Literature acreanus

Vieira, 1952

Callicebus cupreus acreanus

Type locality: Iquiri, Acre.

Description: This form differs from the typical race Callicebus cupreus cupreus, in not showing a reddish colouration on the head and back, and has the tail much darker on almost the total length. Approaches the colour of Callicebus cupreus egeria from Tefé, right bank of the Solimoes, but differs essentially by not showing the fingers of the hands and the feet yellowish-white. Face naked, completely black, with black bristles on cheeks and around mouth, frontal hairs dark brown, black at the base. Hairs of neck, shoulders, back, external face of thighs and base of tail, brown-grey, slightly washed with light ochre. Sides of the head and chin covered with vivid coppery hairs, throat, chest, belly and inner sides of limbs the same colour, but darker on inside of thighs. Hands and feet the same colour. Base of tail the same colour as the back, becoming greyish-white at the end.

Measurements: total length 730mm; tail 420mm; foot 90mm.

Skull: total length, 64; zygomatic width, 40; breadth of braincase, 35; length of upper molar series, 15; interorbital, 6.

Vieira, C. da C. (1952). Resultados de una expedicao cientifica ao Territorio do Acre: Mamiferos. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (São Paulo) 11 (2): 23.

Vieira, 1955

Callicebus cupreus acreanus

Synonym: Callicebus cupreus acreanus (Vieira, 1952).

Distribution: Region bordered between Bolivia and Acre territory.

Vieira, C. da C. (1955). Lista remissiva dos mamiferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 8 (10): 375-379.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus cupreus toppini

Synonyms: Callithrix cuprea (Goeldi, 1904); Callicebus toppini (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus cupreus acreanus (Cruz Lima, 1945).

Distribution: South-eastern Peru, in the part adjacent of the Acre territory of Brasil and Bolivia and including these territories.

Remarks: In the original description of the locality of the type there is a mistake that can cause confusion. The Tahuamanu River is not in the North-east, as indicated, and fortunately the exact coordinates have also been given.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus cupreus acreanus

Type locality: Iquiri, Acre territory, Brazil. Type in Sao Paulo Museum.

Distribution: Boundary region between Bolivia and Acre territory of eastern Brazil.

Description: Differing from typical cupreus in lacking the reddish wash on top of head and upper parts, also by the much duskier tinge of the dorsum of the tail throughout its length. Approximately in colour to C. c. egeria except for the absence of the yellowish-white tinge on the fingers and toes.
Face naked, entirely black, but sparse black bristles as in typical cupreus occur, also whitish hairs around muzzle; frontal band dusky brownish, the hairs with black bases. Hairs of nape, shoulders, back and lateral aspects of limbs and root of tail ashy-brown lightly washed with pale ochraceous. Sides of head to chin with bright coppery-red hairs; throat, chest, belly and medial aspects of limbs similar; tail basally similar to back, distally becoming ashy-white.

Measurements: Head and body 310mm; tail 420mm; foot 90mm.

Skull: see measurements in publication.

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Hershkovitz, 1963

Callicebus moloch brunneus

Synonyms: Callithrix brunnea (Wagner, 1842); Callithrix brunnea (Wagner, 1848); Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866), Callicebus toppini (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus olallae (Lönnberg, 1939); Callicebus modestus (Lönnberg, 1939); Callicebus cupreus acreanus (Vieira, 1952); Callithrix cuprea (Goeldi and Hagman, 1904); Callicebus caligatus (Osgood – not Wagner -, 1916).

Remarks: the original description of castaneoventris, toppini, olallae, modestus and acreanus, all from the same general area, are based on vague comparisons with cupreus only. No mention was made of other related forms although Lönnberg did attempt to distinguish his modestus from his olallae described in the same paper. It is not surprising therefore, that all should prove equally distinct from cupreus and equal to each other, or brunneus, the oldest available name.

Cabrera (1958) sank acreanus in the synonymy of toppini, where it undoubtly belongs except that brunneus is the prior name for the titis of this region.


Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus cupreus cupreus

Synonyms: Callithrix cuprea (Spix, 1823); Callicebus egeria (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus toppini (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus acreanus (Vieira, 1952); Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy, 1851 – part).

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus cupreus

Synonyms: Callithrix cuprea (Spix, 1823); Callithrix caligata (Wagner, 1842); Callithrix discolor (I. Geoffroy and Deville, 1848); Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866); Callithrix cuprea leucometopus (Cabrera, 1900); Callicebus subrufus (1907); Callicebus ustofuscus (Elliot, 1907); Callicebus egeria (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus paenulatus (Elliot, 1909); Callicebus toppinii (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus cupreus napoleon (Lönnberg, 1922); Callicebus rutteri (Thomas, 1923); Callicebus cupreus acreanus (Vieira, 1952) and Callicebus dubius (Hershkovitz, 1988).