Literature vidua

Lesson, 1840

Saguinus vidua

Synonyms: Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1819, 1820, 1827; Cuvier, 1829; Lesson, 1829); Saguinus lugens (Lesson, 1827); Cebus torquatus var. B (Fisher, 1829; Jardine, 1833); Simia (Callithrix) lugens (Griffith, 1827; Voigt, 1831).

Distribution: The forests near the Cassiquiaire and the Rio Guaviare, near San-Fernando de Atabapo; the mountains of the right bank of the Orinoco.

Description: Crown purple-black; naked face; with a white-bluish mask, square shaped, surrounded by grey above and white below; black hairs around the mouth; shiny black pelage, long and soft hairs; a white scarf on the throat; hands white; feet black.

Variation A:

Synonyms: Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812; Desmarest, 1819, 1820, 1827; Lesson, 1829; Geoffroy, 1829; Jardine, 1833); Saguinus amictus (Lesson, 1827); Cebus amictus (Spix, 1823); Cebus torquatus var. C (Fisher, 1829).

Description: Brown-blackish pelage; a white half-collar; hands light-yellowish; tail twice as long as that of a Saimiri; tail brownish.

Variation: Young?

Synonyms: Cebus torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1809; Fisher, 1829; Geoffroy, 1829); Callithrix torquatus (Geoffroy, 1812); Simia (callithrix) torquata (Humboldt, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest 1819, 1820, 1827); Saguinus torquatus (Lesson, 1827); Callithrix lugens (Cuvier, 1829; Lesson, 1829; Jardine, 1831).

Description: Chestnut-brown; yellow undersides; white half-collar.

Distribution: Pará.

 Lesson, R.P. (1840). Species des mammifères bimanes et quadrumanes pp. 161-167.

 Schinz, 1844

Callithrix lugens

Synonyms: Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1829??); Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1809); Simia torquata (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812); Saguinus Vidua (Lesson, 1827).

Schinz, H.K. (1844). Systematische verzeichniss aller bis jetz bekannte Säugethiere oder Synopsis Mammalium nach dem Cuvier’schen System 1: 80-83.

Boitard, 1848

Saguinus vidua and Saguinus lugens

Synonyms: Saguinus vidua (Lesson 1829),  or Saguinus lugens (Lesson, 1829), Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812); Cebus torquatus (Fischer, 1829). “Its synonymy is confusing”.

Distribution: in the forest around the Cassiquiaire, the Rio Guavarie and the right bank of the Orinico.

Description: He has a long and soft pelage, shiny black, with a beautiful white scarf around the throat; he has a black crown; his face is naked, with a black square in the form of a mask, white-bluish, grey above and white below; black hairs around the mouth; hands white, feet blackish.

Variation 1: The ruffed Sagouin

Synonyms: Simia amicta (Humboldt); Saguinus and Callithrix amictus (Lesson); Cebus amictus (Spix).

Description: His pelage is brown-blackish with a white half-collar; hands light-yellowish; tail brownish. He is twice as large as a Saimiri.

Variation 2: The collared Sagouin

Synonyms: Simia torquata (Humboldt); Callithrix torquatus (Geoffroyi); Callithrix lugens (Lesson, Cuvier); Cebus torquatus (Fischer).

Description: His pelage is chestnut-brown above, yellow below, with a white half-collar.

Distribution: Pará.

Remarks: Is probably only the juvenile of the species mentioned before.

Boitard, P. (1848). Dictionnaire Universel d’Histoire Naturelle 11:290-292.

Forbes, 1896

Callithrix torquata

Synonyms: Cebus torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1811); Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812); Saguinus vidua (Lesson, 1840); Callithrix torquatus (Gray, 1870); Callithrix torquata (Schlegel, 1876).

 Forbes, H.O. (1896). A Handbook of the Primates pp. 159-165 + plate 14.

 Trouessart, 1898-1899

Callithrix torquata

Synonyms: torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1807; Schlegel, 1876; Pelzeln, 1883); lugens (Humboldt, 1811; Geoffroy, 1812); vidua (Lesson, 1840).

Distribution: Brazil, Amazonia, Para, Rio Cassiquiare, Rio Guaviare, Orinoco; Upper Rio Negro, Sao Gabriel, Marabitanos; Northern Peru.

a) amicta (Humboldt, 1811; Spix, 1833).

Trouessart, E.L. (1898-1899). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium 1: 44-46.

 Elliot, 1913

Callicebus torquatus

Synonyms: Cebus torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Simia (Callithrix) lugens (Humboldt, 1811; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820; Geoffroy, 1828); Simia (Callithrix) torquatus (Humboldt, 1811, 1815); Callithrix torquatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Geoffroy, 1828; Wagner, 1840, 1855; Tschudi, 1846; Wallace, 1852; Reichenbach, 1862; Gray, 1870; Schlegel, 1876; von Pelzeln, 1883; Forbes, 1894); Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812, 1828; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820; Reichenbach, 1862); Sanguinus vidua (Lesson, 1840; 1842).

Elliot, D.G. (1913). A review of the primates 1: 234-257.

 Thomas, 1914

Callicebus lucifer, sp. n.

Type locality: Yahuas, North of Loreto, about 2º40’S – 70º30’W, alt. 500m.

Distribution: Eastern Peruvian Amazonas.

Description: Like C. lugens Humb. (syn. Amictus, Geoff.), but the tail chestnut-rufous instead of black. Belly black, not red as in C. torquatus.

