Literature moloch

Hoffmannsegg, 1807

Cebus moloch

Type locality: Around the town of Pará, Brazil.

Description: Mouse-grey; temples, sides of the face and undersides rust-coloured. Tail brown, on the tip like the hands, whitish.
It is large as a small cat, the tail very thin, but more than a hand’s breadth longer as the body. The head is small, and egg-shaped. The grey hairs on the head are short and directed backwards; the hairs on the sides are up to one inch long and at longest on the chin, directed to all sides, with an almost bold spot on the throat.
The hairs of the forehead cover the front till the eyebrows completely, and become downwards shorter; there develops a thin stripe of longer black hairs. Short white hairs on the upper lip. Face bald and brownish, probably flesh-red coloured in life. Only on the sides of the head and the lips are white hairs.
I have indicated the twofold colouration of the Moloch already in the beginning on such a way that nothing needs to be added, it can be compared to a leave that is painted grey on the upper side but rust-red on the underside. When one observes it from above, nothing but mouse-grey can be seen; from below the body is completely rust-coloured, with only on the borders the longer grey hairs. The hairs are on the forehead, where they are at shortest, only ¼ of an inch, but become longer towards the backside, and are 50mm long near the tail.
The colour of the hairs needs more attention. At the base they are pale-grey, then they are over a third of their length brown-grey, and from their there are three to four alternating rings of dirty-white and grey-brown, resulting in seven to nine rings of 2 to 3 mm wide, but the tips are usually dark. Sometimes the brown dominates – mostly on the back-, sometimes the grey – mostly on the head, feet and sides. He hairs on the four hands are very short, mixed with that many white hairs that they become almost completely white.
The tail is at the base rather thick, but the hairs lie towards the tip closer to the each other and the tail becomes therefore thinner. The hairs loose their whitish rings and become almost uniform grey-black mixed with some brown. The bushy tip is of dirty whitish hairs, a colour that can also be found on the underside of the terminal part of the tail.
As mentioned before, the rust-red colour dominates on the underside of the body, the head and the legs, with the exception of the tail, till the sides of the head and the temples. On the sides of the head and the temples, on the forearms and lower legs, are the rust-coloured hairs very dense and shorter; on the breast, belly and thighs they become longer, but are less dense, at some places that sparse that the skin is visible.
The rust-colour is in several individuals, which I judge to be younger, especially on the face, straw-yellow to yellowish-white.

Measurements: head and body 314mm; tail 450mm.

Hoffmannsegg, J.C. (1807). Beschreibung vier Affenartiger Thiere aus Brasilien. Magasin für die neuestent Entdeckungen des gesammenten Naturkunde 1: 96-100.

Humboldt, 1812

Simia moloch

Distribution: Grand-Pará.

Description: murina, temporibus, genis et abdomine ferrugineis, cauda fusca, apice manibusque albidis (cf. Hoffmannsegg).

Humboldt, A. de (1812). Recueil d’Observations de Zoologie d’Anatomie Comparée 1 : 358.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812

Callithrix moloch

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Pelage reddish-grey: temples, cheeks and belly a vivid red: the end of the tail and the hands white.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (1812). Tableau de Qaudrumanes. Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 19 : 114.

Spix, 1814spix 1812 moloch

Simia moloch (Hoffmannsegg)

Synonyms: Simia moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Callitrix moloch (Geoffroy)

Distribution: Brazil

Description: Upper side mouse-grey, the back more brownish. The cheeks, the underside, the inner side of the four limbs completely rusty-coloured; the tail, somewhat 3 fingers longer than the body, is grey-black, the tip just like the hands, feet and forehead grey-whitish. The hairs on the head, hands and feet short, on the forehead somewhat standing forwards, for the rest of the body long and directed back- or downwards. Some small blackish hairs on the upper lip.

Spix, J.B. de (1814). Abhandlungen über die Affen der alten und neuen Welt….. Denkschriften der Königlichen Akademie des Wissenschaften zu München 4: 330-332.

Desmarest, 1819

Callithrix moloch

Synonyms: Callithrix moloch (Geoffroy, 1812); Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807).

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: This monkey from Brazil, named moloch by M. de Hoffmannsegg, is one of the most beautiful that we have observed. It is a bit smaller than the capuchin monkey. The upper side of the body, of his head and his neck and of the outer sides of the limbs are covered with hairs that are ringed grey-brown and white, which results in a uniform and nice mixture of these two hues. The tail is half as long as the body, rather luxurious towards the base and thin at the end; it is covered with hairs that are speckled with grey-brown, blackish and dirty white, and the rings on the hairs are wider than those on the body; the upper side of the feet, and especially the hands, and the tip of the tail, are bright grey, almost white. The face is naked and dark; the cheeks, under side of neck, chest, abdomen, inner sides of limbs are a pretty rufous-reddish, fading into red on the parts contiguous with the grey parts of the body.

We know nothing about its natural behaviour.

Desmarest, A.G. (1819). Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle 30: 31-32.

Desmarest, 1820

Callithrix moloch

Synonyms: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1809); Callithrix moloch (Geoffroy, 1812).

Distribution: Pará.

Description: Pelage ash-coloured, hairs ringed on the upper parts; temples, cheeks and belly vivid red; tip of the tail and hands light grey, almost white. Tail almost half as long as body. The upper side of the body, of his head and his neck and of the outer sides of the limbs are covered with hairs that are ringed light grey and pale brown, which results in a uniform and nice mixture of these two hues. The hairs of the tail (which is rather luxurious towards the base and thin at the end) are ringed with grey-brown, blackish and dirty white. The outer side of the limbs are paler grey than the upper parts of the body; the upper side of the feet, and especially the hands, and the tip of the tail, are bright grey, almost white. The face is naked and dark; some rigid black hairs on the cheeks and the chin; hairs on the crown short; the cheeks, under side of neck, chest, abdomen, inner sides of limbs are a pretty rufous-reddish, fading into red on the parts contiguous with the grey parts of the body, which are clearly separated.

Desmarest, A.G. (1820).  Mammalogie ou description des espèces de mammifères 1: 87-88.

Kuhl, 1820

Callithrix moloch

Synonym: Callithrix moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807).

Distribution: Pará.

Description: Belly and innersides extremities, cheeks and moustance rusty-red. Upper side greyish (hairs ringed and long), tip of tail and hands white.

Kuhl, H. (1820).  Beiträge zur Zoologie und vergleichenden Anatomie pp. 40.

Griffith, 1821

Simia moloch

Description: described by Hoffmannsegg. A yellowish ash colour, with the end of the tail and the hands black; the under part, cheeks, and temples bright red.

Griffith, E. (1821): General and particular description of the vertebrated animals. Order Quadrumana.  p. 91.

Schinz, 1821

Callithrix moloch

Distribution: Pará.

Description: Mouse-grey, temples, cheek and belly rusty-colour, tail brown with white tip, hands white.

Schinz, H.K. (1821). Das Thierreich, eingetheilt nach dem Bau der Thiere als Grundlage ihrer Naturgeschichte und der vergleichenden Anatomie von den Herrn Ritter von Cuvier 1: 132-133.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1827

Callithrix moloch

Synonyms: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1809); Callithrix moloch (Geoffroy, 1812; Desmarest, 1820).

Distribution: Pará.

Description: We have seen this monkey in the museum; its size is twice that of the squirrel monkey, and the tail almost half as long as body. The upper side of the body, of his head and of the outer sides of the limbs are covered with hairs that are alternatively ringed light grey and pale brown, which results in speckled appearance. The tail is rather luxurious towards the base and thin at the end, has hairs that are ringed with grey-brown, blackish and dirty white. The upper side of the feet, and especially the hands, and the tip of the tail, are bright grey, almost white. The face is naked and dark with some rigid black hairs on the cheeks and the chin; hairs on the crown short and not flat; the hairs of the cheeks, under side of neck, chest, abdomen, inner sides of limbs are rufous-reddish, fading into red on the parts, especially near the grey parts of the body, which are clearly separated.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (1827). Sagoin. Dictionnaire Science Naturelle 47 :13-14.

