Literature leucometopus

Pöppig, 1832

Distribution: near Yurimaguas, Peru.

Description: The third species is the “Mocon”, which is the size of a night monkey. His upper side is grey towards brown; all hairs have a pure white tip. Forehead and the terminal half of the tail white. Extremities and under side of body vivid rusty-red.

Pöppig, E.F. (1832). Doctor Pöppig’s naturhistorische Berichte aus Peru. Notizen aus dem Gebiete des Natur- und Heilkunde 32 (15) 697: 229-230.

Martinez Saez, 1873

Callithrix discolor (Geoffroy)

Description: The description of C. discolor given by Geoffroy and the corresponding figure doesn’t match completely the specimen that I have in sight (= in the Madrid Museum). The white spot on the forehead, that appears to be much more marked in being brownish-reddish for the rest of the occiput, the numerous white hairs on the hands and feet, the brownish-reddish spots of the anterior half of the forearms and legs, and the more white tinge of the tail are the principal differences that I observe in this specimen. Geoffroy noted that some individuals have grey hairs on the vertex and whitish hairs on the fingers.

Martinez Saez, F.  (1873).  Nota sobre mamíferos Americanos. Anales de Sociedad Espanola de Historia Natural 2: 243.

Von Pelzen, 1883

One from H. Parreys in 1840 bought specimen (South-America) differs from C. caligata by a white band on the forehead, the behind of the head is reddish, the upperparts are somewhat dark and hardly one third of the tail is whitish; it differs from C. cuprea Spix only be the white frontal band. It agrees generally with C. ornatus Gray, but differs by the red, and not grey, hands and foot and by the colouration of the tail.

Pelzen, A. von (1883). Brasilische Säugethiere pp. 19-20.

Jentink, 1892

Callithrix cuprea

Remarks: the Leiden museum has four individuals:

– an adult female, one of the types of the species, from the banks of the of the Solimoes, Peru. From the collections of Spix;
– two adult individuals, from the Rio Copataza, Ecuador. From the collections of Buckley, 1877/78. Obtained from Frank in 1880;
– a semi-adult individual, from the Rio Copataza. From the collections of Buckley, 1877/78. Obtained from Frank in 1880.

( the animals from Rio Copataza are have vague white brows on the forehead).

Jentink, F.A. (1892). Catalogue systématique des mammifères (singes, carnivores, ruminants, pachydermes, sirènes et cétacés). Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle des Pays Bas 11: 51-53.

 Forbes, 1896download

Callithrix cuprea the description is of cupreus, the plate of leucometopus.

Von Pelzen, 1883

One from H. Parreys in 1840 bought specimen (South-America) differs from C. caligata by a white band on the forehead, the behind of the head is reddish, the upperparts are somewhat dark and hardly one third of the tail is whitish; it differs from C. cuprea Spix only be the white frontal band. It agrees generally with C. ornatus Gray, but differs by the red, and not grey, hands and foot and by the colouration of the tail.

Cabrera, 1900vieira 9x13

Callithrix cuprea leucometopa subsp. nov.

Distribution: The collection has two specimens. One is adult and of unknown origin, the other is a young female obtained near Aguarico (= Ecuador).

Description: The first specimen has the upper parts ashy-brown, becoming on the head and the middle line of the back till the base of the tail a shiny dark-blond reddish tinge. All hairs are on their first half black and present one or two rings of this colour towards the tip. The cheeks, all regions inside the extremities are a nice dark coppery-red. The bluish face, with some with hairs on the lips, also has some black tactile hairs. The ears are blackish, with brownish hairs in its interior. A white band perfectly marks the front of the head, exactly above the naked part of the face. The hairs of this band are black at the base, giving the impression that there is a black line under the white band. The tail varies from blackish to dirty-white, the first colour dominating the basal-half, the second the rest.
The young female has a much lighter colour, ashy-grey, with dark-blond on the back and head; the red parts are also lighter, are of a carrot-colour. The tail is more mixed black and white, towards a dirty-yellowish. The frontal band is as marked as in the other specimen, limited on the underside by a small black line.

