Literature caligatus

Wagner, 1842

Callithrix caligata

Distribution: Borba and Rio Solimoes.

Description: diluted dark Callithrix, hairs of dorsum with black and yellowish rings, ventrum coppery-red; hands and forehead black.

Measurements: head and body 312mm; tail 362mm.

Wagner, J.A. (1842). Diagnosen neuer Arten brasilischen Säugthiere. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 8(1): 356-357.

Lesson, 1848

Callithrix caligata

Distribution: district of Borba and banks of Solimoes.

Description: front and upper part of the head and the hands black, the body pale brownish and the cheeks coppery.

Lesson, R.P. (1848). Etudes sur les Mammifères Primates. Revue Zoologique par la Societé Cuvierienne 11:232-233.

Wagner, 1848

Callithrix caligata

Synonym: Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842).

Localities: one specimen is from Borba on the Madeira River, not far from its confluence with the Amazon; the other is from the Solimoes River.

Description: the Callithrix caligata is as much related to C. cuprea, as C. nigrifrons is to C. Gigot. It has the same size as C. cuprea; the cheeks, underside and limbs are also rusty coppery-red, the colour of the back is the same or has more red, but the C. caligata differs in having the whole forehead shiny black, becoming foxy at the back, while in C. cuprea the forehead and back of the head have the same colour. While further in C. cuprea the four hands are covered with dark coppery-red hairs, in C. caligata these are black mixed with a few brownish-yellow hairs.
The back and part of the outer sides of the limbs are shiny rusty-red-brown. The cheeks, the sparsely haired underside, the inner- and anterior side of the forelimbs, the inner- and backside of the legs with the exception of the lower leg are rusty-coppery-red. The hairs on the outer side have a dark rusty-brown base, then indistinctly annulated rusty-red and black, while the annulation is very marked in C. cuprea. The ringing is the most conspicuous on the area of the knee and the forearms. The whole forehead is covered with a shiny black band of an inch wide, its hairs are directed backwards, and becomes at the back foxy because of thin rusty-brown rings on the hairs.
The hairs on the back of the head are annulated rusty-yellow and black, the light colour dominates. The four hands are covered with black hairs, mixed with some rusty-yellowish hairs. The ears are naked, on the inner side with some dirty-white hairs. The tail is speckled dirty yellowish-white and black, the whitish hairs having black rings. These rings become smaller and disappear at the end, making the larger half of the tail uniform yellow-white. Face, ears and soles are black, covered with blackish hairs and around the lips with dirty-whitish hairs.

Measurements: head and body 312mm; tail 362mm.

Remarks: As C. caligata was found in the neighbourhood of C. cuprea, more field research is needed to show if there are transitional animals between both species or that they clearly live seperately from each other.

Wagner, J.A. (1848). Callithrix. Springaffe. Beitrage zur kenntniss der Säugthiere Amerikas Abhandlungen des Königl. Akademie des Wissenschaften München 5: 446-457.

Wagner, 1855

Callithrix caligata

Synonyms: Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842, 1848).

Locality: Borba, near the mouth of the Rio Madeira; Rio Solimoes.

Description: Natterer has brought 2 specimens of this species, of which I will describe one. The back and a part of the outer sides of the limbs are shiny rusty red-brown. The cheeks, the sparsely haired under side, the inner side and fore side of the arms, the inner side and back side of the legs and the lower legs are rusty coppery-red. The hairs of the outer sides are at the base dark red-brown, the vague rusty-red and black annulated, while in C. cuprea these annulations is very marked. Most marked is the ringing in the area around the knees and on the arms. The forehead is covered with a black band of black hairs, about one thumb wide; behind this band the hairs are rusty-brown ringed, making a variegated hue. The hairs of the back of the head are annulated rusty-yellow and black, the light colour being dominant. The 4 hands are covered with black hairs, mixed with some rusty-yellow hairs. The outer sides of the ears are naked, on the inner side there are some dirty white hairs. The tail is at the base a mixed black with dirty yellowish-white, the white hairs having a black ring in the middle. Those rings become paler and disappear, making the tail at the larger terminal half uniform yellowish-white. Face, ears and soles are black.

Measurements: head and body 313mm; tail 363mm.

Remarks: The C. caligata is as much related to C. cuprea as C. nigrifrons is to C. Gigot. It has the same size; the cheeks, under side and limbs are also vivid rusty coppery-red, the colour of the back is the same or more reddish, but the C. caligata differs in that the front of the head is shiny black, while in C. cuprea the colour of the front is the same as the rest of the head. Further in C. cuprea the 4 hands are dark coppery-red, while these are in C. caligata black, mixed with brownish-yellow hairs.

Wagner, J. A. (1855). Schreber, die Saugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband, Fünfte Abtheilung : Die Affen. 

Reichenbach, 1862caligatus 9x13

Callithrix caligata

Synonyms: Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842).

Distribution: Borba, Rio Madeo, Rio Solimoes, Brazil.