Lesson, 1827

Saguinus moloch

Synonym: Saguinus moloch (Desmarest, 1820); Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Callithrix moloch (Geoffroy, 1812).

Distribution: Pará.

Description: Ash-grey pelage, ringed hairs on upper parts; temples, cheeks and belly vivid red; tip of tail and hands light grey, almost white.

Lesson, R. P. (1827). Manuel de mammalogie ou histoire naturelle de mammifères p. 57.

Cuvier and Griffith, 1827

Simia Callithrix Moloch

Synonym: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1809); Callithrix moloch (Geoffroy, 1812).

Distribution: Pará.

Description: Fur ash-coloured, formed of annulated hairs above; temples, cheeks, and belly bright red; tip of the tail and hands greyish white.

Cuvier, G. and Griffith, E. (1827). The Animal Kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization 5: 34.

Stark, 1828

Callithrix moloch

Distribution: Peru.

Description: Fur ash-coloured, with annulated hairs above; temples, cheeks, and belly of lively red; end of the tail and hand clear gray, almost white; tail almost half longer than the body. Size almost double that of the Saimiri.

Stark, J. (1828). Elements of natural history 1:55.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1829

Callithrix moloch

Description: Pelage ashy-reddish; temples, cheeks and belly a vivid red; the tip of the tail and the hands white.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (1829). Cours de l’histoire naturelle des mammifères. Leçon 10 p. 19. 

Fischer, 1829

Cebus moloch

Synonyms: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Callithrix moloch (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1819, 1820, 1827); Simia moloch (Humboldt, 1812; Spix, 1823); Saguinus moloch (Lesson, 1827).

Fischer, J.P. (1829). Synopsis mammalium p. 53.

Lesson, 1829

Callithrix moloch

Synonyms: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1809; Desmarest 1819); Callithrix moloch (Geoffroy, 1812).

Distribution: Pará.

Description: His size is about twice the size of a squirrel monkey. Pelage ash-coloured, but as the hairs are ringed, this results in that the back as well as the outside of the limbs are nicely variated; the outer side of the limbs are paler grey than the upper parts of the body; the upper side of the feet, and especially the hands, and the tip of the tail, are bright grey, almost white. The face is naked and brownish; some rigid hairs on the cheeks and the chin; the under side of the body and inner sides of limbs are a vivid rufous-reddish, stopping at the grey parts of the body without transition; the tail has rather long hairs at the base, then short at the tip, ringed with grey-brown-blackish and dirty-white.

Lesson, R.P. (1829). Sagouin. Dictionnaire classique d’histoire naturelle 15:55.

Cuvier and Voigt, 1831

Simia (Callithrix) moloch

Description: The temple, cheeks and underside red, tail brown with a white tip, hands white.

Cuvier, G. and Voigt, L.S. (1831). Das Thierreich geordnet nach seiner Organisation 1: 96-97.

Jardine, 1833

Callithrix moloch

Synonym: Cebus moloch (Hoffmansegg, 1807); Simia moloch (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix moloch (Geoffry, 1812).

Distribution: Peru.

Description: grey; temples, cheek, and belly, bright reddish; hands, and the end of the tail nearly white.

Jardine, W. (1833). The naturalist’s library  1: 223-224.

Lesson, 1838

Callithrix moloch

Synonym: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Callithrix moloch (Desmarest, 1820).

Distribution: Pará.

Description: Pelage grey; but as the hairs are annulated, the back and the outside of the extremities are nicely variated; the outside of the extremities are paler than the body; the grey of the hands and the tip of the tail is very light and almost white; the face is naked, brownish, covered with some rigid hairs on the cheeks and the chin; the under side of the body and inner sides of the arms and legs are vivid reddish, sharply demarcated from the grey of the body; the tail is covered with long hairs at the base, but shorter at the tip, and annulated grey-brown, blackish and dirty-white.

Lesson, R.P. (1838). Compléments de Buffon, 2e édition Pp. 280-281.

Wagner, 1840

Callithrix moloch

Synonyms: Callicebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807; Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820); Simia Saki Moloch (Spix, 1813); Humboldt, 1812).

Locality: Pará.

Description: the upper and underside of the body is light mixed greyish, on the back more towards brownish and on the four hands more towards whitish; the hairs are annulated whitish and blackish or brownish. Darkest is the tail, which hairs are mixed blackish and brownish, the first colour being dominant; the tip is more light brownish. The whole underside of the body, the inner side of the limbs and the cheeks are nicely pale-red, towards ochreous.

Measurements: head and body 300mm; tail 373-400mm.

Wagner, J.A. (1840). Schreber, die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband, Erste Abtheilung: Die Affen und Flederthiere Pp. 228-234.

Lesson, 1840

Saguinus moloch

Synonyms: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807; Fischer, 1829); Callithrix moloch (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1819, 1820, 1827; Spix, 1823; Lesson, 1829); Simia moloch (Humboldt, 1812); Saguinus moloch (Lesson, 1827); Simia callithrix moloch (Griffith, 1829; Voigt, 1831; Jardine, 1846).

Distribution: Pará.

Description: Pelage ash-coloured, formed by ringed long hairs; extremities of a lighter ashy-colour, to whitish on the hands and tail; face naked, brownish; underside body and inner side limbs reddish; hairs of the tail with grey-brown and whitish rings. Twice the size of a squirrel monkey.

Variation A (callicebus.nl: C. cupreus):

Distribution: Brazil, the forests of the Solimoes, on the border with Peru.

Description: Thick pelage; naked face, blackish; a small line of white hairs on the upper lip; a moustache of some black hairs; back brown-grey; head reddish; cheeks, throat, chest; abdomen and hands coppery; tail greyish-red, ending in black; the other parts varying in brown, black or whitish.

Lesson, R.P. (1840). Species des mammifères bimanes et quadrumanes pp. 161-167.

Schinz, 1844

Callithrix moloch

Synonyms: Callithrix moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807; Geoffroy, 1812); Simia saki moloch (Spix, 1813).

Distribution: Pará, Brazil.

Description: The upper and outer side of the body is light-greyish, the hairs white and blackish annulated. On the back more brownish; the tail black-grey. The undersides of the body, inner sides of legs and cheeks pale-red, almost ochraceous-yellow.

Schinz, H.K. (1844). Systematische verzeichniss aller bis jetz bekannte Säugethiere oder Synopsis Mammalium nach dem Cuvier’schen System 1: 80-83.

I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1844moloch geoffroy 1844

Callithrix moloch

Synonym: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Callithrix moloch (Geoffroy, 1812); Saguinus moloch (Lesson, 1840).

Description: On the head, outer side of the arms and forearms, thighs and legs, ash-coloured speckled with white. On the neck, the back and the rump, reddish. Tail almost completely brown-reddish. The four hands reddish-whitish. All under and internal parts a pretty vivid red.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I. (1844). Description des mammifères nouveaux ou imparfaitement connus 2 : Singes Américains. Archives du Muséum d’histoire naturelle 4: 31-36 + plate 3.

Lesson, 1848

Callithrix moloch

Synonym: Callithrix moloch (E. Geoffroy, 1812).

Distribution: Pará.

Description: greyish on the back, reddish on the under parts, the hands and the tip of the tail white.

Lesson, R.P. (1848). Etudes sur les Mammifères Primates. Revue Zoologique par la Societé Cuvierienne 11:232-233.

Boitard, 1848

Saguinus moloch

Synonyms: Saguinus moloch (Lesson, 1827); Callithrix moloch (I. Geoffroy, 1844); Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807; Fischer, 1829); Cebus cupreus (female) (Spix, 1823); Simia moloch (Humboldt, 1812).

Distribution: Brasil and Pará.