Remarks: This species is not completely unknown, as Pelzen says in his Brasilische Säugetiere: “one specimen bought from M. Parreys, 1840 (South-America), differs from caligata by a frontal white band; behind it is a red head; the tail is dark on the superior part and whitish and the last third. It differs from C. cuprea by the white frontal band; it agrees with the C. ornate of Gray in general, but differs by having the hands and feet red, not grey, and for the colour of the tail”.
The resemblance between this animal and the species of Gray is indeed notable; however, the latter presents, besides the differences mentioned by Pelzen, a fan of white hairs with a dark band in the ear, which cannot be found in the C. cuprea leucometopa.
The skull of this monkey cannot be confused with that of C. ornata. I have studied only the skull of a female, which compared to that of the C. cuprea of Spix does not show other differences than those that will be the result of the young age of the specimen. The symphysis of the jaw is, viewed from the side, rounder, but this character has also been mentioned by I. Geoffroy in his C. discolor, which is nowadays considered to be a real C. cuprea.

Measurements: Body 370mm/340mm; tail 365mm/335mm.

Cabrera, A. (1900). Estudios sobre una colleción de monos americanos. Anales de Sociedad Espanola de Historia Natural 9 (29): 83-85.

Trouessart, 1904-1905

Callicebus cuprea

Distribution: Amazonia of Peru; Ecuador (in the mountains).

a) – leucomystax (Cabrera, 1900).

Distribution: Ecuador.

Trouessart, E.L. (1904-1905). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium Quinquennale Suppl. Pp. 25-26.

Elliot, 1913

Callicebus leucometopa

Synonyms: Callithrix cuprea leucometopa (Latorre, 1900).

Type locality: Ecuador (Type in Madrid Museum).

Distribution: Ecuador.

Description: Similar to C. cupreus but forehead white or greyish white, top of head grey. Face black; forehead white or greyish white; top of head iron grey; sides of head, throat, and under parts, chestnut red; lower part of outer and inner side of limbs, hands and feet, chestnut-red; the upper part of limbs iron grey; tail black with grey mixed, remainder silvery grey; hair on ears greyish white.

Measurements: Size of C. cupreus.

Skull: occipito-nasal length, 56 ; zygomatic width, 37 ; intertemporal width, 29 ; palatal length, 28; width of braincase, 33 ; median length of nasals, 7 ; length of upper molar series, 14 ; length of mandible, 38 ; length of lower molar series, 15 (ex. in British Museum).

Elliot, D.G. (1913). A review of the primates 1: 234-257.

Cabrera, 1917

Callicebus leucometopa

Locality: Rio Aguarico, Ecuador.

Remarks: two specimens in the Madrid Museum, cotypes; an old male, from Ecuador, without precise locality and a semi-adult female from the Aguarico River.

Skull: dimensions given in publication.

Cabrera, A. (1917): Mamíferos del viaje al pacifico. Trabajos del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Natural Madrid. Serie zoologica 31:38.

Thomas, 1927

Callicebus leucometopa

Locality: Tingo Maria, (Tingo Maria, Huanuco. On the Huallaga, 70km N. of Chinchao, on the Huallaga, on latitude 9ºS. Altitude 2000’).

Remarks: This species has not hitherto been recorded from Peru; these interesting and most welcome specimens are quite like those from Ecuador obtained by Buckley in 1879, which are practically topotypes. One example has white digits, as Elliot’s subrufus, but the more reddish body-colour of the latter distinguishes it from the grey leucometopa.

Specimens (British Museum): 1102, 1103, 1106, 1107, 1108, 1126, 1127.

Thomas, O. (1927). The Godman-Thomas Expedition to Peru. – VI. On mammals from the Upper Huallaga and neighbouring Higlands. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9) 20: 594-596.

Thomas, 1928b

Callicebus leucometopa

Locality: 2 specimens from Iquitos.

Remarks: Should probably be considered as a subspecies of C. cupreus.

Thomas, O. (1928b). The Godman-Thomas Expedition to Peru. – VIII. The mammals of the Rio Ucayali.  Annals and Magazine of Natural History (10) 2: 286.

Cabrera and Ypes, 1940

Callicebus leucometopa

Distribution: the area drained by the affluents of the Maranon, from the Napo towards the Huallaga.

Description: This species was discovered in Ecuador by Jiménez de la Espada, and described 40 years ago by one of the authors. The colour is brownish-grey, passing on the head and the lower back into a shiny blond-reddish hue; the cheeks, the under parts and the four extremities are a pretty dark coppery red; a wide white band on the forehead, behind a thin dark line. The tail is mixed blackish and dirty white, the first hue dominating near the base and the white towards the tip. The female, at least when young, is much paler, with only a vague blond hue on the head and the back, and the under parts are paler red, the colour of a carrot.