Description: foxy-red, forehead and skull shiny black with a grey band in-between. Hairs on body and legs with white-grey tips, tail from foxy-red base to whitish, all hands black-grey.

Measurements: head and body 313mm; tail 395mm.

Reichenbach, 1862. Die Vollständigiste Naturgeschichte der Affen.

Gray, 1870

Callithrix castaneoventris

Synonyms: Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866); ?Callithrix caligata (Natterer, Wagner, 1843).

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Fur dark, blackish grey, minutely annulated with grey; outside of the limbs reddish-washed; forehead, hands, and feet black; whiskers, throat and chest, belly, and inside of the limbs dark-red chestnut; tail black, tip whitish-washed; hairs of tail black to the base.

Remarks: see Miriquouina, Azara; Simia azarae (Humboldt, 1812); Pithecia miriquouina (Kuhl, 1820). Red beneath, with black hands; Paraguay.

Gray, J.E. (1870). Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats in the collection of the British Museum pp. 54-57.

Schlegel, 1876

Callithrix caligata

Synonym: Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842, 1848); C. castaneo-ventris (Gray, 1866, 1870).

Distribution: Natterer discovered this species on the borders of the Rio Madeira, and has obtained an individual near its mouth. Another specimen near Borba. Spix doesn’t mention this species and probably confused it with C. cuprea, as he sent us a specimen of C. caligata under that name.

Description: This monkey, although closely related to Callithrix cuprea distinguished itself by its black front between the ears, by the red of the four hands drawing towards black, and finally by the more extending red of the external part of the limbs.

The Leiden Museum has one specimen with 4 black hands, from the voyage of Spix, of the Solimoes. Another specimen, also from the Solimoes, has her four hands coppery-red-black.

Schlegel, H. (1876). Les singes, Simia. Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Pays-Bas 12 :230-241.

Von Pelzen, 1883

Callithrix caligata

Synonyms: Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842, 1848. 1855; Schlegel, 1876).

Distribution: Borba; Manaqueri on the Rio Solimoes.

Description: Under parts rustcoloured, tail dirty white, further like Callithrix brunnea.
One from H. Parreys in 1840 bought specimen (South-America) differs from C. caligata by a white band on the forehead, the behind of the head is reddish, the upperparts are somewhat dark and hardly one third of the tail is whitish; it differs from C. cuprea Spix only be the white frontal band. It agrees generally with C. ornatus Gray, but differs by the red, and not grey, hands and foot and by the colouration of the tail.

Pelzen, A. von (1883). Brasilische Säugethiere pp. 19-20.

Jentink, 1892

Callithrix caligata

Remarks: the Leiden museum has two individuals:

– an adult individual, from the Solimoes, from the collections of Spix;
– an adult female, from the Solimoes.

Jentink, F.A. (1892). Catalogue systématique des mammifères (singes, carnivores, ruminants, pachydermes, sirènes et cétacés). Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle des Pays Bas 11: 51-53.

Forbes, 1896

Callithrix castaneiventris

Synonyms: Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866, 1870); Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842; Schlegel, 1876).

Distribution: Paraguay and Brazil; Borba, Rio Madeira.

Description: Fur of the same nature as in C. cuprea, black, ringed with grey; face grizzled, whiskers, throat, chest, under side of the body, and inner surface of the limbs reddish-chestnut; outside of the limbs grizzled, washed with rufous; forehead, hands, feet, and tail black; tip of the tail paler.

Forbes, H.O. (1896). A Handbook of the Primates pp. 159-165.

Meerwarth, 1897

Callithrix caligata

Synonym: Callithrix castaneiventris

Distribution: Rio Madeira.

Description: Under and upper side different colours. The under side is vivid coppery or pallid red. Tail with long hairs at the base. Throat and ventral side, sides of the head, inner sides of the limbs, and in some cases also the outer sides an intense coppery. Resembles much cuprea, but has a black line on the front, which connects the ears; hands dark; reddish colour less intense on the sides of the limbs.

Remarks: I agree with Forbes to reunite calagata with castaneiventris.

Meerwarth, H. (1897-1898). Simios (macacos) do novo mundo. Boletin do Museo Paraense de Historia Natural y Etn. 2: 121-154.

Trouessart, 1898-1899

Callithrix caligata

Synonyms: caligata (Wagner, 1842, 1855; Schlegel, 1876; Pelzeln, 1883); castaneoventris (Gray, 1866).

Distribution: Amazonia, Rio Madeira, Borba; Paraguay.

Trouessart, E.L. (1898-1899). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium 1: 44-46.

Trouessart, 1904-1905

Callicebus caligata

Distribution: Amazonia; Paraguay.

Trouessart, E.L. (1904-1905). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium. Quinquennale Suppl. Pp. 25-26.

Thomas, 1908

Callicebus caligatus

Distribution: Humayta, Rio Madeira, some 200 miles further up the river than the type-locality, Borba.