Description: Its pelage is ash-coloured, with long hairs that are ringed black and white; the limbs are a bit paler, fading into whitish on the hands as well as on the extremity of the tail, where the hairs are ringed grey-brown and dirty-white. His face is brownish, naked and the under side of the body as well as the interior of the limbs is a bright reddish. Sometimes he has the pelage more towards reddish, with the cheeks, temples and the belly bright red, and the tip of the tail and the hands white; this is the Simia moloch of Humboldt.
One variety, the Cebus cupreus of Spix, Fischer and Cuvier, can be found in Brasil, in the forests of the Solimoes. It has a more luxurious fur; the face blackish; the head reddish; the cheeks, the throat, the chest, the belly and the hands coppery; a small white moustache on the upper lip; the back brown-greyish; the tail grey-reddish with the extremity black; the other parts are varied brown, black or whitish.

Boitard, P. (1848). Dictionnaire Universel d’Histoire Naturelle 11:290-292.

Wagner, 1848

Callithrix moloch

Synonyms: Callithrix moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807; I. Geoffroy, 1844); Simia saki moloch (Spix, 1813).

Locality: Villa de Tagajor, near Campina. This should be in the neighbourhood of Pará, on the mouth of the Amazon.

Wagner, J.A. (1848). Callithrix. Springaffe. Beitrage zur kenntniss der Säugthiere Amerikas Abhandlungen des Königl. Akademie des Wissenschaften München 5: 446-457.

I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1851

Callithrix Moloch

Synonyms: Cebus Moloch (Hoffmannseg, 1807); Callithrix Moloch (Geoffroy, 1812).

Remarks: The Paris Museum has two specimens:
– one of the types of the species. From Brazil. Donated in 1808 to the museum by M. Hoffmannsegg;
– a male that lived in the Menagerie. The figure in the Archives volume 4 was painted when the animal was still alive.

This species is related to C. discolor, but the under parts are cinnamon red and white, while this colour is mahogany in discolor.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I. (1851).  Catalogue méthodique de la collection des mammifères. Part 1 Mammifères, Introduction et catalogues des primates pp. 39-41.

Wagner, 1855

Callithrix moloch

Synonym: Callithrix moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1806; Wagner, 1840, 1848; I. Geoffroy, 1844, 1851).

Distribution: Pará.

Measurements: body 300mm; tail 375-400mm.

Wagner, J. A. (1855). Schreber, die Saugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband, Fünfte Abtheilung : Die Affen. 

Dahlbom, 1857

Callithrix moloch

Synonyms: Callithrix moloch (I. Geoffroy); Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg)

Description: All hands grey. The body hair has olive colour on top and outer sides, yellow-brown black and greyish of mixed shades. The abdomen and hind limbs and sometimes even the insides of the front limbs are rust-red. The hair of the cheeks, the throat and the chest is rust-red, the tail black of mixed shades.

Measurements: body 370mm; tail 440mm.

Dahlbom. A.G. (1856-1857). Zoologiska Studier, afhandlande Djurrikets naturliga familjer 1: 151-153.

Reichenbach, 1862moloch 9x13

Callithrix moloch

Synonyms: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807; Fischer, 1829); Simia moloch (Humboldt, 1812; Spix, 1813); Callithrix moloch (Geoffroy, 1812; I. Geoffroy, 1844, 1851).

Distribution: Pará, Brazil.

Description: upper side of head, outer sides of arms and forearms, legs and thighs ashy-grey, white spotted. Neck, back and lower back reddish. Tail almost completely red-brown. All hands red-yellow-whitish, under side and inner sides vivid yellow-red.

Measurements: head and body 281mm; tail 355mm.

Reichenbach, 1862. Die Vollständigiste Naturgeschichte der Affen.

Gray, 1866

Callithrix moloch (Hoffmannsegg)

Description: Fur soft, with abundant, elongated, stiffer hairs. The hands and feet white.

Gray, J.E. (1866). Notice of some new species of Callithrix in the collection of the British Museum. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (3) 17: 57-58.

Gray, 1870

Callithrix moloch

Distribution: Brazil.

Synonyms: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Callithrix moloch (Geoffroy, 1812).

Description: Fur dark grey, black-and-red grizzled; cheeks, chest, and belly red; hands and feet dark grey.

Gray, J.E. (1870). Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats in the collection of the British Museum pp. 54-57.

Schlegel, 1876

Callithrix moloch

Synonym: Callithrix moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1806; I. Geoffroy, 1844).

Distribution: This species lives on the southern margins of the lower Amazon and the Rio Pará. The traveller of Hoffmannsegg, Sieber, has discovered the species at the latter locality. Natterer shot individuals near the mouth of the Tabajos (von Pelzeln). Bates observed them near Aveyros, situated on the margins of the Tabajos, at some 40 hours walking from its mouth.

Description: Sides of the head, underside throat and body, as well as the inner side of the four limbs a vivid red-reddish. The hairs of the other parts are ringed with black and white-greyish, the first colour dominates on the tail, the second on the four hands, and the back is washed with reddish.

Remarks: The Leiden museum has one specimen from Pará.

Schlegel, H. (1876). Les singes, Simia. Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Pays-Bas 12 :230-241.

Von Pelzen, 1883

Callithrix Moloch

Synonym: Callithrix Moloch (Wagner, 1848, 1855; Schlegel, 1876).

Distribution: Villa de Tapajoz.

Description: Female, Villa de Tapajoz, in nearby high forest, below the county, the 5th of August 1834. Iris dark hazel brown. The little naked skin of the face black, the upper eyelids somewhat transparent skin colour. The small ears hairy, only the inner side naked, dark brown. The tips of the fingers, their underside, the toes and the underside of the hands and feet hairless and black. Small, brownish genitals.
Main colour of upper body clear ashy-grey mixed with black-brownish, back more brownish, upper site of hands and feet almost white. Cheeks strongly haired and buffish-white, the rest of the lower body and the underside of the arms and legs dark buffish. Tail dark brown, but with light brown roots. Tip of tail vivid yellowish-brown.

Measurements: Total length: 85.1cm; tail 46.4cm.

Pelzen, A. von (1883). Brasilische Säugethiere pp. 19-20.

Jentink, 1892

Callithrix moloch

Remarks: the Leiden museum has two individuals:
– an adult individual, from Pará, Brazil. Obtained in 1870;
– an adult female from Bolivia. Obtained from Frank.

Jentink, F.A. (1892). Catalogue systématique des mammifères (singes, carnivores, ruminants, pachydermes, sirènes et cétacés). Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle des Pays Bas 11: 51-53.

Forbes, 1896

Callithrix moloch

Synonyms: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Callithrix moloch (Geoffroy, 1812; I. Geoffroy, 1844; Gray, 1870).

Distribution: Throughout Brazil.

Description: Differs from C. cinerascens in having the cheeks, chest, and belly red. Hands and feet of the same colour as the back, grey.

Forbes, H.O. (1896). A Handbook of the Primates pp. 159-165 + plate 14.

Meerwarth, 1897

Callihtrix moloch

Distribution: Interior of Amazonas, Rio Pará, Tapajós.

Description: Undersides intensive red, hairs of other body parts black annulated brown-greyish, tail black, hands and feet grey.

Meerwarth, H. (1897-1898). Simios (macacos) do novo mundo. Boletin do Museo Paraense de  Historia Natural y Etn. 2: 121-154.

Trouessart, 1898-1899

Callithrix moloch

Synonym: moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807; I. Geoffroy, 1844; Wagner, 1855; Pelzeln, 1883).

Distribution: Brazil, Rio Para, east of Tapajos.

Trouessart, E.L. (1898-1899). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium 1: 44-46.

Trouessart, 1904-1905

Callicebus moloch

Distribution: Brazil, in ripa merid. Fl. Amazonia; Rio Para.

Trouessart, E.L. (1904-1905). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium Quinquennale Suppl. Pp. 25-26.