Measurements: the male is 370mm, without tail.

Cabrera and Ypes (1940). Mamiferos Sud Americanos. Compana Argentina de Editores, Buenos Aires pp. 85-88.

Cruz Lima, 1945cruz lima leucom 9x13

Callicebus cupreus leucometopus

Synonym: Callithrix cuprea leucometopa (Cabrera, 1900).

Distribution: The known specimens come from Aguarico (Ecuador), and Iquitos.

Description: Similar to C. cupreus, but differing from it in external appearance in its white or, rather, dirty yellowish-white forehead, the hairs being black at base, with rare black hairs mixed in the eyebrows. Also the tone on the back is darker than in the typical form, the hairs in the median section along the vertebrae from the top of the head to the loins having a black basal section and the rest annulated with black and tawny, and those on the shoulders, flanks, outer side of the top of the tights and under surface of the base of the tail annulated with black and pale yellowish white. On the rest of the tail the hairs are broadly ringed with black and whitish and have tawny tips. Toward the apical section of the tail the white bands increase in extent, occupying the basal portion. At the extreme tip of the tail, however, the opposite is the case: the black is near the base and the white covers the apical section of the hairs, which are tawny. The chestnut-red colour of the limbs and the under parts of the body is also more vivid and glossy than in C. cupreus (description of a still young female specimen from the Museu Goeldi collection, which came from the Peruvian Amazon – Iquitos).

Measurements: (of the cotype) head and body 370mm; tail 365mm.

Remarks: Type in Madrid Museum. Agreeing with the author, we prefer to consider this form a subspecies rather than an independent species as Elliot considered it, in view of the unreliability of the external characteristics, as is indicated by the individual variations in C. cupreus. Even the white forehead, which characterizes it especially, has sparse black hairs, just as the black forehead of cupreus, the extent of whose black colouring is very variable, at times also has entirely white hairs amongst the black. In the last analysis, therefore, it is only a question of more or less. It is true that on comparing the cranial dimensions given by Elliot of specimens in both forms from the collection of the British Museum, both with the same occipito-nasal length, striking differences are observed (intertemporal width: cupreus 36; leucometopus 29; palatal length: 18 and 28 resp.). However, the very exaggeration of these differences raises the question of the possibility of a mistake, one of those which unfortunately abound in the monograph of the eminent American zoologist. The skull of the only specimen in the Museu Goeldi which may be attributed to this form does not furnish us with sufficient data, since the specimen is too young.

Cruz-Lima, E. da (1945). Mammals of Amazonia Vol. 1. General introduction and primates pp. 175-198.

Vieira, 1955

Callicebus cupreus leucometopus

Synonym: Callithrix cuprea leucometopa (Cabrera, 1900).

Distribution: Eastern Ecuador; Peru (Iquitos); Brazil: eastern Amazonas, region bordered with Peru.

Vieira, C. da C. (1955). Lista remissiva dos mamiferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 8 (10): 375-379.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus leucometopa

Synonyms: Callithrix caligata (Pelzeln, 1883 – partly); Callithrix cuprea leucometopa (Cabrera, 1900); Callicebus leucometopa (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus cupreus napoleon (Lönnberg, 1922); Callicebus cupreus leucometopus (Cruz Lima, 1945).

Distribution: Extreme north of Ecuador and Peru, in the river-basin of the Napo.

Remarks: This form was originally established on two specimens: an adult male, without more than “Ecuador” as locality and a semi-adult female for the Aguarico River. We designate here the first as type (=lectotype) not only because of his age but also because he is the specimen that is represented in the figure of the original description. This specimen was probably obtained at the same locality as the female or very near, and the Auguarico River is the only locality mentioned in the original description.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus cupreus leucometopus

Type locality: Vicinity of Aguarico, at junction of Rio Sardino with Rio Aguarico, tributary of Rio Napo, north-eastern Ecuador. Type in Madrid Museum.

Distribution: Besides the type locality, Lima records a specimen in the Pará Museum from Iquitos in eastern Peru. Cabrera gives Rio Aguarico as additional locality.