Remarks: By some accident the synonymies of the yellow-handed titis have got confused in prof. Elliot’s recent great work on the primates. He calls the red-bellied species C. torquatus, putting C. lugens and Saguinus vidua among its synonyms, while the black-bellied one he terms amictus. But a study of the original descriptions of these four animals shows that while torquatus is red-bellied,lugens, amictus, and vidua are all black-bellied and are clearly synonymous with each other, lugensbeing the earliest name. Its type-locality is the Upper Orinico, not Olivença, Solimoes, as stated, the latter locality being taken from Spix, whose specimen was probably C. lucifer.
Specimens of this group are very rare in collections, and the British Museum only contains six, two of each species, as follows:
C. torquatus – Adult; Rio Negro; bought in 1842; collector unknown. Head and forelimbs: Ega, Amazon; H.W. Bates
C. lugens – Young specimen from Maipures, Orinico, practically a topotype of the species; coll. G.K. Cherrie.  Adult specimen; “Guiana” (no doubt incorrect); Sir R. Schomburgk.
C. lucifer – Type and paratype from Yahuas, as above.

Thomas, O. (1914). On various South-American Mammals. Annals and Magazine of Natural History(8) 13:345.

Thomas, 1927

Remarks: Owing to the brevity of the description, the loss of the type, and the absence of an exact locality, it is quite impossible to identify Geoffroy’s C. amictus, but it has previously been considered as a synonym of C. lugens, and may well be left in that position. C. vidua, Lesson, is certainly also a synonym of the same species.

Thomas, O. (1927). In the titi monkeys of the Callicebus torquatus group. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9) 19: 509-510.

Cruz-Lima, 1945

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Synonyms: Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812), Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812) and Saguinus vidua(Lesson, 1840).

Remarks: Elliott includes in this monograph Callithrix lugens and Saguinus vidua in the synonymy ofC. torquatus, thus following Forbes, when in accordance with the original descriptions the first two are synonyms of C. amictus, as Thomas was able to show (Thomas, 1914). Elliot, in replying to Thomas, (Elliot, 1914), explains his stand, alleging that the deficiency of the original descriptions prevents the identification of the rare specimens of these species which exist in the museums, and says that if he was mistaken in including C. lugens among the synonyms of C. torquatus he would be committing a greater error in including it in the synonymy of C. amictus without further proofs to back this point of view, and considers that no satisfactory solution is possible. His defence does not seem logical. The principal distinction between the forms under consideration – torquatus and amictus – is in the colouring of the under parts, which are vivid chestnut in the former and in the latter blackish like the rest of the body. E. Geoffroy’s very brief descriptions (Geoffroy, 1812) of lugens and amictus do not mention the colour of the under parts, nor is it mentioned for lugens in Humboldt’s Synoptic list (Humboldt, 1812); it is Elliot himself who cites the latter more detailed descriptions given in the same volume in which lugens is described as having “corpus, cauda, crura et brachia nigra” and in the same description in French: “elle a le poil douce, lustre, d’un beau noir et un peu relevé: ce pelage est d’une teinte uniforme sur le corpse entire, à l’exception de la face, du col et des mains de devant”. This alone is sufficient to prevent the identification of C. lugens with C. torquatus; and the differences cited by E. Geoffroy between lugens and amictus, i.e. that the former has a white throat and white hands and a tail only slightly longer than the body, do not justify a specific separation. As we had the occasion to observe, the length of the tail in relation to the body varies from individual to individual in the same species, and in the related species C. torquatus the development of the collar and the whitening of the hands are a result of age, for the young commonly have much less developed collar and hands less pure white, slightly yellowish. For this reason we believe Thomas was right. Schlegel, on the other hand, before Forbes and Elliot, has also confused these ill-fated species, and Trouessart considers torquatus, lugens, and viduus synonymous, and amictus a subspecies. Thomas later (Thomas, 1927) altered his point of view to a certain extent, considering lugens (=amictus =viduus), as well as lucifer, a subspecies of torquatus.

Cruz-Lima, E. da (1945). Mammals of Amazonia Vol. 1. General introduction and primates pp. 175-198.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Synonyms: Callithrix lugens (Geoffroyi, 1812), Saguinus lugens (Lesson, 1827), Cebus torquatus(Fischer, 1829), Saguinus vidua (Lesson, 1840), Callicebus lugens (Thomas, 1914), Callicebus lugens duida (Allen, 1914), Callicebus torquatus lugens (Thomas, 1927).

Distribution: Southern Venezuela, Amazonas, and the contiguous part of Colombia.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Synonyms: Simia (Callithrix) lugens (Humboldt, 1812); S. (C.) amicta (Humboldt, 1812); Saguinus vidua (Lesson, 1840); Callicebus lugens duida (Allen, 1914).

Type locality: Forests bordering Rio Cassiquiare and Rio Guaviare, near San Fernando de Atabapo., Upper Rio Orinoco, Venezuela. Type locality of amicta, forest of Sao Paulo de Olivença, near Rio Solimoes, Brazil. Type locality of duida, base of Mount Duida (700ft asl.), Venezuela. Type in Paris Museum. Type of duida in American Museum.

Remarks: For a discussion on the status of lugens and amicta, see Elliot (1914).

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Synonyms: Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1811), Saguinus vidua (Lesson, 1840), Simia amicta (Lesson, 1840), Cebus torquatus (Lesson, 1842). Callicebus lugens duida (Allen, 1914).

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.