Elliot, 1913

Callicebus moloch

Synonyms: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1907); Simia moloch (Humboldt, 1811); Callithrix moloch (Geoffroy, 1812, 1828; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820; Wagner, 1840, 1855; I. Geoffroy, 1844, 1851; Dahlbom, 1856; Reichenbach, 1862; Bates, 1863; Gray, 1870; Schlegel, 1876; von Pelzeln, 1883; Weldon, 1884; Forbes, 1984); Saguinus moloch (Lesson, 1840; 1842).

Type locality: Banks of the Rio Para.

Distribution: Banks of the Rio Para near the mouth of the Rio Tapajos, Lower Amazon, Brazil.

Description: Cheeks, chest and belly reddish. Top of head, nape, shoulders and outer sides of arms, brownish grey, the hairs with black tips; rest of upper parts reddish-brown, hairs annulated with black; hind limbs similar to arms but paler; sides of head, under parts and inner side of limbs orange red; hands and feet grey; tail reddish brown and black at base, black and grey washed with brown for remainder, the hairs being pale brownish grey with black tips.

Measurements: Size of C. cupreus.

Skull: occipito-nasal length, 53; hensel, 40; zygomatic width, 36; intertemporal width, 31 ; length of nasals, 10; length of upper molar series, 15 ; length of mandible, 36; length of lower molar series, 17.

Remarks: At Aveyros on the Amazon, Bates met with this species, the only monkey in that locality, and which was called by the Indians Thacapu-sai. Although allied to the Cebi he found that it possessed none of their restless activity, but was dull and listless. It goes in small flocks of five or six individuals, and runs along the main boughs of the trees. He obtained an individual one morning at sunrise on a low fruit tree behind his house, the only instance in his experience of one being captured in such a situation, for it must have descended to the ground and walked some distance to reach it. Though kept as a pet by the natives, it is not very amusing and does not live long in captivity.

Elliot, D.G. (1913). A review of the primates 1: 234-257.

Rode, 1938

Callithrix moloch

Specimen 97 (687/522) – “one of the types of the species”.

Locality: Brazil.

Remarks: Specimen donated by Count d’Hoffmannsegg in 1808. Adult, good condition, skull in mounted specimen.

Rode, P. (1938). Catalogue des Types de Mammifères du muséum national d’histoire naturelle – 1, Ordre des Primates pp. 34-36.

Lönnberg, 1939

Callicebus moloch

Synonym: Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908).

Locality: The Stockholm museum has 4 specimens originating from east of the Rio Tapajoz, Itapoama; 7 specimens originating from East of the Rio Tapajoz, Aveiros and one specimen originating from Santarem, mouth of the Rio Tapajoz.

Description: Like all titi monkeys these specimens display a certain amount of variation. The colour of the whiskers and the lower parts etc. may be from rather rich ochraceous orange to pale ochraceous buff. The frontal region is from almost white sometimes grizzled and little brownish. The hands and feet may vary from greyish white to pale brownish grey, etc. The description of the tail given by Thomas for his remulus is quite suitable.

Collectors’ measurements: Males: total length 760/796mm; tail 435/422mm; hind foot 90/98mm.
Females: total length 775/810mm; tail 440/480mm; hind foot 98/100mm.

Skull: measurements of 5 individuals in publication.

Remarks: When treating members of this genus it is often united whit considerable difficulties to decide with full certainty their affinity, and to which species they may belong. The cause os this is partly the variability in colour etc. of the animals, but still more the incompleteness of the short descriptions, especially in the earlier literature, and the often contradictory statements concerning the characteristics of animals decribed under the same name by different authors. In consequence of this the present author was at first hesitating, whether the titi monkey, now treated under the name C. baptista as a new species, really deserved this rank. It appeared namely at the first look that it offered a certain resemblance with the species quoted in the literature under the name C. moloch Hoffmannsegg. The general pattern seemed to be somewhat similar in several respects, but there were also statements that it did not suit at all. Unfortunately the original description by Hoffmannsegg was not available to me, and this increased my hesitation. It disappeared, however, when I found that such an eminent author as Isidore Geoffroy Saint Hillaire had had the opportunity to describe C. moloch and also to communicate a very fine coloured figure of the same (1844). The latter is said to be “faite d’après le vivant”. Concerning the original of this figure the author quoted has also later on given the very important communication in the “Catalogue” (1851), name that it was “one of the types of the species”. From Brasil, given by M. Hoffmannsegg, 1808. It was also said that it had been living in the menagery and then been painted by M. Werner. From this painting I. Goeffroy St. Hillaire had had his coloured plate engraved for the volume cited above. It may thus be considered that it is a typical specimen that has been the original to this coloured plate, which gives the impression of being very carefully made, by a skilful artist.

The description by the author quoted, and the fine figure of one of the original specimens of Callithrix (as the genus was called) moloch Hoffmannsegg prove quite plainly that the titi monkey, which I have described under the name C. baptista is quite different and certainly not identical with C. moloch.

Wagner has also expressed a quite similar opinion about C. moloch as I. Geoffroy St. Hillaire as well (1840). His diagnose for C. moloch  is very good for the monkey which Thomas later named C. remulus, but cannot be applied to the titi monkey, for which I have proposed the name C. baptista. From a zoogeographic also it does not appear to be any objection to consider C. remulus (Thomas) as identical with C. moloch (Hoffmannsegg). The latter had namely obtained his animals in the state of Pará, thus on the southern side of lower Amazonas near its mouth. Elliot has added to this concerning the type locality of C. moloch “near the mouth of Rio Tapajos”. The first locality indicated by Thomas for C. remulus is Santarem E. of Rio Tapajoz (1908). A few years later (1913), he adds that it was distributed over “the area between the Amazon, Xingu and Tapajoz, at the north-western corner of which Santarem is situated”. Our specimens are likewise from the country E. of Tapajoz. Consequently the type localities of C. moloch and of C. remulus coincide completely, which is a further proof of their identity, whereas C. baptista inhabits a quite different district further west, which appears to have been less explored.

Since the above already was written, I received a direct copy of Hoffmannsegg’s description. The detailed and very careful description of the animal proves that it must be identical with Callicebus remulus and at the same time entirely differs from C. baptista.

Lönnberg, E. (1939). Notes on some members of the genus Callicebus. Arkiv för Zoologi 31 (13): 1-18.

Cabrera and Ypes, 1940

Callicebus moloch

Distribution: Lower Amazon, from the Rio Madeira.

Description: Ash-brownish, somewhat reddish on the lower back; the hands and feet grey; the tail varying brownish, grey and black; under parts bright reddish, continuing on the sides of the throat towards the ears and the cheeks. Size as C. torquatus.

Cabrera and Ypes (1940). Mamiferos Sud Americanos. Compana Argentina de Editores, Buenos Aires pp. 85-88.

Cruz Lima, 1945

Callicebus moloch

Synonym: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807).

Description: Top of the head, nape, shoulders and outer sides of arms, brownish grey, the hairs with black tips; rest of upper parts reddish brown, hairs annulated with black; hind limbs to arms but paler; sides of head, under parts and inner side of limbs orange red; hands and feet grey; tail reddish brown and black at base, black and grey washed with brown for remainder, the hairs being pale brownish grey with black tips (description of the type given by Elliot).

Remarks: Type in the Paris Museum.
The differences in the colouring between this and the two preceding species (remulus and hoffmannsi) reside principally on the head and under parts, as may be seen by comparing the descriptions. These differences, however, were not sufficient to avoid confusion with the above forms, principally on the part of former authors, who evidently refer to specimens of other low Amazon species as belonging to moloch. As a result the range of these animals is completely uncertain. The locality of the type, banks of the Para River, is probably a mistake, the existence of representatives of this species not being known to us on the terminal section of the Tocantins geographically known by this name. The specimens for the Tapajoz are in all probability C. remulus, those from the right bank, and C. hoffmannsi, those from the left. The same is the case, probably, with the specimens mentioned by Bates at Aveiros. Elliot’s distribution is ridiculous geographically and Forbes’ is exaggerated, so that we are forced to accept only what remains, i.e. a vague designation of the lower Amazon, southern bank. Lönnberg considers also as belonging to this species the specimens in the Stockholm Museum collected on the right bank of the Tapajoz (Itapoama, Aveiros, Santarem), this being in accordance, as a matter of fact, with his opinion on the identity of this species with remulus.

