Type locality: Santarem, lower Amazon.
Description: Allied to C. donacophilus, but with light crown and blackish tail. General colour above of the grizzled greyish brown found in C. donacophilus and ornatus. Crown clearer grey, the frontal region almost white. Under surface and inner side of limbs to wrists and ankles bright clear rufous, not the muddy brownish rufous of C. donacophilus. Hands and feet white – that is, the greyish white called “white” in these monkeys; about the same as in C. ornatus. Front surface of forearms greyish brown like body, the rufous not passing round the wrists, but on the hind limbs the grey-brown narrows at the ankles, the rufous of their inner surface showing dorsally on the hallucal side; this tendency is carried further in C. ornatus, where the rufous passes right around the wrists and ankles. Tail blackish throughout, the hairs dull yellowish for their basal, hidden, portion, then broadly black, with inconspicuous coppery or rufous tips; at the extreme end of the tail the hairs are wholly dull yellowish or drab.
Skull very much as in C. donacophilus.
Measurements: Head and body 285mm; tail 420mm; hind foot 82mm
Skull: greatest length 59; basal length 43; interorbital space 6.3; premolar-molar series 14.7
Remarks: Type an adult female. British Museum no. 126.96.36.199
This monkey seems to be a modification of C. donacophilus in the direction of the highly ornamented C. ornatus, but its blackened tail is different from either. It had been previously referred to the former species, but the good series of that animal recently received from Bolivia has enabled me to correct the mistake.
Thomas, O. (1908). Four new Amazonian monkeys. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8) 2: 88-90.
Synonym: Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908).
Type locality: Santarem, Lower Amazon, Brazil (British Museum).
Description: Similar to C. hoffmannsi but under parts rufous. Forehead yellowish white; top of head grey; nape and dorsal region like C. hoffmannsi, being dark rufous, the black hairs being ringed and tipped with that colour; sides of body grizzled greyish-brown; outer sides of limbs greyish brown grizzled, but paler than the flanks; under side of limbs and under parts rufous, this colour showing on side of legs from above; hands and feet greyish white; whiskers pale rufous, base of hairs yellowish; tail black, the hairs yellowish at base; root of tail rufous ; ears black sparsely covered with grey hairs.
Measurements: Total length, 705mm; tail, 420mm; foot, 82mm.
Skull: occipito-nasal length, 53.3 ; hensel, 42.4 ; zygomatic width, 48 ; palatal length, 27.2 ; median length of nasals, 17.1 ; length of upper molar series, 14.3 ; length of mandible, 39 ; length of lower molar series, 25.5.
Remarks: The type which represents the species in the British Museum Collection is a young adult with the teeth entirely unworn. In various respects it resembles C. hoffmannsi and it comes from the same place, Santarem, but the grey hands and feet, and rufous under parts easily distinguish it. It is desirable to have more specimens so as definitely to determine whether two species of this genus really are found in practically the same locality, or whether age and sex may not account for the different colouring in the types of C. remulus and C. hoffmannsi. The type of the present species is much smaller than that of C. hoffmannsi as would be expected considering the difference of age.
Elliot, D.G. (1913). A review of the primates 1: 234-257.
Distribution: Cussary, south bank of Amazon between mouths of Xingu and Tapajoz; Tamacury, same region, 2 hours distant by canoe.
Remarks: C. remulus was described in 1908 on a specimen from Santarem presented in 1876 by Mr. Wickham. The present exact record of the occurrence of the species is of value, as Santarem might have been merely the place to which the type had been brought from elsewhere. Now, however, it is clear that the species occupies the area between the Amazon, Xingu, and Tapajoz, at the north-western corner of which Santarem is situated.
The new specimens agree with the type in all essential respects.
Thomas, O. (1913). On some rare Amazonian Mammals from the Collection of the Para Museum. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8) 11:130-136.
Although I classified the two skins that were collected for me at Urupá, in Gy-Paraná, by the Indian Joaquim Parecis to this species and for whose identification I had the opportunity to compare them with the British museum collections, I remain sceptical about its validity. As I have to publish the results of my study about the Brazilian Mammals collections in foreign museums, I will keep for that moment the exposition of my point of view.
