebus rutteri (Thomas, 1923).

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus cupreus

Synonyms: Callithrix cuprea (Spix, 1823); Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842); Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy and Deville, 1848); Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866); Callithrix cuprea leucometopus (Cabrera, 1900); Callicebus subrufus (1907); Callicebus ustofuscus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus egeria (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus paenulatus (Elliot, 1909); Callicebus toppinii (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus cupreus napoleon (Lönnberg, 1922); Callicebus rutteri (Thomas, 1923); Callicebus cupreus acreanus (Vieira, 1952) and Callicebus dubius (Hershkovitz, 1988).