Cruz-Lima, E. da (1945). Mammals of Amazonia Vol. 1. General introduction and primates pp. 175-198.

Vieira, 1955

Callicebus moloch

Synonym: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807).

Distribution: Pará (Itapoa, Aveiros, Santarem, Rio Tapajos).

Vieira, C. da C. (1955). Lista remissiva dos mamiferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 8 (10): 375-379.

Vieira, 1955

Callicebus remulus

Synonyms: Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus geoffroyi (Miranda Ribeiro, 1914).

Distribution: South-east of Amazonas; Pará (region between Tapajos and Xingu rivers; Santarem, Caxiricatuba, Bom Hardin, Piquiatuba; Rio Araguaia).


Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus moloch moloch

Synonyms: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Simia moloch (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix moloch (Geoffroy, 1812); Saguinus moloch (Lesson, 1840); Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus emiliae (Thomas, 1911); Callicebus moloch (Elliot, 1913).

Distribution: Lower Amazonas, from the mouth of the Tapajos.

Remarks: The concurrence between remulus and moloch has been demonstrated by Lönnberg (1939), who noticed that variations in tinge of the pelage colour can occur on the same locality. C. emiliae, based on only one specimen of the lower Amazon, cannot be considered distinct of the typical form, neither by characters or origin.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de     Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hershkovitz, 1959

Cebus hypokantha = nomen numen of Illiger (1815), cited by Olfers (1818) = Callicebus moloch.

Herhskovitz, P. (1959). Nomenclature and Taxonomy of the Neotropical Mammals Described by Olfers, 1818. Journal of Mammalogy, Vol. 40, No. 3  pp. 337-353.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus moloch moloch

Synonyms: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908); C. geoffroyi (Ribeiro, 1914).

Type locality: Banks of the Rio Pará (= terminal part of Rio Tocantins), Pará, Brazil. Type in Paris museum. Type locality of remulus Santarém, in British Museum. Type locality of geoffroyi Urupa, Rio Gy-Paraná, tributary of Rio Madeira, south-eastern Amazonas, near border of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

Description: Crown, nape, shoulders and lateral surfaces of arms brownish-grey, each hair black tipped; rest of upper parts reddish-brown, hairs annulated with black; hindlimbs like arms, but paler; sides of head, chin, throat and remainder of under parts, including medial aspects of limbs, orange; hands and feet grey; tail reddish-brown and black at root, distally black and grey with brownish wash, each hair pale brownish-grey with black tip (based on Elliot’s description of the type specimen).

Hoffmannseggg’s original description is short but precise and is quoted in full by Lönnberg. On these considerations, as well on geographical grounds, Lönnberg came to the conclusion that Thomas’s remulus is a pure synonym of moloch, and consequently is also Miranda Ribeiro’s geoffroyi from the Gy-Paraná.

Measurements: in the publication.

Distribution: Range uncertain. Type locality probably erroneous (“like many early specimens, it was probably picked up near Pará, having been bought elsewhere”), since the existence of representatives of this group in that area is unconfirmed. Specimens from the Tio Tapajóz pertain to the forms named remulus (right bank) and hoffmannsi (left bank), and this probably also applies to those at Aveiros mentioned by Bates. Lönnberg relegated material from Santarém, Aveiros and Itapoaca to moloch, for he regarded, quite justifiably, remulus as identical with moloch.
Lima states that though Thomas restricted the territory of his remulus to the area south of the Amazon between the Tapajóz and the Xingu, this must now be extended eastwards to the Araguaya at least to 4°S, since it has been collected at Sao Joao; the range must also be extended south-westwards to the Gy-Paraná.

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Hershkovitz, 1963

Callicebus moloch moloch

Synonyms: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1907); Callithrix moloch (Geoffroy, 1812); Callithrix Moloch (Kuhl, 1820); C. moloch (Wagner, 1840); Callicebus moloch (Elliot, 1913); (Callithrix) hypoxanta (Illeger, 1815); (Callithrix) hypokantha (Olfers, 1818); Simia sakir (Giebel, 1855); Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus emiliae (Thomas, 1911).

Type locality: Originally said to be “around the city of Pará”, where the species is not known to occur. The type locality is now redetermined as the right bank of the lower Rio Tapajóz, district of Santarem, Para, Brazil. Two cotypes in Berlin Museum, one in Paris Museum.

Distribution: South of the Rio Amazonas, from the left bank of the Rio Tocantins to the right bank of the Rio Tapajoz, Pará, Brazil.

Description: (key to species:) general body colour grey, reddish or brown; under parts like back or sharply defined reddish orange or buff; hind feet black, brown, red or grey, tail grey or blackish with tip grey or grey mixed with black; throat like chest; forearms grey, red, dark brown sometimes blackish above; upper surface of hands grey to blackish never sharply contrasted with colour of upper side of wrists. Forehead like crown, grey to reddish brown and not defined from nape; outer sides of forearms coarsely ticked greyish, buffy or brown. Sides of head bright yellow or orange sharply contrasting with grizzled crown; upper portion of pinna like crown; tail dominantly blackish at least basally. Upper surface of hands and feet dominantly grey or buff.

Measurements: see table in publication.

Remarks: Specimens from the right bank of the lower Tapajóz agree best with Hoffmannsegg’s description of moloch. They are ochraceous buff to ochraceous orange on undersides of body, inner sides of limbs and sides of face; crown and outer sides of limbs are grey, back greyish brown to reddish brown, tail mixed grey, buff, dark brown and black, the darker colours dominating except at tip.
Callicebus remulus, from Santarem on the right bank of the Tapajóz at its mouth, is practically topotypical of moloch. Thomas compared it only with donacophilus and ornatus. The type of Callicebus emiliae from the “lower Amazons” also belongs here. Said to differ from donacophilus, moloch, ornatus and remulus by its “rich bay or hazel” back, its description actually applies to any one of several specimens of moloch at hand from the lower Rio Tapajóz.
Intergradation between moloch on the right bank of the Rio Tapajóz and the convergent hoffmannsi on the opposite side cannot be achieved except circuitously through donacophilus of south central Brazil.

Specimens examined: Brazil – Pará: Fordlandia, Piquiatuba, Tapaiuna, Tauary, Tavio.


Branch, 1983

Callicebus moloch moloch

Distribution: south-eastern side of the Rio Tapajós, Amazon (Tapajós) National Park.

Branch, L.C. (1983). Seasonal and Habitat Differences in the Abundance of Primates in the Amazon (Tapajos) National Park, Brazil. Primates, 24(3): 424-431.

De Vivo, 1985

Callicebus moloch

Locality: Rondonia, Nova Brasilia (11º09’S 61º34’W); Nova Colina (10º48’S 61º43’W).

