Roosmalen et al., 2002
Moynihan (1976, p.75) mentions the presence of titi monkeys of the moloch group in the close vicinity of the town of Valparaiso, between the Ríos Caquetá and Orteguaza in Colombia. These “lacked the white stripe above the eyes that is typical of both ornatus to the north and discolor to the south,” and Moynihan indicated that they could be an unnamed subspecies.
van Roosmalen, G.M.; van Roosmalen, T. and Mittermeier, R.A. (2002). A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10(Suppl.): 1-52.
Defler et al., 2010
Synonym: Callicebus moloch (Moynihan, 1976).
Type locality: Vereda El Jardín, east of Valparaíso, municipality of Puerto Milan, Department of Caquetá, Colombia (01°8’24.61″N, 75°32’34.04″W, 251 m above sea level).
Distribution: Thirteen groups of Callicebus caquetensis were observed in 11 locations from 190 to 260 m above sea level, in a broad band south of the Río Orteguaza around Valparaíso, south to the Río Caquetá around La Solita. The complete geographic distribution cannot be defined on the basis of the information we have at present, but García was unable to find evidence that it extends west to the Cordillera Oriental. Searches east of Florencia to the Río Caguan gave no indication that the species is found north of the Río Orteguaza. The area east of the known distribution towards the mouth of Río Orteguaza where it meets the Río Caquetá has yet to be surveyed.
Description: Callicebus caquetensis is very similar in color and markings to C. ornatus and C. discolor, though it lacks the white forehead bar of both of those species and the white hands and feet of C. ornatus. Crown from above eyes caudally is a light buffy brown; neck, sides, back and tail are mixed grayish-brown and buffy agouti but often with penciled tail tip on terminal third of tail that is dominantly white and black agouti. The specimen is lightly washed in reddish tones that are absent over the grayish agouti tail; the agouti-colored tail has slight banding proximal to the body. Coloration is sparsely-haired chestnut-red on the ventrum, body, arms, legs and face, extending to dorsal parts of lower arms and lower legs up to the elbows and knees. The reddish also extends to the ventral parts of the neck and onto the cheeks up to the basal parts of the ear, giving the appearance of a red beard. The grayish-brown agouti extends from the back onto the dorsal parts of the arms and legs down to the knees and the elbow, also with some slight reddish washing. Facial skin is darker than the skin on the dorsum, arms and legs, which is pinkish. In place of a white forehead bar (as in C. ornatus and C. discolor) the hairs are white and grey agouti, the tips of the hair being white. Posterior to this zone (corresponding to a forehead band) the agouti pattern becomes buffy-orange and black, replacing the white tips with buffy-orange so that it can be said that there is a very faint band of agouti colored hairs composed of white tips and black bands.
Measurements: see publication.
Remark: Callicebus caquetensis is very similar to C. cupreus (sensu Groves 2005), although it does not have a blackish band on the forehead over the eyes. It is similar to C. discolor (sensu Groves, 2005), although it has no white band across the forehead as does C. discolor. Callicebus caquetensis is phenotypically very similar to Callicebus ornatus (sensu Groves, 2005), but C. ornatus has a white band on the forehead and off-white hands and feet. The crown of the head of C. caquetensis is a light agouti brown down to the eyes, while C. ornatus has first the white band over the eyes and, posteriorly, the crown is darker and contrasting with the lighter grey agouti of the back and sides. Callicebus caquetensis is a darker agouti brown than C. ornatus, which is closer to grey agouti. An area over the eyes, corresponding to the white band over the eyes of C. ornatus, appears lighter due to the appearance of skin showing through the hairs, and due to the white-tipped agouti hairs (which are buffy or brown-tipped posteriorily).
Karyotype: This species has a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 46, composed of 7 pairs of metacentric chromosomes and 15 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes. The X chromosomes are submetacentric and preserve the characteristic banding pattern typical for this chromosome found in various primates, including humans. The karyomorph is very similar to that reported for Callicebus cupreus by Bigoni and Stanyon in O´Brien et al. (2006). The C. cupreus in the Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes was from the Callicebus colony housed at Davis, California, USA, and the animals of that colony are said to have been exported to the United States from Iquitos, Perú (R. Stanyon, pers. comm.; W. A. Mason, pers. comm.). The C. caquetensis (2n = 46) karyotype has homologies with C. discolor (2n = 46) in 21 of the 22 chromosome pairs, differing only by the presence of a very small additional metacentric (8 metacentric pairs) in C. discolor. Comparing the karyotype of C. caquetensis with C. ornatus there are more differences, since C. ornatus has only five metacentric chromosomes, among which there is a very large metacentric pair that is not found in C. caquetensis nor in C. discolor. Additionally, in the analysis of G-bands there are only 17 homologies among the 22 chromosome pairs for C. ornatus as compared to C. caquetensis. A more complete karyotypic description is in preparation.
Defler, T.R.; Bueno, M.L. and García, J. (2010). Callicebus caquetensis: A New and Critically Endangered Titi Monkey from Southern Caquetá, Colombia. Primate Conservation 25: 1–9.
Garcia et al., 2010
Distribution: Nilson Barragán farm (01°08’38.3″N-75°36’00.4″W; 01°08’40.8″N-75°36’43.0″W); Alirio Santanilla farm (01°08’09.4″N-75°35’51.4″W); Hacienda William Cuartas (01°08’17.90″N-75°34’28.5″W); Resbalón Creek (01°06’30.4″N-75°32’42.8″W);Hacienda Moisés Cruz 01°06′ 54.4″N-75°37’27.3″W); Fidelino Peña farm (01° 07’11.0″N-75°38’01.1″W); Vereda la Florida (01°10’07.92″N-75°35’43.86″W); La Solita Creek (0°54’57.42″N-75°39’15.76″W; 0°55’05.2″N-75°39’00.6″W); Yaneth Soto farm (0°54’12.6″N-75°35’31.22″W); Doña Amparo farm (0°55’15.4″N-75°33’34.9″W); Edilberto Suárez farm (0° 54’47.8″N-75°33’36.3″W); Libardo Rojas farm (01°06’24.35″N-75°37’10.82″W; 01°06’12.27″N-75°36’58.80″W); Bello Diamante farm (01°01’13.09″N-75°37’5.26″W); unnamed location (01°01’06.87″N-75°37’1.02″W); Road along a creek, 4 km from Albania to Valparaiso (01°14’23.55″N-75°49’16.16″W); Forest road to Valparaiso (01°13’00.43″N-75°48’29.97″W) and Hacienda Don Félix (01°11’39.84″N-75°50’27.34″W).