Type locality: “Brazil”
Description: Allied to C. cupreus, but much darker in colour; teeth much larger; palate longer and narrower; brain-case wider; space between pterygoid processes and bullae and the width of basioccipital throughout its length greater. Practically the skull is larger in every way and more massive. Mandible longer and heavier and the depth of the ramus greater.
General hue above burnt-umber, the hairs being slaty-grey at base, then annulated with two bands of slate- and two clay-colour, and a dark tip. Face naked, black; top of head a mixed dark ochraceous rufous and black, the black predominating on the forehead; the rump is redder than the back and is a burnt-sienna on the outer side of the limbs; hands and feet claret-brown; sides of head, throat, inner side of limbs, and under parts maroon; basal third of tail black, the hairs being chestnut with broad black tips, rest of tail mixed black and yellowish grey or very pale clay-colour, the underside of tail being almost altogether clay-colour; ears black.
Measurements: Size about the same as C. cupreus.
Skull: occipital region has been cut away; intertemporal width 32mm.; zygomatic width 41; palatal length 21; width between last morals 12; breadth of brain-case 35; length of nasals 9; length of upper molar series 14; length of m¹ 5; length of mandible 42; extreme height of mandible 35; length of lower molar series 17.5.
Remarks: B.M. no. of type: 126.96.36.199. This species is nearest C. cupreus, but is altogether different in colour and darker in all its hues. The skulls are also not at all in accord, the differences mentioned being very conspicuous when they are compared. The unique example has no history beyond the statement that it came from Brazil.
Elliot, D.G. (1907). Descriptions of apparently new species and subspecies of mammals belonging to the families Lemuridae, Cebidae, Callitrichidae, and Cercopithecidae in the collection of the Natural History Museum. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 7 (20): 191-193.
Synonyms: Callicebus ustofuscus (Elliot, 1907).
Type locality: Brazil (British Museum).
Description: Allied to C. cupreus, but much darker. Skull has the teeth much larger; palate longer and narrower; brain-case wider; space between pterygoid processes and bullae, and the width of basioccipital throughout its length, greater. Practically the skull is larger and heavier. Mandible much larger and heavier and the depth of the ramus very much greater.
The general appearance of this animal shows a burnt-umber colour, the hairs having slaty-grey base, and two clay-coloured bands, and a dark tip. Face naked, black; top of head mixed dark ochraceous rufous and black, the black predominating on the forehead; the rump is redder than the back, being somewhat of a burnt-sienna colour; outer side of the limbs, hands and feet claret-brown; sides of head, throat, inner side of limbs, and under parts maroon; Tail for one third the basal length black, the hairs being chestnut with broad black tips; rest of tail mixed black and yellowish grey or very pale clay-colour, the under parts of tail being almost altogether of this colour; ears black.
Measurements: Size about the same as C. cupreus (see original description).
Remarks: This species is nearest to C. cupreus but is altogether different in colour, being darker in all its hues. All that is recorded on the history of the unique example is that it came from Brazil, collected by Castelnau.
Elliot, D.G. (1913). A review of the primates 1: 234-257.
Callicebus cupreus ustofuscus
Synonym: Callicebus usto-fuscus (Elliot, 1907).
Distribution: The locality of the type specimen in the British Museum is not known, except that is was collected in Brazil by Castelnau. The series of the Museu Goeldi was acquired from dealers at Iquitos on the Peruvian Amazon.
Description: Like C. cupreus in external appearance as regards the distribution of colours, but with a much more intense general colouring. Face bar, black. Forehead, as a rule, forming a more or less wide band over the eyebrows, the majority of the hairs having dark tawny rings. Hairs on the top of the head, nape, shoulders, back, outer side of the thighs and upper surface of the base of the tail smoky black with tawny or yellowish rings on the apical half. Sides of the head, chest, front limbs, belly, inner side of hind limbs, outer surface of the lower legs, hands and feet rich claret brown, which recalls wine dregs. Hairs of the tail black and white, the black more or less apparent and the white predominating near the end of the tail. In a series of five specimens in the collection of the museu Goeldi one finds individual differences. A juvenile male specimen of a very intense colouration has the hands and feet almost black, and the basal fifth of the tail appears to be entirely black since the ringed half of the hairs near the base is hidden by the black tip. The intensity of the tawny colour which washes the back, as likewise the length of the tail in relation to the body, varies greatly from specimen to specimen.
Measurements: (Museu Goeldi), largest animal: head and body 330mm; tail 460mm; foot 80mm.
Remarks: Although the description cannot give a perfect idea of the appearance of the animal compared with its congeners, the difference is well marked even within the individual variation. Elliot points out further as specific differences from C. cupreus the much larger teeth, the longer and narrower palate, the wider brain case, the wider space between the pterygoid processes and bullae, the greater width of basioccipital throughout its length, the skull being in every way larger and more massive, and the larger and heavier mandible with the depth of the ramus very much greater.