Remarks: In Mr. Hoffmann’s collection there are two examples of Callicebus caligatus, Wagner, from Humayta, Rio Madeira, some 200 miles further up the river than the type-locality, Borba. These specimens indicate that C. castaneoventris Gray may be distinguished from C. caligatus, with which it is usually synonymized, by its darker colour and broader interorbital space.

Thomas, O. (1908). Four new Amazonian monkeys. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8) 2: 88-90.

Elliot, 1913

Callicebus caligatus

Synonym: Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842, 1855; Reichenbach, 1862; Schlegel, 1876); C. castaneo-ventris (Gray, 1866, 1870; von Pelzeln, 1883, Forbes, 1894).

Type locality: Banks of the River Madeira near Borba, Brazil.

Distribution: Western Brazil.

Description: Resembles C. cupreus, but the head is black on top and hands and feet are black instead of coppery red. Top of the head from forehead to between ears blackish maroon; face black; the upper parts are reddish brown like C. cupreus, annulated with black darkest on dorsal line; limbs and under parts coppery red; hands and feet black with numerous yellow hairs mixed . Tail black at base, greyish white for the rest of its length; a second specimen has the tail black for basal third, then mixed grey and black and tip greyish white.

Measurements: Size about equal to C. cupreus.

Skull: occipito-nasal length, 67.3; palatal length, 28.5; median length of nasals, 17; length of upper molar series, 14.3; length of mandible, 48.5; length of lower molar series, 26.6; Hensel, 44.2; zygomatic width, 48.9.

Elliot, D.G. (1913). A review of the primates 1: 234-257.

Osgood, 1916

Callicebus caligatus

Localities: Porto Velho, Brazil.

Description: Without material for comparison, it is difficult to make positive identification of this specimen (in Field Museum of NH). It seems probable that it may be intermediate between C. caligatus and C. brunneus and may be referred tentatively to the former. The tail is mostly dark brown superficially, but the hairs are light at the base and finely specked or annulated with brownish. At the tip of the tail the terminal tuft of hairs is wholly light-coloured, practically white, but with innumerable, fine peppery annulations. The under parts are mixed with blackish and chestnut, the blackish predominating.

Osgood, W.H. (1916). Mammals of the Collins-Day South American expedition. Fieldiana – Zoology 10 (14):214

Lönnberg, 1939

Callicebus caligatus

Locality: The Stockholm Museum has 3 specimens from Aruma, right side of the Rio Purus; 2 specimens from Redempcao Rio Purus, 3 specimens from Itaboca, left side of the Rio Purus and one specimens of Labrea, right side of the Rio Purus.

Description: All these specimens are typical and show characteristics by which this species differs from C. cupreus. The anterior part of the crown and the hands and feet black. The development of the rufous on the back is, however, somewhat variable. In the majority of the specimens in this collection the general colour of the back is rather dark rufous brown, the specimens from Itaboca, left side of the Rio Purus, are more greyish brown, because the pale rings of the hairs are mostly buffish white, and the other parts less blackish than in the specimens from other localities. It is of a certain interest to state that there thus is a striking resemblance in the general colour between these specimens of C. caligatus and the egeria-race of C. cupreus from the same side of the river mentioned. A young female from this locality could almost be suspected to be a hybrid between the two forms mentioned, because the black markings of the species are much reduced, and the hands and fingers are entirely greyish brown. It is, however, probably that this is only juvenile features, to judge from the great interorbital breadth and the shape of the nares which are typical for C. caligatus.

Collectors measurements: Males: total length 770/765/785mm; tail 420/330/415mm; hind foot 95/100/95mm. Females: total length 700/725/740mm; tail 385/415/430mm; hind foot 87/95/97mm.

Skull: measurements and description of 5 individuals in publication.

Lönnberg, E. (1939). Notes on some members of the genus Callicebus. Arkiv för Zoologi 31 (13): 1-18.

Cruz Lima, 1945crux caligatus 9x13

Callicebus caligatus

Synonyms: Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842); Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866).

Distribution: In the present state of our knowledge the range of this species is limited to both banks of the Madeira River (vicinity of Borba, habitat of type, and Humayta) and the Purus River, whence came the specimens belonging to the Stockholm Museum (Aruma, Redencao, Itaboca, Labrea).

Description: Very similar to C. cupreus, but black at the top of the head from the forehead to a transverse line at about the middle of the ears, some of the hairs with tawny tips; hands and feet black with a mixture of a few pale hairs; tail almost entirely black. Also the tawny tones on the top of the head and back are not noticeable, the colouring of the dorsal part appearing more uniform, for above the greyish-brown basal portions the hairs are generally ringed with black and a pale yellowish-tawny colour. On the flanks the transition from the speckled dorsal colouring to the uniform colouring of the under parts is not so distinctly marked as in the majority of the other species, for on the median band the hairs, with the dorsal colouring are tinged with reddish over a lesser or greater extent. Throat and sides of the head, under parts and inner side of the limbs chestnut red; outer side of the limbs of this same colour but of a duller and dirtier tone. On the forearms many hairs have blackish tips.
Sexes are alike in colouring and size. A female specimen of the collection of the Museu Goeldi differs from the male only that its tail is similar to that of C. cupreus, including the light tip, but proportionately much shorter.