Miranda-Ribeiro, A. de (1914). Historia natural. Zoologia. Mammiferos. Commissao de Linhas Telegráphicas Estratégicas de Matto-Grosso ao Amazonas, Anexo no. 5 1-49.
Synonym: Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908).
Locality: The Stockholm museum has 4 specimens originating from east of the Rio Tapajoz, Itapoama; 7 specimens originating from East of the Rio Tapajoz, Aveiros and one specimen originating from Santarem, mouth of the Rio Tapajoz.
Description: Like all titi monkeys these specimens display a certain amount of variation. The colour of the whiskers and the lower parts etc. may be from rather rich ochraceous orange to pale ochraceous buff. The frontal region is from almost white sometimes grizzled and little brownish. The hands and feet may vary from greyish white to pale brownish grey, etc. The description of the tail given by Thomas for his remulus is quite suitable.
Collectors’ measurements: Males: total length 760/796mm; tail 435/422mm; hind foot 90/98mm.
Females: total length 775/810mm; tail 440/480mm; hind foot 98/100mm.
Skull: measurements of 5 individuals in publication.
Remarks: When treating members of this genus it is often united whit considerable difficulties to decide with full certainty their affinity, and to which species they may belong. The cause os this is partly the variability in colour etc. of the animals, but still more the incompleteness of the short descriptions, especially in the earlier literature, and the often contradictory statements concerning the characteristics of animals decribed under the same name by different authors. In consequence of this the present author was at first hesitating, whether the titi monkey, now treated under the name C. baptista as a new species, really deserved this rank. It appeared namely at the first look that it offered a certain resemblance with the species quoted in the literature under the name C. moloch Hoffmannsegg. The general pattern seemed to be somewhat similar in several respects, but there were also statements that it did not suit at all. Unfortunately the original description by Hoffmannsegg was not available to me, and this increased my hesitation. It disappeared, however, when I found that such an eminent author as Isidore Geoffroy Saint Hillaire had had the opportunity to describe C. moloch and also to communicate a very fine coloured figure of the same (1844). The latter is said to be “faite d’après le vivant”. Concerning the original of this figure the author quoted has also later on given the very important communication in the “Catalogue” (1851), name that it was “one of the types of the species”. From Brasil, given by M. Hoffmannsegg, 1808. It was also said that it had been living in the menagery and then been painted by M. Werner. From this painting I. Goeffroy St. Hillaire had had his coloured plate engraved for the volume cited above. It may thus be considered that it is a typical specimen that has been the original to this coloured plate, which gives the impression of being very carefully made, by a skilful artist.
The description by the author quoted, and the fine figure of one of the original specimens of Callithrix (as the genus was called) moloch Hoffmannsegg prove quite plainly that the titi monkey, which I have described under the name C. baptista is quite different and certainly not identical with C. moloch.
Wagner has also expressed a quite similar opinion about C. moloch as I. Geoffroy St. Hillaire as well (1840). His diagnose for C. moloch is very good for the monkey which Thomas later named C. remulus, but cannot be applied to the titi monkey, for which I have proposed the name C. baptista. From a zoogeographic also it does not appear to be any objection to consider C. remulus (Thomas) as identical with C. moloch (Hoffmannsegg). The latter had namely obtained his animals in the state of Pará, thus on the southern side of lower Amazonas near its mouth. Elliot has added to this concerning the type locality of C. moloch “near the mouth of Rio Tapajos”. The first locality indicated by Thomas for C. remulus is Santarem E. of Rio Tapajoz (1908). A few years later (1913), he adds that it was distributed over “the area between the Amazon, Xingu and Tapajoz, at the north-western corner of which Santarem is situated”. Our specimens are likewise from the country E. of Tapajoz. Consequently the type localities of C. moloch and of C. remulus coincide completely, which is a further proof of their identity, whereas C. baptista inhabits a quite different district further west, which appears to have been less explored.