Remarks: The Nova Colina skin, although more reddish on its under parts than other specimens I have examined of C. moloch (C. moloch moloch sensu Hershkovitz, 1963), is here assigned to this species because it presents the upper parts of limbs grizzled grey with lighter hands and feet, greyish crown and brownish dorsum, becoming greyish brown on the sides.
The records from Rondonia are the south-westernmost of C. moloch, a species previously known only from the state of Pará, between the rivers Tapajos and Tocantins. Miranda-Ribeiro (1914) reported C. remulus, a junior synonym of C. moloch, from Urupa, a locality adjacent to Ji-Parana, Rondonia, but I found no specimens from this locality in the Museu Nacional. Miranda-Ribeiro did not describe the skins he assigned to C. remulus and Hershkovitz (1963) judged the specimens to be misidentified C. moloch donacophilus, in which he was followed by later authors. C. cineracens (sic) Spix 1823, was also reported by Miranda-Ribeiro from the headwaters of the Jiparana, then in Mato Grosso, now in Rondonia. One skin from this locality I have seen at the Museu Nacional is not C. moloch and is also quite distinct from donacophilus, which Hershkovitz (1963) thought to be the correct identification of the specimen.
Callicebus geoffroyi of Miranda-Ribeiro, 1914, type locality Urupa, Rondonia, was named after a single skin but was not formally described except for a comment on its similarity to a plate by I. Geoffroy (1844, plate 3) captioned as moloch Hoff. but that Miranda-Ribeiro did not consider to represent “true” moloch. I have not found the holotype of C. geoffroyi in the Museu Nacional but the skin of MNRJ 2925, without locality, is identified by Miranda-Ribeiro himself as geoffroyi (see also Avila-Pires, 1963). This skin is in poor condition but it compares favourably with I. Geoffroy’s plate which, in my opinion, represents an individual of C. moloch. The Museu Nacional specimen differs from the Nova Colina skin by having lighter throat and forehead. This type of variation, however, is found in other series of C. moloch I have examined. Therefore C. geoffroyi Miranda-Ribeiro should be considered a junior synonym of C. moloch Hoffmannsegg, 1807, and not of C. moloch donacophilus D’Orbigny, 1835, as proposed by Hershkovitz (1963).


Hershkovitz, 1988

Callicebus moloch

Member of the moloch group.

Distribution: occurs on the east bank of the Río Tapajós.

Remarks: Pheomelanin dominated and partially replaced the primitive agouti in the east side populations, now C. moloch. In the west side populations, the present C. hoffmannsi, eumelanin dominated and partially replaced the primitive agouti. A few representatives of the species that were semi-isolated in the huge Tupinambaranas Island of the lower Río Madeira remained nearest the ancestral form in coloration and are now recognized as C. hoffmannsi baptista. The others, now C. hoffmannsi hoffmannsi, between the Ríos Madeira and Tapajós, differ consistently in paler tones of the shared derived pheomelanin pigment. In all other respect the two subspecies are the same except for the occasional appearance in baptista of a pheomelanin terminal tuft of the otherwise dominantly blackish tail.

With putative return of a warmer more humid climate, dominantly eumelanic C. hoffmannsi remained confined to the area bound by the Ríos Madeira, Tapajós, and Canuma. The dominantly pheomelanic C. moloch, however, spread freely southwardas broadleaf forest habitat succeeded scrub and savanna habitats. Representatives of C. moloch at the present southern border of the range average slightly paler than the northern members.

Hershkovitz, P. (1988) Origin, Speciation, and Distribution of South American Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus (Family Cebidae, Platyrrhini), by Philip Hershkovitz . Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 140 (1): 240-272.

Pieczarka and Nagamachi, 1988

Callicebus moloch moloch

Locality: Left bank of the Tocantins River, Lake of the Hydroelectric Basin of Tucuri, 60km upriver from Tucuri, Para.

Diploid number of 48: 20 biarmed and 26 autosomes, X submetacentric and Y is a minute chromosome.

The karyotypic differences detected among the subspecies of C. moloch may represent barriers that prevent the formation of intermediate types. The present results also suggest the need for a revision of taxonomic relationships within the genus.

Pieczarka, J.C. and Nagamachi, C.Y. (1988). The Karyotype of Callicebus moloch moloch. Revista Brasilia Genet 11 (3): 653-659.

Ferrari and Lopes Ferrari, 1990

Callicebus moloch

Localities: Belo Monte (49°52’W, 3°21’S); Anilzinho (51°46’W, 3°04’S), Central Pará.

Ferrari, S. F. and Lopes Ferrari, M.A. 1990. A survey of primates in central Pará. Bol. Mus. Para. E. Goeldi, Zool. 6: 169 – 179.

Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus moloch

Member of the moloch Group.

Synomyms: Callicebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Callithrix hypoxanta (Illeger, 1815); Callithrix hypokantha (Olfers, 1818); Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908), Callicebus emiliae (Thomas, 1911); Callicebus geoffroyi (Miranda Ribeiro, 1914).

Type locality: “Unweit der Stadt Para,” (Hoffmannsegg, 1807, p. 100), or near the town of Belem, Para, Brazil. Syntypes are several male and female individuals, two of which are or have been in the Zoologisches Museum der Humboldt-Universidad, Berlin, and one in the Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

Distribution: Amazonian Brazil south of the Rio Amazonas in the states of Para, Mato Grosso, and neighbouring parts of Amazonas and Rondonia. In Para from the west bank of Rio Tocantins-Araguaia west to the east bank of the Rio Tapajos, south to the headwaters of the Rios Araguaia, Xingu, and Tapajos in northern Mato Grosso, west to the east bank of the Rio Jiparana in Rondonia and east bank of the Rio Aripuana in Amazonas.

Description: Upper and outer surface of head, trunk, and limbs buffy or “greyish” agouti to pale brown agouti; forehead not sharply defined from greyish crown to distinctly paler, whitish ear tufts inconspicuous or absent; sideburns, under parts of body, and inner side of limbs sharply contrasted orange; hairs of tail dominantly blackish agouti terminally, orange or buffy basally, terminal portion including pencil buffy.

Measurements: See publication.

Comparisons: Distinguished from C. cupreus and C. caligatus by outer surface of forelimbs agouti; from cinerascens by uniformly orange inner sides of limbs, chest, and belly; from C. brunneus by forehead and crown greyish agouti; from C. dubius, C. cupreus discolor, C. c. ornatus, and C. oenanthe by absence of frontal blaze; from C. donacophilus, C. modestus, and C. olallae by sharply contrasted bright orange sideburns and absence of conspicuous whitish ear tufts; from donacophilus by absence of malar stripe; from C. hoffmannsi by upper surface of hands buffy and usually paler than outer side of arms, pencilled tip of tail consistently buffy; from other species by one or more of above characters.

Specimens examined: Total 184, all in Brazil. Amazonas: Castanhos, Foz do; Sao Joao, Rio Jamari; Tamaruri; Main Grosso: Arinos, Rio; FazendaSao Jose, Rio Peixoto de Acevedo; Rio Arraios, alto Rio Xingu; Rio Teles Pires; Para: Aramanai,Igarape; Arumateua, Rio Tocantins; Aveiros; Baiao(opp.); Belterra; Bom Jardim; Cachimbo; Carajas, Serra; Caxiricatuba; Cuiaba-Itaituba; Cucari; Curuatinga; Cururu, Rio; Curua, Foz do; Fordlandia; Ipanema; Iriri, Rio; Itaituba-Jacareacanga, km 14; Itapuama; Lucilandia-Xinguara; Maica; Maruca; Monte Cristo; Mundo Novo, Igarape, Rio Iriri; Piquiatuba; Santarem; Santarem-Cuiaba, km 82; Santarem-Cuiaba, km 212; Santarem-Cuiaba-Itaituba, BR 165; Santo Antonio, Rio Tocantins; Sao Joao, Rio Araguaia; Saude; Tamaruri, Rio Cucari; Tapaiuna; Taperinha; Tauary; Tavio; Tucurui, Rio Tocantins; Rondonia: Alvorado d’Oeste, Linha 64, BR 429, Km 87. Nova Brasilia; Nova Colonia.