Measurements: (in the flesh) head and body 320mm; tail 430mm; foot 70mm.

Remarks: This form is very close to C. cupreus, of which it possibly is only a local variety. After examining two species of Hoffmanns’ collection, coming from Humayta, on the Madeira River, Thomas (1908), contrary to the prevalent opinion, argued for the separation of this species from C. casteanoventris because of the latter’s darker colouration and broader interorbital space. We believe, however, that it is better to maintain the present allocation a little longer, at least until a comparative study is made of more material of the two species and of adequate material of all the group which will enable us to answer the questions which individual variability must always raise in such cases.

Cruz-Lima, E. da (1945). Mammals of Amazonia Vol. 1. General introduction and primates pp. 175-198.

Vieira, 1955

Callicebus caligatus

Synonyms: Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842); Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866).

Distribution: Lower Madeira.

Vieira, C. da C. (1955). Lista remissiva dos mamiferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 8 (10): 375-379.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus cupreus caligatus

Synonyms: Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842); Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866); Callicebus caligatus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus castaneoventris (Thomas, 1908).

Distribution: Central Brazil, in the zone of the Purus and Madeira rivers.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus cupreus caligatus

Synonym: Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866).

Type locality: Vicinity of Borba, east bank of Lower Rio Madeira, eastern Amazonas, Brazil. Type in Vienna Museum. Type locality of castaneoventris is “Brazil”. Cotypes in British Museum, labelled as from “Orinico”.

Distribution: Occurs on both banks of the Lower Rio Madeira (Borba and Humaita) and on the Rio Purus, whence came Lönnberg’s material (Aruma, Redempcao, Itaboca and Labrea), and some in British Museum.

Description: A very distinct race, resembling cupreus in lacking frontal band, except for a central white spot or star in some individuals. Similar in general colour to typical cupreus, but distinguished by the black area which extends from the forehead to a line drawn transversely across the crown at ear level, some individual hairs with tawny tips; also by the black hands and feet, the black mixed with a few pale hairs. Tawny effect on upper parts not as noticeable as in cupreus, the general colour more uniform, individual hairs having greyish-brown bases followed by black zone and a pale yellowish-tawny tip. Transition on flanks between grizzled upper and uniform under pelage less distinct than in other races, the intermediate hairs having a reddish annulus of greater or less extent. Cheeks, throat, under parts and medial aspects of limbs chestnut-red; lateral aspects of limbs similar but duller in tone, many hairs on forearms with blackish tips. Tail as in typical cupreus, but in a female described by Lima, pale tip is less evident.

Measurements: Females: head and body 402/330mm; tail 402/450mm; foot 52/62mm; ear 32/35mm.

Skull: see measurements in publication.

Remarks: Thomas (1908), contrary to earlier opinions, argued on basis of material from Humaita for the separation of Gray’s castaneoventris chiefly on the grounds of darker colouration and a broader interorbital septum, but no recent writer has followed him.
Osgood (1916) records a specimen he tentatively identified as caligatus from Porto Velho on the Madeira. It showed some features intermediate between caligatus and brunneus. It possessed an almost wholly pale (nearly white) terminal tail-tuft, with “innumerable” fine peppery annulations; the under parts were blackish and chestnut, the former predominating. A male from unknown locality recently living in the London Zoo also bore characters intermediate between caligatus and brunneus, though different from those of Osgood’s specimen. Resembling brunneus in the black hairs on the ears and pale crown, without black (except on the broad superciliary band), it was dark chestnut below, brighter on the cheeks and throat. Tail hairs throughout pale-based and pale-tipped with brownish-black intermediate zone. Possibly, therefore, these two races meet and intergrade somewhere along the Rio Madeira towards the Bolivian border.

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Hershkovitz, 1963

Callicebus moloch brunneus

Synonyms: Callithrix brunnea (Wagner, 1842); Callithrix brunnea (Wagner, 1848); Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866), Callicebus toppini (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus olallae (Lönnberg, 1939); Callicebus modestus (Lönnberg, 1939); Callicebus cupreus acreanus (Vieira, 1952); Callithrix cuprea (Goeldi and Hagman, 1904); Callicebus caligatus (Osgood – not Wagner -, 1916).

Callicebus moloch cupreus

Synonyms: Callithrix cuprea (Spix, 1823); Callicebus cupreus (Ihering, 1904); Callicebus cupreus cupreus (Cruz Lima, 1944); Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842); Callicebus caligatus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus usto-fuscus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus cupreus usto-fuscus (Cruz Lima, 1945); Callicebus egeria (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus cupreus egeria (Lönnberg, 1939); Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy, 1851 –part: not 1848, 1852).

