Literature egeria

Thomas, 1908

Callicebus egeria

Type locality: Teffé, Middle Amazons.

Description: General colouration quite as in C. cupreus, but the crown of the head, instead of being distinctly more fulvous or ferruginous than the back, is less so, being a clear grizzled grey, without even the suffusion of rufous which occurs in both species on the back. Skull distinguished by its extreme narrow interorbital space and nasal opening, which is decidedly less broad than high, the converse being the case in C. cupreus.

Measurements: Head and body 330mm; tail 430mm; hind foot 84mm.

Skull: greatest length 63; interorbital length 5; mastoid breadth 37; nasal opening 6.5×5; length of premolar-molar series 15.3.

Type: slightly immature male. British Museum no. 8.5.9.10.

Remarks: The museum specimens of C. cupreus, coming from the Upper Pastasa River, the Ucayali, and the Jurua, all agree in having the crown of the head distinctively more fulvous or reddish than the back, and this agrees with the description by Spix of his cupreus (type-locality Peruvian Amazons), while the Ucayali specimens (collected by Bartlett near Sarayacu) may be taken as topotypes of Geoffroy’s discolor, usually and rightly considered as a synonym of Spix’s name. On the other hand, the specimen obtained by Bates at Ega, often mentioned in literature as being C. cupreus, essentially agreees in its greyer crown and narrow nares with that now again obtained in the same district by Mr. Hoffmanns.


Elliot, 1913

Callicebus egeria

Synonym: Callicebus egeria (Thomas, 1908).

Type locality: Teffé, Middle Amazon, Brazil (British Museum).

Description: Top of head grizzled grey; neck and upper parts grizzled greyish brown; arms from elbows, legs from below knees, and feet a rather dark burnt sienna hue; hands like feet but the fingers greyish with a rufous wash; arms above elbows, and legs above knees, grizzled greyish brown like back; cheeks, throat, and under parts with under side of limbs, dark burnt sienna; tail grizzled grey and black, darkest on basal third.

Measurements: Total length, 760mm; tail, 430mm; hind foot, 84mm.

Skull: occipito-nasal length, 67.4 ; Hensel, 48.6 ; zygomatic width, 46.7 ; palatal length, 27.9; median length of nasals, 17.4; length of upper molar series, 14.8; length of mandible, 47.1; length of lower molar series,16.

Remark: The type is a young adult male, paler in general coloration than C. cupreus to which it bears the closest resemblance, but differs in its grey crown.

Elliot, D.G. (1913). A review of the primates 1: 234-257.

Thomas, 1928a

Callicebus cupreus

A series collected by Ehrhardt in the typical region of the Solimoes shows that the colour of the crown is so variable – rufous or grey – that C. egeria should probably be united with C. cupreus. The cranial differences described in C. egeria do not prove to be as constant as was supposed.

Thomas, O. (1928a). The Godman-Thomas Expedition to Peru. – VII. The mammals of the Rio Ucayali.  Annals and Magazine of Natural History (10) 2: 253-254.

Lönnberg, 1939

Callicebus cupreus egeria

Locality: The Stockholm Museum has 2 specimens from Rio Purus, Jaburu.

Description: These two specimens evidently belong to the cupreus-group, but differ most decidedly from the rich material, mentioned above, by lacking the for cupreus characteristic rufous colour as well on the crown of the head as on the back (conf. also cranial characters mentioned in this publication). The hairs of the crown are in the male ringed dirty whitish, and in the female with dirty yellowish white. The colour of the back is greyish brown, because the hairs are also there ringed with dirty whitish. The tail of the female is greyish brown scantily grizzled with dirty whitish tips to some of the hairs. The tail of the male is in the distal half more dirty greyish by means of longer, greyish white tips. The whiskers, the lower side of the body, and the limbs below the elbow and knee are rufous as in C. cupreus, although not so saturated as in the majority of the typical ones of that species.

Collectors’ measurements: Male: total length 805mm; tail 480mm; hind foot 95mm. Female: total length 700mm; tail 430mm; hind foot 85mm.

Skull: measurements and description of 2 individuals in publication.

Remarks: The absence of any rufous on the upper parts, as well as of the head as of the back, proves that these specimens cannot be referred to C. cupreus s. str. although they in other respects resemble that species rather closely. They agree on the other hand with C. egeria. For this identification speaks not only the colour pattern of the head and back, but also some characteristics of the skull mentioned by Thomas. In any case it appears most convenient to consider these specimens together with the type of C. egeria as belonging to a subspecies of C. cupreus. According to our present knowledge the area of distribution of this subspecies should then extend from the left side of the Rio Purus (Jaburu) westwards to Rio Teffe.

In the majority of the specimens of C. caligatus in this collection the general colour of the back is rather dark rufous brown, the specimens from Itaboca, left side of the Rio Purus, are more greyish brown, because the pale rings of the hairs are mostly buffish white, and the other parts less blackish than in the specimens from other localities. It is of a certain interest to state that there thus is a striking resemblance in the general colour between these specimens of C. caligatus and the egeria-race of C. cupreus from the same side of the river mentioned. A young female from this locality could almost be suspected to be a hybrid between the two forms mentioned, because the black markings of the species are much reduced, and the hands and fingers are entirely greyish brown. It is, however, probably that this is only juvenile features, to judge from the great interorbital breadth and the shape of the nares which are typical for C. caligatus.

Lönnberg, E. (1939). Notes on some members of the genus Callicebus. Arkiv för Zoologi 31 (13):1-18.

Cruz Lima, 1945egeria

Callicebus cupreus egeria

Synonym: Callicebus egeria (Thomas, 1908).