Since the above already was written, I received a direct copy of Hoffmannsegg’s description. The detailed and very careful description of the animal proves that it must be identical with Callicebus remulus and at the same time entirely differs from C. baptista.
Lönnberg, E. (1939). Notes on some members of the genus Callicebus. Arkiv för Zoologi 31 (13): 1-18.
Synonyms: Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus geoffroyi (Miranda Ribeiro, 1914).
Distribution: The range of this species, which Thomas considered restricted to the territory between the Amazon and its affluents the Tapajoz and Xingu, must be extended beyond the latter to the Araguaya, at least south of the fourth degree of south latitude, for it was found at Sao Joao on the Araguaya, although the specimen mentioned there exist the variations of colouring pointed out which do not seem to us sufficient to justify a specific separation. In view of the acquisitions of Prof. Miranda Ribeiro it is necessary to extend the limits of its range also to the southwest to the basin of the Gy-parana.
This species has been acquired for scientific collections at Santarem, at Taperinha, near that city; at Cussari and Tumucuri, between the Tapajoz and Xingu; on the Iriri River, left bank affluent of the latter; at Sao Joao on the Araguaya; and at Urupa on the Gy-parana.
Description: Hairs on top of the head white or whitish with a median black band, the whole being of a general speckled-grey appearance frosted with white; forehead white or almost white, sometimes with long stiff entirely black hairs in the eyebrows. Nape, back and loins more or less washed with tawny brownish, the hairs with the basal third greyish brownish and the rest ringed with black and brownish tawny. Shoulders and flanks lighter, the pale ring being whitish. On the outer surface of the limbs are more or less dark grey hairs ringed with white. Hands and feet white, at times shading to yellowish or to greyish when there is a mixture of black hairs. On the sides of the head and the throat the hairs forming a collar shade from whitish yellow at the base to beautiful burnt yellow at the tip. Under parts and inner side of the limbs ochraceous yellow, the hairs in general with a lighter-coloured basal portion. Tail black or brownish black, with a mixture more or less of whitish or yellowish hairs partially or entirely. In the majority of the specimens the tip of the tail is pale, without a mixture of black. Great individual variations are found in the colouring. In a series of eight specimens in the Museu Goeldi collection one has feet almost identical to those of C. hoffmannsi, three others have the dorsal hair rings indistinct, the back being heavily washed with reddish or silvery brownish (in the last case, and adult female, the hairs of the lower back are silvery-tipped); another adult female tagged as coming from Sao Joao on the Araguaya is yellowish grey on the whole dorsal surface, slightly washed with brownish on the median band, the rings of the hairs also being indistinct; finally, on an adult male collected on the Iriri River the back has the annulations very distinct, almost without any reddish or brownish shades, and there are an almost pure white forehead and collar, which form a complete border around the face. The colour of the under parts and of the inner side surface of the limbs also varies individually in intensity, shading from light yellowish through burnt orange yellow to deep ochraceous yellow, almost brownish. We also had the opportunity of observing two living specimens in the hands of an animal dealer that were very pale in colouring, although with the same arrangement of colours as the typical form.
Measurements: (in the flesh), head and body 330mm; tail 480mm; foot 90mm.
Remarks: Type in the British Museum.
The individual variations found in the series of the Museu Goeldi give on the impression that all forms of “uapussas” on the lower Amazon are varieties of the same species which, in turn, is allied to species outside the zoogeographical Amazon province. By the colouring of its feet one specimen of C. remulus seems to be close to its neighbour C. hoffmannsi; by the dorsal colouring of the other specimens the individual variations seem to approximate this species to C. emiliae; and one individual with one of the extreme variations of ventral colouring approximates C. moloch. Because of this, only the comparison of a good series of skulls may, in the future, as unfortunately is so often the case in the classification of Amazionian monkeys, mark the true relationship of these forms. Miranda Ribeiro, has occasion to compare two skins which he had obtained at Urupa, on the Gy-parana, with those of the British museum collection, and although he allocated them to this species he makes reservations as to its validity, leaving for a future time his exposition of reasons. It should be noted that at the same locality and at Porto do Passagem on the Pimenta Bueno he obtained other specimens with a very pale colouring to which he gave the name C. geoffroyi and which he says are very close to I. Geoffroy’s plate, which does not seem to resemble closely Hoffmannsegg’s C. moloch. It is possible, therefore, that they are identical to the specimens we mentioned above which belonged to a dealer that buys for the German zoological gardens, all of which would strengthen our doubts. Lönnberg thinks that C. moloch and C. remulus are synonymous.