Cruz-Lima, E. da (1945). Mammals of Amazonia Vol. 1. General introduction and primates pp. 175-198.
Callicebus cupreus ustofuscus
Synonym: Callicebus ustofuscus (Elliot, 1917).
Distribution: Peru (Iquitos); Brazil: lower Solimoes.
Vieira, C. da C. (1955). Lista remissiva dos mamiferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 8 (10): 375-379.
Callicebus cupreus cupreus
Synonyms: Callithrix cuprea (Spix, 1823); Cebus cupreus (Fischer, 1829); Saguinus moloch variation (Lesson, 1840); Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy, 1848); Callicebus ustofuscus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus cupreus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus paenulatus (Elliot, 1909); Callicebus cupreus cupreus (Cruz Lima, 1945); Callicebus cupreus ustofuscus (Cruz Lima, 1945); Callicebus cupreus paenulatus (Cruz Lima, 1945).
Remarks: Given that the pelage of the monkeys of this genus always has shows some individual variation, it does not appear that C. ustofuscus of Elliot, based on only one specimen without locality more precise than “Brazil”, can be separated by its darker colour of the more common typical cupreus.
Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.
Callicebus cupreus ustofuscus
Type locality: “Brazil”. According to Lima, all known specimens are from the vicinity of Iquitos, Peru, from whence also the same author records specimens identified as leucometopus. Type in British Museum.
Distribution: Vicinity of Iquitos, north-eastern Peru, and the lower Solimoes in Brazil. Therefore, probably, only an individual variant of leucometopus.
Description: Forehead with black band succeeded by whitish bar as in leucometopus, but general colour of upper parts more intense than in cupreus. Crown, nape, shoulders, back and lateral aspect of thighs, also upper surface of base of tail, smoky black with tawny or yellowish annulations on distal half of individual hairs. Sides of head, ears, chest, forearms, belly, medial aspect of thighs and whole of legs below knees, also hands and feet, rich claret-brown. Hairs of main part of tail ringed black and white, the white becoming predominant towards end of tail. Intensity of tawny annulations individually variable (Lima).
Lima, who finds some individual variation in a series of five skins, of this race, describes a juvenile male as having almost black hands and feet, and the basal one-fifth of the tail wholly black, due to the black tips obscuring the paler basal annulations.
Measurements: adult female in Pará Museum: head and body 330mm; tail 460mm; foot 80mm. Proportionate length of tail individually variable.
Skull: see remarks in publication.
Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy 4 (A): 98-147.
Callicebus moloch cupreus
Synonyms: Callithrix cuprea (Spix, 1823); Callicebus cupreus (Ihering, 1904); Callicebus cupreus cupreus (Cruz Lima, 1944); Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842); Callicebus caligatus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus usto-fuscus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus cupreus usto-fuscus (Cruz Lima, 1945); Callicebus egeria (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus cupreus egeria (Lönnberg, 1939); Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy, 1851 –part: not 1848, 1852).
The type of Callicebus ustofuscus from “Brazil” was collected by Castelnau and its description applies only to cupreus. The individual depicted in vivid reds by Cruz Lima as representative of ustofuscus is also undoubted cupreus. Hill (1960) describes under the name Callicebus cupreus ustofuscus an animal having “forehead with black band succeeded by whitish bar as in leucometopus (= discolor)”. On the facing page he presents a photograph captioned Callicebus cupreus of a different titi with broad black frontal band extending onto the crown. Hill notes that the type of ustofuscus is in the British Museum but his account of the animal is ostensibly derived from Cruz Lima who only speculated on the true nature of a specimen he never saw. Plates 1 and 2 poses of the same individual figured by Hill as ustofuscus. The animal lived in 1952 in the zoological park of the New York Zoological Society. Its colour pattern is that of cupreus but the precise colouration cannot be determined from the photograph. The hands appear to be grey while in true cupreus they are reddish.
Synonyms: Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842); Callicebus caligatus (Thomas, 1908); Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866); Callicebus usto-fuscus (Elliot, 1907).
Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.
Synonyms: Callithrix cuprea (Spix, 1823); Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842); Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy and Deville, 1848); Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866); Callithrix cuprea leucometopus (Cabrera, 1900); Callicebus subrufus (1907); Callicebus ustofuscus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus egeria (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus paenulatus (Elliot, 1909); Callicebus toppinii (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus cupreus napoleon (Lönnberg, 1922); Callicebus rutteri (Thomas, 1923); Callicebus cupreus acreanus (Vieira, 1952) and Callicebus dubius (Hershkovitz, 1988).