Description: Intermediate in character between ornatus and typical cupreus, having the general appearance of cupreus but with a transverse white frontal band of ornatus, but the latter less pure than in ornatus, the hairs having dark-grey bases, some of which show through. A few black superciliary hairs only. Mixed black and yellowish-white hairs on median nasal tract. A few white hairs on lips and longer ones on ears. Crown tawny, as in cupreus, but general tone of dorsal surface of body darker, the vertebral hairs black based and the shafts annulated alternately tawny and black. Laterally on shoulders, flanks, loins and lateral aspect of upper part of thighs the hairs annulated yellowish-white instead of tawny. Base of tail similar, the rest duller, with broadly ringed black and white hairs bearing tawny tips, except distally, where whitish annuli are broader at the expense of the black bases, giving a dirty-white fringe to the last 25 mm. Cheeks, throat, under parts, distal parts of limbs, both medially and laterally, bright chestnut as in typical cupreus. Red areas said by Lima to be more vivid and glossy than in typical cupreus (above description of a sub adult male specimen recently living in the Zoological Society’s menagerie).

Measurements: sub adult male: head and body 297mm; tail 360mm; foot 80.5mm; ear 28.7mm.

Skull: see measurements in publication.

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Hershkovitz, 1963

Callicebus moloch discolor

Synonym: Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy and Deville, 1848); Callithrix cuprea leucometopa (Cabrera, 1900); Callicebus leucometopa (Cabrera, 1917); Callicebus cupreus leucometopus (Cruz Lima, 1945); Callicebus subrufus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus paenulatus (Elliot, 1909); Callicebus cupreus napoleon (Lönnberg, 1922); Callicebus rutteri (Thomas, 1923); Callicebus oenanthe (Thomas, 1924); Callicebus moloch oenanthe (Cabrera, 1958); Callicebus gigot oenanthe (Hill, 1960); ?Saguinus moloch (Poeppig, 1839); Callithrix cuprea (Bartlett, 1871); Callicebus cupreus (Thomas, – not Spix- 1928); Callicebus cupreus cupreus (Sanborn, 1949).

Type locality: Peru, subsequently restricted to Sarayacu, Rio Ucayali, Loreto by I. Geoffroy (1851). Type in Paris Museum.

Description: (key to species:) general body colour grey, reddish or brown; under parts like back or sharply defined reddish orange or buff; hind feet black, brown, red or grey, tail grey or blackish with tip grey or grey mixed with black; throat like chest; forearms grey, red, dark brown sometimes blackish above; upper surface of hands grey to blackish never sharply contrasted with colour of upper side of wrists.
Forehead grey sometimes edged with black or dominantly black to blackish brown and always well defined from posterior half of crown and nape, outer side of forearms grizzled or more or less uniformly reddish to dark brown. Forehead with grey band often thinly edged with black; under parts of body orange or reddish and always well defined from sides; forearms uniformly orange or reddish or contrasting grizzled on outer side; tail dominantly grey. Forearms and hind legs uniformly rufous above and below.

Measurements: see table in publication.