Cruz-Lima, E. da (1945). Mammals of Amazonia Vol. 1. General introduction and primates pp. 175-198.
Synonyms: Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus geoffroyi (Miranda Ribeiro, 1914).
Distribution: South-east of Amazonas; Para (region between Tapajos and Xingu rivers; Santarem, Caxiricatuba, Bom Hardin, Piquiatuba; Rio Araguaia).
Vieira, C. da C. (1955). Lista remissiva dos mamiferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 8 (10): 375-379.
Callicebus moloch moloch
Synonyms: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Simia moloch (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix moloch (Geoffroy, 1812); Saguinus moloch (Lesson, 1840); Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus emiliae (Thomas, 1911); Callicebus moloch (Elliot, 1913).
Distribution: Lower Amazonas, from the mouth of the Tapajos.
Remarks: The concurrence between remulus and moloch has been demonstrated by Lönnberg (1939), who noticed that variations in tinge of the pelage colour can occur on the same locality. C. emiliae, based on only one specimen of the lower Amazon, cannot be considered distinct of the typical form, neither by characters or origin.
Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.
Callicebus moloch moloch
Synonyms: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1907); Callithrix moloch (Geoffroy, 1812); Callithrix Moloch (Kuhl, 1820); C. moloch (Wagner, 1840); Callicebus moloch (Elliot, 1913); (Callithrix) hypoxanta (Illeger, 1815); (Callithrix) hypokantha (Olfers, 1818); Simia sakir (Giebel, 1855); Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus emiliae (Thomas, 1911).
Type locality: Originally said to be “around the city of Pará”, where the species is not known to occur. The type locality is now redetermined as the right bank of the lower Rio Tapajóz, district of Santarem, Para, Brazil. Two cotypes in Berlin Museum, one in Paris Museum.
Distribution: South of the Rio Amazonas, from the left bank of the Rio Tocantins to the right bank of the Rio Tapajoz, Pará, Brazil.
Description: (key to species:) general body colour grey, reddish or brown; under parts like back or sharply defined reddish orange or buff; hind feet black, brown, red or grey, tail grey or blackish with tip grey or grey mixed with black; throat like chest; forearms grey, red, dark brown sometimes blackish above; upper surface of hands grey to blackish never sharply contrasted with colour of upper side of wrists. Forehead like crown, grey to reddish brown and not defined from nape; outer sides of forearms coarsely ticked greyish, buffy or brown. Sides of head bright yellow or orange sharply contrasting with grizzled crown; upper portion of pinna like crown; tail dominantly blackish at least basally. Upper surface of hands and feet dominantly grey or buff.
Measurements: see table in publication.
Remarks: Specimens from the right bank of the lower Tapajóz agree best with Hoffmannsegg’s description of moloch. They are ochraceous buff to ochraceous orange on undersides of body, inner sides of limbs and sides of face; crown and outer sides of limbs are grey, back greyish brown to reddish brown, tail mixed grey, buff, dark brown and black, the darker colours dominating except at tip.
Callicebus remulus, from Santarem on the right bank of the Tapajóz at its mouth, is practically topotypical of moloch. Thomas compared it only with donacophilus and ornatus. The type of Callicebus emiliae from the “lower Amazons” also belongs here. Said to differ from donacophilus, moloch, ornatus and remulus by its “rich bay or hazel” back, its description actually applies to any one of several specimens of moloch at hand from the lower Rio Tapajóz.