Remarks: The original description of Callithrix caligatus agrees precisely with that of cupreus. Said to be from Borba, Rio Madeira and from Manaqueri, Rio Solimoes, its type locality was since restricted to the former locality by Thomas. The town of Borba, however, is on the right side of the Madeira, where only hoffmannsi occurs. It seems necessary to assume, therefore, that the type of caligata originated west of the Madeira, probably in the forests opposite the town of Borba. Its cotype from Manaqueri and all other recorded specimens of cupreus are from west of the Madeira.


Hershkovitz, 1988

Callicebus cupreus caligatus

Member of the moloch group.

Remarks: Callicebus caligatus is most nearly related to C. cupreus. The common ancestral agouti of forehead, crown, and cheiridia are eumelanized in caligatus, pheomelanized in cupreus. Otherwise, the two species are virtually indistinguishable. In allopatry, the taxonomic grade of chromatic difference could be regarded as subspecific. Within the extensive area of sympatry, however, the taxa remain equally distinctive, and therefore recognizable as different species.

The prototype of C. caligatus likely became separated from the basal ancestral cupreus stock perhaps somewhere between the upper Río Juruá, and Río Purús.

The geographic distribution of C. caligatus seems equivocal. Borba, on the east bank of Río Madeira where the syntype of caligatus was said to have been found in May 1832 by Natterer, is definitely outside the range of the species. On the other hand, Manaquiri, where Natterer collected additional specimens in December 1832, is on the south bank of the Rio Solimoes, squarely within the habitat of C. dubius. The validity of this location has not been confirmed. Every other distribution record for C. caligatus indicates that the west bank of the Purús is the eastern limit of the geographical range.

Hershkovitz, P. (1988) Origin, Speciation, and Distribution of South American Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus (Family Cebidae, Platyrrhini), by Philip Hershkovitz . Proceedings of the  Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 140 (1): 240-272.

Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus caligatus

Member of the moloch Group.

Synonyms: Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842); Callicebus caligatus (Thomas, 1908); Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866); Callicebus usto-fuscus (Elliot, 1907).

Type Locality: Borba, Rio Madeira, restricted by Thomas (1908). Borba is on the east bank of the Rio Madeira where the species is otherwise unknown. Presumably, the type was collected on the west bank of the river opposite Borba, or possibly elsewhere than in the Rio Madeira basin itself. Lectotype in Vienna Museum.

Distribution: Western Brazil, south of the Rio Solimoes, presumably from the west bank of the Rio Madeira west to the Rio Ucayali-Tapiche in Loreto, Peru, and the Rio Javari (Yavari), south to the Rio Tahuamanu, Pando, Bolivia; recorded from the States of Amazonas and Acre in Brazil and bordering Loreto department in Peru. Except for the original Natterer specimens labelled “Borba” and “Manaquiri,” the species is unknown from the Rio Madeira watershed or east of the Rio Purus in Brazil. Specimens of C. caligatus in the American Museum of Natural History, collected by the Olallas, are mislabelled “Boca Rio Inuya” and “Sarayacu”.

Description: Blackish of forehead continuing over anterior portion of crown; forearms dark reddish to mostly blackish; cheiridia blackish to reddish brown or reddish; tail mixed buffy and greyish (marbled) for entire length or becoming dominantly to entirely buffy distally; sideburns, under parts, and inner sides of limbs reddish contrasting with dusky upper and outer parts; cranial characters like those of the moloch group.

Measurements: See publication.

Comparisons: Distinguished from C. brunneus by arms, legs, and sideburns more reddish, reddish under parts contrasting markedly with brownish agouti sides, tail mixed or somewhat annulated, at least on proximal half, the hairs banded buffy and greyish but with terminal fifth to half often dominantly buffy, the entire tail contrasting markedly with coloration of upper and underside of body; from cupreus by forehead entirely blackish, cheiridia blackish or dark reddish brown; from C. cupreus discolor, C. cupreus ornatus, and C. dubius by blackish forehead and absence of contrastingly pale or whitish frontal tuft or transverse band, forearms and legs reddish, brown, or blackish, cheiridia notably darker; from all other species of Callicebus by one or more of the above characters.

Specimens Examined: Total 54. Bolivia – Pando: Rio Nareuda. Brazil – Acre: Rio Branco; Xapuri; Amazonas: Aruma; Canabuocar; Estirao do Equador; Itaboca; Labrea; Manaqueri; “Manaus”; Parana do Jacare; Redempcao; Rio Jaquirana; opposite Tabatinga; “Orinoco”. Peru – Loreto: “Boca Rio Inuya”; “Iquitos”; Orosa; Quebrada Esperanza; Rio Tapiche; San Fernando; Santa Cecilia, Rio Maniti; “Sarayacu,” Rio Ucayali.

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Aquino and Encarnacion, 1994

Callicebus caligatus

Distribution: According to Hershkovitz (1988), C. caligatus is distributed east of the Rio Ucayali, from the Amazon in the north to approximately the Rio Tapiche in the south. However, during our explorations in this area we have not encountered this species.