Remarks: The first published description of Callithrix discolor is of a single specimen explicitly from Peru and characterized by a pale grey forehead and bright chestnut-red crown. Subsequent descriptions of discolor by I. Geoffroy are of an unspecified number of specimens collected by Castelnau and Deville in Brazil as well as Peru. Those from the Amazon River in Brazil and Peru with reddish crowns (I. Geoffroy, 1855) are said to be very much alike and here referred to cupreus. Those from Sarayacu, Rio Ucayali, distinguished from the others by their grey crowns, and , in one specimen, by its whitish or tawny toes, agree with the original description of discolor. Sarayacu, therefore, must be taken as type locality and the name discolor is the earliest available for the grey-fronted titis of the Rio Ucayali, Rio Huallaga, north bank of the Maranon and eastern Ecuador.
Among specimens at hand from the type region, the grey frontal band is weakly developed in an individual from Cerro Azul (-this is the Cerro Azul behind Contaman, right bank of the Rio Ucayali-) and well developed in others from Yarinacocha and other localities higher up the Ucayali. In all, the crown is more suffused with reddish than is described for the types. The basal half of the tail in two adults from Yarinacocha is dominantly blackish and suggestive of brunneus to the south.
In diverging from the ancestral brunneus-donacophilus stock, discolor spread north and west along both banks of the Rio Ucayali. It gained access to the valleys of the Rio Huallaga and left bank tributaries of the Maranon in Peru and Ecuador. Ostensibly, populations of the right bank of the lower Ucayali must have given rise to cupreus. The transition from discolor to cupreus perhaps in the uncollected area between Quebrada Esperanza on the west bank of the Yavari to Cashiboya and Cerro Azul on the right bank of the Ucayali must be clinal. On the other hand, where the ranges of discolor and cupreus meet on opposite sides of the Maranon, the difference between them is sharp. Thus, seven specimens from Santa Luisa, north bank of the Maranon, differ strikingly by their white frontal bands from two specimens of black fronted cupreus from Santa Cecilia on the opposite side of the river.
Callithrix cupreus leucometopa from the junction of the Rios Napo and Aguarico is the first representative of the white-fronted race to be unambiguously defined and named as such. Comparisons were made with the description of cupreus, caligatus and ornatus but the earlier named discolor was dismissed by Cabrera as an absolute synonym of cupreus. Our specimens from the upper and lower Rio Napo and from the north bank of the Maranon (Rio Nanay) are indistinguishable and completely representative of leucometopus. Collectively, they are more grey les red on upper parts including crown than our near topotypes of discolor but the original Sarayacu discolor is said to be grey crowned. Five specimens from Tingo Maria, Rio Huallaga, at the southern extreme of the range, have smaller frontal bands, approximately as in our Rio Ucayali discolor, but otherwise are indistinguishable from topotypical leucometopus.
Callicebus subrufus from Pachitéa, Rio Ucayali, was compared with leucometopus and ornatus. Its description applies to our near topotypes of discolor. Hill (1960) recognizes subrufus as “an ill-defined race” of C. cupreus “known only from the type skin”. He then gives measurements of the type skull and external measurements of the type and four other specimens recorded in 1928 from Cumeria, Rio Ucayali, by Thomas (supra cit.). Hill remarks that subrufus is from the same part of the Rio Ucayali as the type of Geoffroy’s discolor but treats the first as representative of a valid race and the second as a synonym of cupreus.
The type of Callicebus paenulatus, from Andoas, Rio Pastaza, judged by its description, is unusual in the lack of a distinct grey frontal band and the possession of a mane-like mantle. The same specimen and others from the same locality had been identified with cupreus which, at the time, included discolor as a synonym (cf. Thomas, 1880 and Jentink, 1892, supra cit.). A specimen at hand from Montalvo, Rio Bobonanza, a short distance above Andoas, has a well developed frontal band and is inseparable from Rio Napo topotypes of leucometopus. There is no reason to believe that paenulatus, for al the peculiarities ascribed to it, is taxonomically distinct from any other titi of eastern Ecuador.
The status of Callicebus cupreus napoleon is hardly better than that of a topotype of leucometopus. Callicebus rutteri from the Rio Pachitéa, upper Rio Acayali, has about the same relationship to subrufus from the banks of the same river. Our specimens from Puerto Victori, Rio Pachitéa, are representative of both rutteri and subrufus.

Specimens examinedEcuador – Napo-Pastaza: Montalvo, Rio Bobonaza; Rio Napo; Rio Payamino. Peru – Huanuco: Tingo Maria; Junin: Puerto Victoria, Rio Pachitéa; Loreto: Cerro Azul, Contamana; Rio Maranon; Santa Luisa, Rio Nanay; Yarinacocha, Rio Ucayali.

Hernandez-Camacho and Cooper, 1976

Callicebus moloch discolor

Distribution: Occurs in Amazon rain forest and has recently been collected on the southern bank of the Guamués River, a western tributary of the upper Putumayo. Its local existence in Colombia is limited to the region between the Guamués and the Sucumbios River, the next lower western Putumayo tributary. This population is probably continuous with that along the southern bank of the Putumayo River in Ecuador and Peru and also is provisionally equivalent with the population that occurs with the population that occurs in the trapezium area of the Amazonas Comisaría of Colombia between the Putumayo and Amazon rivers.

Hernandez-Camacho, J. and Cooper, R.W. (1976). The nonhuman primates of Colombia.  Neotropical Primates: Field Studies and Conservation. Pp. 47-49.

Neville et al., 1976

Callicebus moloch

Localities: Mishana, Mayna river, Peru. Reported from the Samiria and Pacaya rivers, but it is possible that they were confused with Callicebus lucifer.

Neville, M.; Castro, N.; Marmól A. and Revilla, J. (1976). Censusing Primate Populations in the Reserved Area of the Pacaya and Samiria Rivers, Department Loreto, Peru. Primates, 17(2): 151-181.

Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus cupreus discolor

Synonyms: Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy, 1848); Callithrix cuprea leucometopa (Cabrera, 1900); Callicebus subrufus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus paenulatus (Elliot, 1909); Callicebus napoleon (Lönnberg, 1922); Callicebus rutteri (Thomas, 1923).

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.