Literature castaneoventris

Gray, 1866

Callithrix castaneoventris n. sp.

Habitat: Brazils.

Description: Fur dark blackish grey, minutely punctuated with grey; outside of limbs reddish-washed; forehead, hands, and feet black; whiskers, throat, chest, belly, and inside of the limbs dark-red chestnut; tail black, tip washed with white; hair of tail black the whole length, except near the end, where the tips of the hairs are white.

Gray, J.E. (1866). Notice of some new species of Callithrix in the collection of the British Museum. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (3) 17: 57-58.

Gray, 1870

Callithrix castaneoventris

Synonyms: Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866); ?Callithrix caligata (Natterer, Wagner, 1843).

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Fur dark, blackish grey, minutely annulated with grey; outside of the limbs reddish-washed; forehead, hands, and feet black; whiskers, throat and chest, belly, and inside of the limbs dark-red chestnut; tail black, tip whitish-washed; hairs of tail black to the base.

Remarks: see Miriquouina, Azara; Simia azarae (Humboldt, 1812); Pithecia miriquouina (Kuhl, 1820). Red beneath, with black hands; Paraguay.

Gray, J.E. (1870). Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats in the collection of the British Museum pp. 54-57.

Schlegel, 1876

Callithrix caligata

Synonyms: Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842, 1848); C. castaneo-ventris (Gray, 1866, 1870).

Schlegel, H. (1876). Les singes, Simia. Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Pays-Bas 12 :230-241.


Forbes, 1896

Callithrix castaneiventris

Synonyms: Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866, 1870); Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842; Schlegel, 1876).

Distribution: Paraguay and Brazil; Borba, Rio Madeira.

Description: Fur of the same nature as in C. cuprea, black, ringed with grey; face grizzled, whiskers, throat, chest, under side of the body, and inner surface of the limbs reddish-chestnut; outside of the limbs grizzled, washed with rufous; forehead, hands, feet, and tail black; tip of the tail paler.

Forbes, H.O. (1896). A Handbook of the Primates pp. 159-165.

Meerwarth, 1897

Callithrix caligata

Synonym: Callithrix castaneiventris

Distribution: Rio Madeira.

Description: Under and upper side different colours. The under side is vivid coppery or pallid red. Tail with long hairs at the base. Throat and ventral side, sides of the head, inner sides of the limbs, and in some cases also the outer sides an intense coppery. Resembles much cuprea, but has a black line on the front, which connects the ears; hands dark; reddish colour less intense on the sides of the limbs.

Remarks: I agree with Forbes to reunite calagata with castaneiventris.

Meerwarth, H. (1897-1898). Simios (macacos) do novo mundo. Boletin do Museo Paraense de Historia Natural y Etn. 2: 121-154.

Trouessart, 1898-1899

Callithrix caligata

Synonyms: caligata (Wagner, 1842, 1855; Schlegel, 1876; Pelzeln, 1883); castaneoventris (Gray, 1866).

Distribution: Amazonia, Rio Madeira, Borba; Paraguay.

Trouessart, E.L. (1898-1899). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium 1: 44-46.

Thomas, 1908

Callicebus castaneoventris

Remarks: In Mr. Hoffmann’s collection there are two examples of Callicebus caligatus, Wagner, from Humayta, Rio Madeira, some 200 miles further up the river than the type-locality, Borba. These specimens indicate that C. castaneoventris Gray may be distinguished from C. caligatus, with which it is usually synonymized, by its darker colour and broader interorbital space.

Thomas, O. (1908). Four new Amazonian monkeys. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8) 2: 88-90.

Elliot, 1913

Callicebus caligatus

Synonyms: Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842, 1855; Reichenbach, 1862; Schlegel, 1876); C. castaneo-ventris (Gray, 1866, 1870; von Pelzeln, 1883, Forbes, 1894).

Elliot, D.G. (1913). A review of the primates 1: 234-257.

Cruz Lima, 1945

Callicebus caligatus

Synonyms: Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842); Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866).

Cruz-Lima, E. da (1945). Mammals of Amazonia Vol. 1. General introduction and primates pp. 175-198.

Vieira, 1955

Callicebus caligatus

Synonyms: Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842); Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866).

Vieira, C. da C. (1955). Lista remissiva dos mamiferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 8 (10): 375-379.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus cupreus caligatus

Synonyms: Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842); Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866); Callicebus caligatus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus castaneoventris (Thomas, 1908).

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus cupreus caligatus

Synonym: Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866).

Type locality of castaneoventris is “Brazil”. Cotypes in British Museum, labelled as from “Orinico”.

Remarks: Thomas (1908), contrary to earlier opinions, argued on basis of material from Humaita for the separation of Gray’s castaneoventris chiefly on the grounds of darker colouration and a broader interorbital septum, but no recent writer has followed him.


Hershkovitz, 1963

Callicebus moloch cupreus

Synonyms: Callithrix cuprea (Spix, 1823); Callicebus cupreus (Ihering, 1904); Callicebus cupreus cupreus (Cruz Lima, 1944); Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842); Callicebus caligatus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus usto-fuscus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus cupreus usto-fuscus (Cruz Lima, 1945); Callicebus egeria (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus cupreus egeria (Lönnberg, 1939); Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy, 1851 –part: not 1848, 1852).


Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus caligatus

Synonyms: Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842); Callicebus caligatus (Thomas, 1908); Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866); Callicebus usto-fuscus (Elliot, 1907).

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus cupreus

Synonyms: Callithrix cuprea (Spix, 1823); Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842); Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy and Deville, 1848); Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866); Callithrix cuprea leucometopus (Cabrera, 1900); Callicebus subrufus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus ustofuscus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus egeria (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus paenulatus (Elliot, 1909); Callicebus toppinii (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus cupreus napoleon (Lönnberg, 1922); Callicebus rutteri (Thomas, 1923); Callicebus cupreus acreanus (Vieira, 1952) and Callicebus dubius (Hershkovitz, 1988).