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Schneider et al., 1993

Callicebus moloch

Locality: apprehended during the building of the Tucurui Dam in the Tocantins River, state of Pará, Brazil

Remarks: Estimates of genetic similarity between the taxa showed that C. moloch is the most differentiated, since it presented genetic distances of 0.059 and 0.066 when compared to C. brunneus and C. cupreus, respectively; the most distinctive loci are GPI and CA2. On the other hand, the genetic distance between C. brunneus and C. cupreus showed a value of 0.008 only. This estimate is quite similar to those observed among other New World monkeys at the subspecies level. In fact, assuming Thorpe’s (1982) criteria, that genetic distances lower than 15% would be typical of those separating subspecies, we would have to consider the three taxa investigated here as belonging to a single species. As shown in the table, cytogenetic studies in the genus Callicebus are scarce. The karyotypes of eight of the 13 species in this genus are still unknown. However, the three species considered in the present study have already been karyotyped. Consideration of the biochemical and cytogenetic data together, therefore, establishes that:
a) the comparison which showed the largest chromosome difference (brunneus/cupreus) is the one presenting the least differentiation at the biochemical level; and
b) the cytogenetic diversity is compatible with divergence at the species level, unlike the biochemical data.

Schneider, H; Schneider, M.P.C.; Sampaio, M.I.C.; Montoya, E.; Tapia, J. ; Encarnacion, N.P. ; Anselmo, N.P. and Salzano, F.M. (1993). Divergence Between Biochemical and Cytogenetic differences in three Species of the Callicebus moloch Group. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 90:345-350.

Ferrari and Aparecida Lopes, 1995

Callicebus moloch

Localities: Lago dos Reis, Amazonas (7º32’S, 62º52’W) and Calama, Rondonia (8º03’S, 62º53’W).

Measurements: Female/male: body 290/284mm; weight 1,020gr/860gr.

Remarks: Specimens (stuffed skins and skeletons) were deposited at the Goeldi Museum in Belem.


Kobayashi, 1995

Callicebus moloch

Based on cranial measurements, the genus can be divided in five groups:

  • the donacophilus group (including modestus, olallae, d. donacophilus and d. pallescens)
  • the cupreus group (including caligatus, c. cupreus, c. discolor and c. ornatus)
  • the moloch group (including brunneus, h. hoffmannsi, h. baptista, moloch and cinerascens)
  • the personatus group (including p. personatus, p. nigrifrons, p. melanochir)
  • the torquatus group (including t. lucifer, t. lugens, t. medemi, t. regulus, t. purinus and t. torquatus).

The group position of C. dubius remains uncertain; C. oenanthe and C. barbarabrownae were not examined.

Kobayashi, S. (1995). A phylogenetic study of Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: 1. Phyletic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36(1): 101-120.

Ferrari et al., 1996

Callicebus moloch?

Locality: Pimenta Bueno Rondonia, Brazil.

Remarks: The animals were certainly not members of the distinctly brown-coloured Callicebus brunneus, the species found at other sites in Rondonia, west of the Jiparaná (Hershkovitz, 1990; Ferrari and Lopes, 1992; Ferrari et al., 1995), but were greyish in colour similar to Callicebus moloch, the distribution of which has previously been restricted to the east of the Jiparaná/Madeira Rivers.


Ferrari and Iwanga, 1996

Callicebus moloch?

Locality: Pimenta Bueno Municipal Park, west of the Rio Jiparaná, Rondonia, Brazil (see map).

Remarks: The animals were with certainty not the brown-coloured Callicebus brunneus, the species found west of the Jiparaná; they were greyish in colour similar to the Callicebus moloch.


Voss and Emmons, 1996

Callicebus moloch

Locality: Brazil, Pará, Anilzinho (between Rio Tocantins and Rio Xingu; 3°21’S, 49°52’W). The principal area censused was on the east [right] bank of the Rio Xingu, upriver from the proposed dam site near Altamira. The base camp itself [at 110 m elevation] was located 52 km SSW Altamira (3°39’S, 52°22’W) and served as the focus for field work within a 3-5 km radius, including up- and downriver localities and the large island (Ilha Jabuti) opposite the base camp, which were reached by boat.

Remark: Voucher specimens from the latter project deposited at MZUSP may have been relabelled with the place name “Cachoeira do Espelho.”

Voss, R.S. and Emmons, L.H. (1996). Mammalian diversity in neotropical lowland rainforests: a preliminary assessment. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 230: 1-114.

Toledo et al., 1999

Callicebus moloch moloch

Locality: Carajás region, Pará, Brazil.

Toledo, P. M., H. M. Moraes-Santos and C. C. S. Melo. (1999). Levantamento preliminar de mamíferos não-voadores da Serra dos Carajás: grupos silvestres recentes e zooarqueológicos. Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi, sér. Zool. 15: 141 – 157.

Ferrari et al., 2000

Callicebus moloch

Localities: see map (on the upper Jiparaná on both sides of the river, on the lower Jiparaná only on the northern (right) side).

Distribution: North of the Serra dos Pacaás Novos the geographic ranges of C. brunneus, C. caligatus, and C. moloch are clearly limited by two major rivers, the Madeira and the Jiparaná, as indicated by Hershkovitz (1990) and Ferrari and Lopes (1992). There is no evidence to suggest that the other two species found in southern Rondonia – C.brunneus and C. moloch – are ecologically distinct, by contrast, which suggests that a contact zone exists somewhere between the Serra dos Pacaás Novos, to the north, and the Chapada dos Parecis, to the south. The characteristics of this contact zone remain unclear, i.e. whether sympatry or even hybridization occurs, but it is interesting to note that at two sites (marked A and B on the map) located south of the Pacaás Novos, some of the monkeys observed were relatively lightly-coloured (more similar to C. moloch) in contrast with the typical dun tones of C. brunneus. Local residents also confirmed the existence of two distinct types of titis in different areas at this site.

Ferrari, S.F.;  Iwanga, S.; Messias, M.R.; Ramos, E.M.; Ramos, P.C.S.; da Cruz Neto, E. and Coutinho, P. E.G. (2000). Titi Monkeys (Callicebus spp., Atelidae: Platyrrhini) in the Brazilian State of Rondônia. Primates, 41 (2): 229-234.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus moloch

Synonyms: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Callithrix hypoxantha (Illeger, 1815 – nom numen); Callithrix hypokantha (Olfers, 1818); Simia sakir (Giebel, 1855); Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus emiliae (Thomas, 1911) and Callicebus geoffroyi (Miranda Ribeiro, 1914).

Distribution: South of the Amazon, from Rio Tocantins-Araguaia to Rio Tapajos.

Description: Body lighter, redder than in C. hoffmannsi and C. baptista; the hairs with short, light grey base, usually four alternating pairs of bands, light red and black, tip usually black. Crown light grey, the hairs with very long white base, black shaft, white tip. Limbs much greyer than body, becoming light tawny towards hands and feet, which are buffy white. Tail black, with tendency to have a light tip. Underside fiery red, this tone broadly extending to inner aspects of limbs (including hands and feet), cheeks, and chin.

Remarks: I expected that when I was able to examine skins for myself, I would reduce all three (moloch, baptista and hoffmannsi) to subspecies under C. moloch; instead, study of the specimens in AMNH demonstrated to me that each is specifically distinct.


Vaz, 2001

Callicebus moloch

Localities: Belterra (02º35’S, 54º58’W), Cajutuba (02º40’S, 55º00’W), Aramanaí (02 º43’S, 55º00’W), Maguarí (02º47’S, 55º01’W) e Piquiatuba (03º03’S, 55º06’W). Caxiricatuba (03º02’S, 55º06’W); Piquiatuba.


Roosmalen et al., 2002

Callicebus moloch

Type locality: Near the town of Belém, Pará, Brazil (Hoffmannsegg, 1807). The syntypes are several individuals collected by Mr. Sievers and in 1808 donated by Count von Hoffmannsegg to the Zoologisches Museum der Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany, and an adult individual, mounted with skull in skin, no. 687(522), Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.