Intergradation between moloch on the right bank of the Rio Tapajóz and the convergent hoffmannsi on the opposite side cannot be achieved except circuitously through donacophilus of south central Brazil.
Specimens examined: Brazil – Para: Fordlandia, Piquiatuba, Tapaiuna, Tauary, Tavio.
De Vivo, 1985
Locality: Rondonia, Nova Brasilia (11º09’S 61º34’W); Nova Colina (10º48’S 61º43’W).
Remarks: The Nova Colina skin, although more reddish on its under parts than other specimens I have examined of C. moloch (C. moloch moloch sensu Hershkovitz, 1963), is here assigned to this species because it presents the upper parts of limbs grizzled grey with lighter hands and feet, greyish crown and brownish dorsum, becoming greyish brown on the sides.
The records from Rondonia are the south-westernmost of C. moloch, a species previously known only from the state of Para, between the rivers Tapajos and Tocantins. Miranda-Ribeiro (1914) reported C. remulus, a junior synonym of C. moloch, from Urupa, a locality adjacent to Ji-Parana, Rondonia, but I found no specimens from this locality in the Museu Nacional. Miranda-Ribeiro did not describe the skins he assigned to C. remulus and Hershkovitz (1963) judged the specimens to be misidentified C. moloch donacophilus, in which he was followed by later authors. C. cineracens (sic) Spix 1823, was also reported by Miranda-Ribeiro from the headwaters of the Jiparana, then in Mato Grosso, now in Rondonia. One skin from this locality I have seen at the Museu Nacional is not C. moloch and is also quite distinct from donacophilus, which Hershkovitz (1963) thought to be the correct identification of the specimen.
Callicebus geoffroyi of Miranda-Ribeiro, 1914, type locality Urupa, Rondonia, was named after a single skin but was not formally described except for a comment on its similarity to a plate by I. Geoffroy (1844, plate 3) captioned as moloch Hoff. but that Miranda-Ribeiro did not consider to represent “true” moloch. I have not found the holotype of C. geoffroyi in the Museu Nacional but the skin of MNRJ 2925, without locality, is identified by Miranda-Ribeiro himself as geoffroyi (see also Avila-Pires, 1963). This skin is in poor condition but it compares favourably with I. Geoffroy’s plate which, in my opinion, represents an individual of C. moloch. The Museu Nacional specimen differs from the Nova Colina skin by having lighter throat and forehead. This type of variation, however, is found in other series of C. moloch I have examined. Therefore C. geoffroyi Miranda-Ribeiro should be considered a junior synonym of C. moloch Hoffmannsegg, 1807, and not of C. moloch donacophilus D’Orbigny, 1835, as proposed by Hershkovitz (1963).
Synomyms: Callicebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Callithrix hypoxanta (Illeger, 1815); Callithrix hypokantha (Olfers, 1818); Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908), Callicebus emiliae (Thomas, 1911); Callicebus geoffroyi (Miranda Ribeiro, 1914).
Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.
Synonyms: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Callithrix hypoxantha (Illeger, 1815 – nom numen); Callithrix hypokantha (Olfers, 1818); Simia sakir (Giebel, 1855); Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus emiliae (Thomas, 1911) and Callicebus geoffroyi (Miranda Ribeiro, 1914).
Distribution: South of the Amazon, from Rio Tocantins-Araguaia to Rio Tapajos.
Description: Body lighter, redder than in C. hoffmannsi and C. baptista; the hairs with short, light grey base, usually four alternating pairs of bands, light red and black, tip usually black. Crown light grey, the hairs with very long white base, black shaft, white tip. Limbs much greyer than body, becoming light tawny towards hands and feet, which are buffy white. Tail black, with tendency to have a light tip. Underside fiery red, this tone broadly extending to inner aspects of limbs (including hands and feet), cheeks, and chin.
Remarks: I expected that when I was able to examine skins for myself, I would reduce all three (moloch, baptista and hoffmannsi) to subspecies under C. moloch; instead, study of the specimens in AMNH demonstrated to me that each is specifically distinct.