External characters: Pelage similar to C. cupreus, although the colouration is more greyish-brown. The most obvious phenotypic difference is the dark-brown colouration of crown and limbs.


Ferrari and Aparecida Lopes, 1995

Callicebus caligatus

Locality: Rio Ipixuna, Amazonas (7º31’S, 63º22’W).

Measurement: Male: body 296mm; weight 880gr.

Remarks: Specimen (stuffed skin and skeleton) was deposited at the Goeldi Museum in Belem.

Ferrari, S.F. and Aparecida Lopes, M. (1995). Comparison of Gut Proportions in Four Small-Bodied Amazonian Cebids. American Journal of Primatology 35:139-142.

Kobayashi, 1995

Callicebus caligatus

Based on cranial measurements, the genus can be divided in five groups:

  • the donacophilus group (including modestus, olallae, d. donacophilus and d. pallescens)
  • the cupreus group (including caligatus, c. cupreus, c. discolor and c. ornatus)
  • the moloch group (including brunneus, h. hoffmannsi, h. baptista, moloch and cinerascens)
  • the personatus group (including p. personatus, p. nigrifrons, p. melanochir)
  • the torquatus group (including t. lucifer, t. lugens, t. medemi, t. regulus, t. purinus and t. torquatus).

The group position of C. dubius remains uncertain; C. oenanthe and C. barbarabrownae were not examined.

Kobayashi, S. (1995). A phylogenetic study of Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: 1. Phyletic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36(1): 101-120.

Voss and Emmons, 1996

Callicebus caligatus

Locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Rio Ipixuna (left bank; ca. 7º31’S, 63º22’W).

Remarks: Five specimens of titis from “Orosa” in the AMNH were listed by Hershkovitz (1990: 62) as examples of Callicebus cupreus and six others as C. caligatus (op. cit.: 66). However, the AMNH has only six specimens of Callicebus from Orosa, not eleven; the skin characters of this series (AMNH 73703-73708) match those described (op. cit.: 61) for C. cupreus cupreus. The report of two sympatric members of the moloch group of titis at Orosa was an error caused by inadvertently listing both original and revised identifications of the same series among the specimens examined (Hershkovitz, in litt.). Thus, Callicebus cupreus is presumably the correct identification for the monkeys Freese et al. (1982) reported as C. moloch.

Voss, R.S. and Emmons, L.H. (1996). Mammalian diversity in neotropical lowland rainforests: a preliminary assessment. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 230: 1-114.

Ferrari et al., 1996

Callicebus caligatus

Locality: Estaçao Ecologica Serra dos Tres Irmaos, Rondonia, Brazil.


Aquino, 1998

Callicebus caligatus

Locality: Quebrada Blanco, an affluent of the Río Tahuayo, south-east of Iquitos (4°23’S, 72°55’W), more precisely in an area delimited by the Quebradas Tunchío, Palmichal and Tangarana; Río Yavari basin, to the east of Iquitos, between Agua Negra and Carolina (4°30’S, 71°43’W) (callicebus.nl: it is not clear if Aquino reports that the species occurs at both localities, as he also mentions C. cupreus).

Aquino, R. (1998). Some observations on the ecology of Cacajao calvus ucayalii in the Peruvian Amazon. Primate Conservation 18: 21-24.

Ferrari et al., 2000

Callicebus caligatus

Localities: see map (localities west of the Río Madeira).

Distribution: North of the Serra dos Pacaás Novos the geographic ranges of C. brunneus, C. caligatus, and C. moloch are clearly limited by two major rivers, the Madeira and the Jiparaná, as indicated by Hershkovitz (1990) and Ferrari and Lopes (1992).

Ferrari, S.F.;  Iwanga, S.; Messias, M.R.; Ramos, E.M.; Ramos, P.C.S.; da Cruz Neto, E. and Coutinho, P. E.G. (2000). Titi Monkeys (Callicebus spp., Atelidae: Platyrrhini) in the Brazilian State of Rondônia. Primates, 41 (2): 229-234.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus cupreus

Synonyms: Callithrix cuprea (Spix, 1823); Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842); Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy and Deville, 1848); Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866); Callithrix cuprea leucometopus (Cabrera, 1900); Callicebus subrufus (1907); Callicebus ustofuscus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus egeria (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus paenulatus (Elliot, 1909); Callicebus toppinii (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus cupreus napoleon (Lönnberg, 1922); Callicebus rutteri (Thomas, 1923); Callicebus cupreus acreanus (Vieira, 1952) and Callicebus dubius (Hershkovitz, 1988).

