Type: Adult female. B.M. no. 14. 3. 3. 3. Collected and presented by Capt. II. S. Toppin.
Habitat: Rio Tahuamanu, N.E. Peru, near the Bolivian Boundary about 12° 20′ S., 6b° 45′ W.
Description: Allied to and of the same grizzled brown colour as C. cupreus. Crown-hairs similarly tipped with buffy, but along the front edge of the hairy part of the forehead the hairs are black, thus forming an indistinct blackish frontal band. Belly and terminal part of limbs red, as in cupreus, but on the hind legs the red is rather more extended, coming up to cover the knee. Hairs on ears dark reddish brown, tail hairs mixed grey and blackish, as in cupreus, but those on the proximal two-thirds are tipped with black, not with white or buffy as in the other species of this group.
Skull: Greatest length 65-6 mm; basal length 50; breadth of brain-case 35-5; premolars and molars together 15.2.
Remarks: From all the members of the group with reddish ears this species may be distinguished by the dark tips to its caudal hairs. C. cupreus has also no black hairs on the forehead, while C. usto-fuscus, which is darker throughout, has many more. C. paenulatus has an elongated mantle, paler than the rest of the back.
Thomas, O. (1914). New Callicebus and Eumops from S. America. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8) 13:480.
Callicebus cupreus toppini
Synonyms: Callithrix cuprea (Goeldi, 1904); Callicebus toppini (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus cupreus acreanus (Cruz Lima, 1945).
Distribution: South-eastern Peru, in the part adjacent of the Acre territory of Brasil and Bolivia and including these territories.
Remarks: In the original description of the locality of the type there is a mistake that can cause confusion. The Tahuamanu River is not in the North-east, as indicated, and fortunately the exact coordinates have also been given.
Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.
Callicebus cupreus acreanus
Callicebus cupreus toppinii
Synonym: Callicebus toppinii (Thomas 1914).
Type locality: Rio Tahuamanu, south-eastern Peru, near Bolivian border. Type in British Museum.
Distribution: Known only from the type locality.
Description: Allied to cupreus and ustofuscus, having the same grizzled brown upper parts and crown-hairs similarly tipped with buff; a thin black superciliary fringe as in ustofuscus. Ears with red-brown hairs, but toppini is distinguished from all other races with red-haired ears in having dark tips to caudal hairs. Lacking the elongated pale mantle of paenulatus.
Under parts red as in typical cupreus, a trifle lighter than in ustofuscus, but on hind-limbs rufous area more extended, covering the knee and a little proximal thereto. Tail hairs grey mixed with black, but on proximal two-thirds hairs are black tipped, lacking the whitish or buffish tips of cupreus.
Skull: see measurements in publication.
Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy 4 (A): 98-147.
Callicebus moloch brunneus
Synonyms: Callithrix brunnea (Wagner, 1842); Callithrix brunnea (Wagner, 1848); Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866), Callicebus toppini (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus olallae (Lönnberg, 1939); Callicebus modestus (Lönnberg, 1939); Callicebus cupreus acreanus (Vieira, 1952); Callithrix cuprea (Goeldi and Hagman, 1904); Callicebus caligatus (Osgood – not Wagner -, 1916).
Remarks: the original description of castaneoventris, toppini, olallae, modestus and acreanus, all from the same general area, are based on vague comparisons with cupreus only. No mention was made of other related forms although Lönnberg did attempt to distinguish his modestus from his olallae described in the same paper. It is not surprising therefore, that all should prove equally distinct from cupreus and equal to each other, or brunneus, the oldest available name.
Cabrera (1958) sank acreanus in the synonymy of toppini, where it undoubtly belongs except that brunneus is the prior name for the titis of this region.
Cameron et al., 1989
Callicebus cupreus cupreus
Locality: Bolivia, the area bordered by 69° W, the rio Tahuamanu and the borders of Peru and Brazil.
Remarks: This titi was formerly considered as a subspecies of C. moloch, but it has recently been elevated to full species status, and represents the nominate subspecies, C. cupreus cupreus.
Cameron, R.; Wiltshire, C.; Foley, C.; Dougherty, N. Aramayo, X. and Rea, L. (1989). Goeldi’s Monkey and other primates in northern Bolivia. Primate Conservation 10: 62-70.
Callicebus cupreus cupreus
Synonyms: Callithrix cuprea (Spix, 1823); Callicebus egeria (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus toppini (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus acreanus (Vieira, 1952); Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy, 1851 – part).
Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.
Callicebus sp. with dark brown back???
Locality: between the Río Acre and the Río Nareuda (the latter being an affluent of the Río Tahuamanu), Pando, Bolivia.
Christen, A. (1999). Survey of Goeldi’s Monkeys (Callimico goeldii) in Northern Bolivia. Folia Primatologica 70: 107–111.
Synonyms: Callithrix cuprea (Spix, 1823); Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842); Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy and Deville, 1848); Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866); Callithrix cuprea leucometopus (Cabrera, 1900); Callicebus subrufus (1907); Callicebus ustofuscus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus egeria (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus paenulatus (Elliot, 1909); Callicebus toppinii (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus cupreus napoleon (Lönnberg, 1922); Callicebus rutteri (Thomas, 1923); Callicebus cupreus acreanus (Vieira, 1952) and Callicebus dubius (Hershkovitz, 1988).
Martinez and Wallace, 2013
Locality: Australia community (12°47’22.79”S, 66°31’19.29” W) located in Amazonian forest on the road from Puerto Teresa to Riberalta; El Rosario (11°51’44.72” S, 66°19’42.71” W).
Description: At Australia we observed only one of the six groups detected. The two adults in this group showed a dark grayish brown fur dorsally and dark tails with a conspicuous white zone near the tip. The face was dark with no ear tufts present and the hair on the forehead had a blackish coloration distinguishable from the rest of the head. The hands were covered with blackish hairs differentiating them from the arms that had a similar color as the body. The pelage color of these individuals is totally different from the endemic titi monkeys but similar to the already observed Callicebus sp. at El Rosario (Martinez and Wallace 2007), the descriptions of Rowe & Martinez (2003) in northern Beni Department, and observations in northwestern Pando Department (L. Porter, pers. comm. 2008), suggesting that this species does indeed inhabit the majority of Amazonian forests of northern Bolivia (Martinez & Wallace 2010).Unfortunately, we were unable to obtain photographic or video material during this encounter.
Remarks: Currently the identity of this last species remains uncertain (Wallace et al. 2006, Martinez and Wallace 2010). Previous Callicebus taxonomic revisions reported C. brunneus (Hershkovitz 1990, Anderson 1997) or C. dubius (Van Roosmalen et al. 2002, Salazar–Bravo et al. 2003) as the expected titi monkey form in the northern Amazonian forests of Bolivia. However, the descriptions presented above do not correspond to either C. brunneus (Vermeer 2009) or C. dubius (van Roosmalen et al. 2002) and as such probably represents a different species (Martínez and Wallace 2010), possibly Callicebus toppini, known from locations north of the Madre de Dios River in neighboring southeastern Peru (Thomas 1914, R. Wallace unpubl. data).
Martínez, J. and Wallace, R.B. (2013). New information about the distribution of Callicebus (Pithecidae, Primates) in northern Beni Department, Bolivia. Ecología en Bolivia 48(1): 57-62.