Distribution: It has been found to date at Tefé and about four degrees to the south but almost of the same meridian at Sao Luiz do Mamoria on the Purus River (Museu Goeldi), the two localities being in the region bounded by the Amazon and its affluents the Jurua and Purus. From the Purus (Jaburu) can also specimens belonging to the Stockholm Museum.

Description: Face bare, black, with rare long stiff hairs around the mouth. Hairs on the forehead and top of the head dark greyish brown, ringed and tipped with yellowish white, the whole having a grizzled-greyish appearance. Nape, shoulders, outer third of the upper part of the forelimbs, back, flanks, outer surface of thighs, loins and base of tail above with hairs that have a more or less dark greyish-brown basal portion and the apical portion ringed with light ochraceous, washed with tawny, principally along the spinal column. Sides of the head to the chin an orange copper red colour, which forms a collar, and the same colour is present on the throat, under parts, inner side of the limbs, outer surface of the forearms and remainder of the arms, legs, and underside of base of tail. Hands and feet of the same colour, with the fingers yellowish white, the same hue appearing to a less extent on the toes. Hairs of the rest of the tail with light yellowish-white basal and apical sections; the intermediate section is dull brownish black, this portion becoming smaller as one approaches the end of the tail, where it disappears almost completely.

Measurements: (Museu Goeldi), largest animal: head and body 330mm; tail 400mm; foot 90mm.

Remarks: Type in the British Museum.

One could also apply to this form the observations of I. Geoffroy mentioned above in relation to C. cupreus subrufus as the colouring of the head and of the fingers, but Thomas considers the specimen collected by Bates at the same locality and referred to by the authors as C. cupreus as belonging to the form under study. Furthermore, he gives as its cranial characteristics an extremely narrow interorbital space and a nasal opening which is higher than its wide, just the opposite of those of C. cupreus. The description we gave above and which agrees very satisfactorily with the description of the type, not only as stated by the author but also with that given by Elliot, was based on an adult specimen from the Museu Goeldi collection, from Sao Luiz do Mamoria on the Purus River, whose skull also exhibits the characteristics described by Thomas. Because of the perfect agreement of the characteristics of all the specimens, the subspecies seems to us valid, in spite of the small number of specimens examined in a group whose individual variability is so great.

Cruz-Lima, E. da (1945). Mammals of Amazonia Vol. 1. General introduction and primates pp. 175-198.

Vieira, 1955

Callicebus cupreus egeria

Synonym: Callicebus egeria (Thomas, 1908).

Distribution: Amazonas (Jaburu; Sao Luis de Mamoria, Rio Purus).

Vieira, C. da C. (1955). Lista remissiva dos mamiferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 8 (10): 375-379.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus cupreus egeria

Synonyms: Callicebus egeria (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus cupreus egeria (Lönnberg, 1939).

Distribution: West of Brazil, in the river-basin of the Solimoes, probably between the mouth of the Putumayo and the Purua.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus cupreus egeria

Type locality: Tefé, south bank of Rio Solimoes, Amazonas, Brazil. Type in British Museum.

Distribution: Recorded from Tefé (by Bates and Hoffmanns, fide Thomas) and extending about 4º south on the same meridian at Sao Luis do Mamoria on the Rio Purus. Lönnberg also describes specimens from Jaburu on the Rio Purus. Range thus appears restricted to area bounded on north by the Amazon, on east by the Rio Purus and on west by the Rio Jurua.

Description: Allowing for the juvenility if the type, there is little to distinguish this from typical cupreus, except for the more greenish tinge of the crown. Forehead and crown dark greyish-brown, the hairs ringed and tipped with yellowish-white, giving grizzled greyish-green appearance like crown of ornatus. Nape, shoulders, upper part of fore-limbs (laterally), back, flanks, lateral aspect of thighs, loins and base of tail above with hairs greyish-brown basally and ringed with light ochraceous washed with tawny, especially along vertebral line. Sides of head, chin, throat, under parts and medial aspects of limbs, and under surface of base of tail bright orange coppery-red. Hands and feet coppery, with a few lighter hairs intermixed, the fingers yellowish-white, toes rather less distinctly paler. Remainder of tail with hairs light yellowish at base and apex, but with dull brownish-black intermediate band, this band becoming reduced towards tip of tail, where it finally disappears.

Measurements: head and body 3300mm; tail 400mm; foot 90mm.

Skull: see remarks in publication.

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Hershkovitz, 1988

Callicebus cupreus egeria

Remarks: Spread of the prototypical C. cupreus to its present eastern boundary along the west bank of the Río Purús is evidently recent. Differentiation of the populations between the Río Juruá and Purús is slight, but additional material, not now available for comparison, may prove the difference significant. The name Callicebus cupreus egeria is available for the titis between the Ríos Purús and Juruá.

Hershkovitz, P. (1988) Origin, Speciation, and Distribution of South American Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus (Family Cebidae, Platyrrhini), by Philip Hershkovitz . Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 140 (1): 240-272.

Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus cupreus cupreus

Synonyms: Callithrix cuprea (Spix, 1823); Callicebus egeria (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus toppini (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus acreanus (Vieira, 1952); Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy, 1851 – part).

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus cupreus

Synonyms: Callithrix cuprea (Spix, 1823); Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842); Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy and Deville, 1848); Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866); Callithrix cuprea leucometopus (Cabrera, 1900); Callicebus subrufus (1907); Callicebus ustofuscus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus egeria (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus paenulatus (Elliot, 1909); Callicebus toppinii (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus cupreus napoleon (Lönnberg, 1922); Callicebus rutteri (Thomas, 1923); Callicebus cupreus acreanus (Vieira, 1952) and Callicebus dubius (Hershkovitz, 1988).