Remarks: Hershkovitz (1990) recognized four different taxa here: C. cupreus cupreus, C. cupreus discolor, C. caligatus and C. dubius. The first two were said to be predominantly phaeomelanic, the second two more eumelanic; in C. c. cupreus and C. caligatus there is no frontal band or just a small, agouti median tuft; in C. c. discolor and C. dubius there is a variable developed white frontal blaze. The distributions of the four, taken as a group, are coterminous, but the two easterly forms have the frontal blaze whereas the two westerly ones are without it, so that at the very least there is a remarkable parallelism between phaeomelanic and eumalenic species in their geographical variation. I suggested (Groves, 1992) that this odd situation could be resolved if the eumelanic and phaeomelanic “species” are actually morphs of a singe species.

This hypothesis was tested by my examination of the skins in AMNH in 1997. It is corroborated; not only are eu- and phaeomelanic skins most readily interpreted as morphs of a single species, there is in fact very little difference between them at all. In skins identified as caligatus, the hair bases are redder, less brown than those labelled cupreus; the underside is more maroon, less foxy red; the red of the hands and feet is darker; the maroon of the cheeks is blackish rather than red.
Close reading of Hershkovitz (1990), indeed, suggests that even the geographic variation in presence or absence of the frontal blaze may not be so clear-cut. Thus, two series ascribed to C. c. discolor, collected by the Olallas at the mouth of the Rio Inuya (Rio Urumbamba) and Lagarto (upper Ucayali), were regarded as misplaced by Hershkovitz because they are on the “wrong” side of the Ucayali. He similarly regarded the localities of Ollala specimens of C. caligatus (Sarayacu and mouth of Rio Inuya). If the localities of these specimens are indeed incorrect, then an easterly trend in development of the frontal blaze is very marked; if not (if the Olallas correctly reported the localities), then blaze development ceases to have much geographic significance.


Roosmalen et al., 2002

Callicebus caligatus

Type locality: Borba, right bank of Rio Madeira, Amazonas, Brazil, restricted by Thomas (1908). Since only Callicebus cinerascens occurs in this region along the right bank of the Rio Madeira, Hershkovitz (1990) assumed that Natterer should have collected and mislabelled these specimens elsewhere. Since M.G.M. van Roosmalen found the species to occur in the
lower Rios Purús/Solimões/Madeira interfluve south as far as the Rio Ipixuna, the specimens collected at Borba, right bank of the Rio Madeira, must have originated from the left bank of the Rio Madeira in the vicinity of Borba. The other type locality, Manaquirí, right bank of the Rio Solimões, falls within the supposed distribution. The lectotype is a skin and skull said to be collected at Borba, Rio Madeira, Amazonas, Brazil, restricted by Thomas (1908), and two lectoparatypes, including one skin only from Borba, and one skin and skull from Manaquirí, right bank of the Rio Solimões, Amazonas, Brazil, collected by J. Natterer in December 1832; both deposited in the Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien, Austria.

Distribution: Central Amazonia, Amazonas state, Brazil, south of the Rio Solimões in the interfluve delineated by the lower Rios Purús, Solimões and Madeira, south as far as the Rio Ipixuna (or Paranapixuna). Hershkovitz (1990) considered the species sympatric with Callicebus dubius, C. brunneus, and C. cupreus, based on, in his view, mislabelled specimens collected by the Olalla brothers at Boca Río Inuya, Iquitos, the Río Orosa, Río Tapiche, and Sarayacu, Rio Ucayali, in the department of Loreto, Peru. Voss and Emmons (1996) note that Hershkovitz’ report on the sympatry of two members of the moloch/cupreus Group (C. cupreus and C. caligatus) was an error caused by “inadvertently listing both original and revised identifications of the same series from Orosa among the specimens examined.” The correct identification for the monkeys is Callicebus (cupreus) cupreus. Specimens collected by Peres (1993) along both banks of the Rio Juruá and deposited in the Muséu Goeldi, Belém, all were identified as Callicebus (cupreus) cupreus. The distribution of C. caligatus contradicts that given by Hershkovitz (1990), who fills in its actual distribution with C. dubius. Four specimens of real C. caligatus were caught in July 2001 by locals along the north bank of Lago Jarí at the mouth of Igarapé Bacaba and released at the same place after being measured and photographed, and a complete skeleton with some hair found on the forest floor was collected (private collection no. MGMR55) on the north bank of Rio Ipixuna near its mouth, a few kilometres south of the town of Tapauá (Van Roosmalen and Van Roosmalen, in prep.).

Description: Forehead and anterior part of crown black, rest of crown dark red-brown as neck, back and sides of body, each hair red-brown with a black tip; sideburns, under-parts and inner sides of limbs reddish to red-brown; back reddish-brown agouti; forearms and lower legs dark red-brown; cheiridia, including wrists and ankles black as blaze and basal part of tail; proximal 10 cm of tail dark black, next 25 cm blackish mixed with buffy (hairs blackish with 0.7 cm long white tip), distal 15 cm forming a buffy pencil. Distinguished from Callicebus stephennashi by dark red brown agouti instead of bright reddish forearms, forelegs, sideburns, and under parts, black-brown to black instead of buffy to white cheiridia, and forehead and anterior part of crown not sharply contrasting with rest of crown, nape, and sides of body; from C. cupreus, with which it is parapatric along the lower Rio Purús in the west, by entirely black forehead and anterior part of crown, dark black-brown cheiridia, and the dominantly buffy tail mixed with blackish, and the white pencil; from C. dubius, by black forehead and anterior part of crown lacking a contrasted pale or whitish frontal tuft or transverse blaze; from C. cinerascens, with which it is parapatric along the lower Rio Madeira in the east, by reddish to dark red-brown sideburns, under parts and inner sides of limbs, and the dominantly buffy tail and white pencil.

van Roosmalen, G.M.; van Roosmalen, T. and  Mittermeier, R.A. (2002). A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10(Suppl.): 1-52.

Oliveira Azevedo Lopes and Rehg, 2003

Callicebus caligatus (according to Azevedo Lopes, in prep.).

Locality: Serra do Divisor National park, the western edge of Acre, Brazil.


Engelberger, 2010

Callicebus caligatus

Synonyms: Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842; Borba et Rio Solimoëns); Callicebus caligatus (Hershkovitz, 1988, 1990; Roosmalen et al.,2002; Rylands and Mittermeier, 2009).

Types: Lectotype: NMW B 3738 ♂, skull, skin. Collected at Borba; 24.v.1830; (coll. Joh. Natterer) (no.162), 10th shipment. Paralectotype: NMW 7596/ST 112 (no.3) ♂ (Jos. Natterer’s notes) ad., skull, mount. Collected at Manaqueri am Rio Solimoes; xii.1832; coll. Joh. Natterer (no.162), 11th shipment (Jos. Natterer’s notes).

Localities: Borba (loc.typ.), 04°24’S, 59°35’W, Rio Madeira, Amazonas, Brazil. Manaqueri am Rio Solimoes = Lago Manaquiri at the Rio Solimões, 03°29’S, 60°01’W, Amazonas, Brazil.

Comments: Hershkovitz (1990), followed by Roosmalen et al. 2002, who examined the NMW’s collection of neotropical primates in 1985, lists the lectotype (“skin with skull from Borba”) and two paralectotypes (“1 skin only (NHMW) from Borba, […] one skin and skull (NHMW 7546/112) from Manaquiri”). In fact there are only two C. caligatus specimens from the Collection of Johann Natterer in the NMW and no indications could be found (e.g. Wagner 1848; Pelzeln 1883; Johann & Josef Natterer’s handwritten notes) that more have been obtained.
The lectotype was designated by Thomas (1908), by restricting the type locality to Borba. Whereas only one specimen from this locality is part of the type series, this constitutes an unambiguous designation (ICZN 1999, art. 33.2.3.1.). Due to the lack of more recent evidence for the presence of C. caligatus from between the Rio Purús and the Rio Madeira and because only Callicebus cinerascens (SPIX, 1823) oc-curs east of the latter, Hershkovitz (1963, 1990) questioned the correctness of the reported collecting locality of the lectotype. Since M.G.M. van Roosmalen discovered C. caligatus in the lower Rios Purús / Solimões / Madeira interfluve south as far as the Rio Ipixuna (Roosmalen et al. 2002), it seems likely that Johann Natterer in fact collected the specimen on the left bank of the Rio Madeira in the vicinity of Borba.

Engelberger, S. (2010). Annotated catalogue of primate type specimens in the mammal collection of the Museum of Natural History Vienna. Diplomarbeit, Universität Wien.

Auricchio, 2010

Callicebus caligatus

Localities: AM Humaitá Lábrea BR 230 km 41, mg.dir rio Ipixuna (07°30’S 63°23’W). AM g. Bacana, marg. Oeste lago Jarí dir baixo Purus.

Description: Face dark reddish brown; Forehead with black frontal stripe, with no abrupt division with nape; Crown black (rostral part); Nape dark reddish brown-agouti, each hair reddish brown with black tip; Back black; Lower back and external surface of fore legs and forearms dark reddish brown-agouti, each hair reddish brown with black tip; Back of hands, fingers and back of feet black; Base of tail black (20%); Middle of tail greyish, black/beige or burnt yellow (blackish hairs with 0.7 cm of whit­ish tip); Tip of tail burnt yellow/beige brush; Ventral surface deep reddish-brown agouti, each hair reddish-brown with a black tip.

Remarks: Groves (2001) follows Hershkovitz (1990) in Callicebus taxonomy, but doubts him concerning some propositions. One of them considers C. caligatus, C. dubius and C. cupreus as synonyms. Roosmalen et al. (2002) described differences among these three species, considering all of them valid, a view I agree based on morphological grounds. All three show several distinctive characters, as pointed out by Roosmalen et al. (2002) and revised here, such as the presence or absence of chromogenetic fields, e.g. frontal white and black stripes, tip of tail and white fingers.

Auricchio, P. (2010). A morphological analysis of some species of Callicebus. Neotropical Primates 17(2): 47-58.

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