Distribution: Brazilian Amazonia south of the Rio Amazonas in the States of Pará and Mato Grosso. In Pará, from the west bank of Rio Tocantins/Araguaia west as far as the east bank of Rio Tapajós, south as far as Ilha do Bananal, north of the confluence of Rio das Mortes with the Rio Araguaia; in Mato Grosso, as far west as the Rio Juruena, including the headwaters of the Rio Xingú (M. G. M. van Roosmalen collected a specimen shot by a Waurá Indian hunter along Rio Von den Steinen). In the north-western part of its range, the species is parapatric with C. hoffmannsi along the lower Rio Tapajós, and in the south-western corner of its range it is parapatric with C. cinerascens along the upper Rio Juruena.

Description: Upper and outer surface of head, trunk, and limbs buffy or greyish to pale brown agouti; forehead not sharply defined from greyish crown or distinctly paler, lacking whitish ear tufts; sideburns, under parts of body, and inner side of limbs sharply contrasting light orange to buff-orangish; cheiridia not sharply contrasting buffy; hairs of tail blackish agouti terminally, orange or buffy basally, distal half of tail including pencil buffy. Distinguished from C. cinerascens by uniformly light orange instead of greyish sideburns and inner sides of limbs, chest, and belly; from C. brunneus by greyish agouti instead of dark-brown to black forehead and crown; from C. hoffmannsi by rather contrasting buffy instead of undefined blackish agouti upper surface of hands and feet, and distal half of tail buffy instead of entirely blackish agouti to black; from C. bernhardi by lack of silvery to whitish ear tufts, light orange to buff-orangish instead of dark orange sideburns, under parts of body, and inner side of limbs, upper and outer surface of head, trunk, and limbs buffy or greyish to pale brown agouti instead of blackish agouti mixed with brown on the back, the distal half of the tail buffy instead of an entirely blackish agouti to black tail with sharply contrasted white pencil, and buffy upper surface of hands and feet slightly paler than outer side of arms and legs much less strikingly contrasted than in C. bernhardi with its white upper surface of hands and feet.

van Roosmalen, G.M.; van Roosmalen, T. and  Mittermeier, R.A. (2002). A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10(Suppl.): 1-52.

Pimenta and Souza e Silva Júnior, 2005

Callicebus moloch

Distribution: the authors provide a large number of new localities in the Tapajós-Xingu interfluvium (see map). Callicebus moloch is distributed between the Rios Araguaia-Tocantins and Tapajós (Hershkovitz, 1990; Van Roosmalen et al., 2002), limited in the south to the region between the headwaters of the Rios Xingu and Juruena.


Sampaioa and Ferraria, 2005

Callicebus moloch

Locality: Ilha de Germoplasma (0.3°51’53” S, 49°38’45”W), a 129-ha island in the Tucuruí hydro-electric reservoir in the Brazilian state of Pará.


Ferrari et al., 2007

Callicebus moloch

Locality: Tocantins-Xingu interfluvium (see map); east of the Rio Tapajós;


Alcantarino Menescal et al., 2009

Callicebus moloch

Locality: the western margin of the Tucuruí reservoir on the left bank of the Tocantins, which extends for some 200 km south of the town of Tucuruı´ (03º45’03’’S, 49º40’03’’W).

Remarks: the genetic diversity of this C. moloch population from eastern Amazonia is among the lowest recorded for any primate species; it is more similar to that of an endangered species rather than those of least concern.

Alcantarino Menescal, L.; Costa Gonçalves, E; Silva, A.; Ferrari, F.F. and Cruz Schneider, M.P. (2009). Genetic Diversity of Red-Bellied Titis (Callicebus moloch) from Eastern Amazonia Based on Microsatellite Markers. Biochemical Genetics 47: 235–240.

Auricchio, 2010

Callicebus moloch

Localities: see publication.

Description: Pelage chromogenetic analysis shows C. moloch has great color tone variation on several chromogenetic fields, especially on the ventral surface, which ranges from yellow to reddish-brown. I could split the specimens into three phenotypes: “normal phenotype”, “red phenotype” and “light phenotype”. The “normal phenotype” is the commonest (84% of the sample) and has a cream forehead, crown (banded hair showing light bands broader than dark ones) flanks, dorsal surface of limbs, feet and hands; lower-back light brown with a slight brown stripe along the middle back, slightly darker than the flanks, not washed with brown or it has very little amount of this pigment. The middle portion of tail is very dark (from dark brown to black) and the tip lightening to very light brown or dirty white. Beard, chest, belly and ventral surface of limbs are light orange-brown, more pigmented at the tip of hairs.
The general color pattern of all specimens follows the description above, but specimens IPBHN 207, 208, 209 (loc. 52, Ig Almas, Rio Juruena, extreme north of Apiacás, MT); MZUSP 18956 (loc.53 – RO, Nova Colina Polonoroeste); MZUSP 18964, 20253, 20255, 20058, 20067 (loc.54 – RO, Nova Brasília Polonoroeste); MPEG 21972 (loc. 112 – PA, Ig. do Patauá, Município de Itaituba); MPEG 22000 (loc. 113 – PA, Apui, BR-230 Humaitá-Itaituba km 17) have the ventral pelage extremely pheomelanized of a live reddish-brown. These represent what I called “red phenotype”.
A third phenotype, called here “light phenotype” has ventral parts much lighter, sort of a lime-yellow (specimens MZUSP 5198 and 5200 from loc. 82 – AM, Bom Jardim, right margin of Amazonas River); MPEG 22014, 22015, 22016, 22017 (loc. 109 – PA, UHE Tucuruí, Tocantins River); MPEG 245 (loc. 95 – PA, São João do Araguaia); MPEG 246 (loc. 94 – PA, Alto Iriri River, Xingu).
Roosmalen et al. (2002) described C. bernhardi and identified specimens MPEG 22996, 22997 (locality 50 – BR km 150 Apis-Humaitá, right margin of Marmelos River, AM); MPEG 24590 and 24591 (locality 55 – Alta Floresta, MT) as belonging to this taxon. Paratypes of C. bernhardi (INPA 4029 and 4033; locality 57 – AM River Mariepauá left aff. River Madeira) show the same chromogenetic pattern as C. moloch, with identical chromogenetic fields. These specimens differ only in color tone and pigment amount on the ventral surface, exactly as seen in the “red phenotype”. In Roosmalen et al. (op. cit.), diagnostic characters that distinguish C. bernhardi of C. moloch are described as follows: “…by grayish forehead and crown, white ear tufts, and blackish tail with a distinct white pencil”. Actually, there is wide variation in forehead and crown color tone among all 183 specimens of the 3 phenotypes, from grayish to light red-brown, and the description above agrees perfectly with most specimens analyzed of “normal phenotype” as well. Concerning the auricular tufts, none of 183 specimens of C. moloch (3 phenotypes) and those identified as C. bernhardi in INPA and MPEG that I could analyze, presented white auricular tufts (including C. bernhardi paratypes). Tails of all “red phenotype” specimens as well as C. bernhardi specimens are identical to C. moloch: black with a lighter tip. Drawings of C. moloch in Roosmalen et al. (2002) do not show a black tail and the whitish back of the hands, not matching all specimens analyzed. Thus, all specimens of the “normal phenotype”, “red phenotype”, “light phenotype” and those described as C. bernhardi show the same chromogenetic field pattern, differing, as mentioned, only in the amount of pigment (color tone) of the ventral surface.

Distribution: Concerning the geographic distribution of C. moloch (all phenotypes), it is the broadest among all Callicebus species, occurring south of the Amazonas River, between the right margin of Madeira/Ji-Paraná Rivers to the left margin of Tocantins River. C. moloch is not found between the right margin of Aripuanã River and the left margin of Abacaxis River, where C. cinerascens is found (Noronha, et al. 2007). Callicebus moloch is found in Rondônia on both margins of the medium/upper Ji-Paraná River (Ferrari, et al. 2000), what is confirmed by specimens MZUSP 18956 (RO, Nova Colina Polonoroeste, right margin of Ji-Paraná River 10°48’S61°43’W, “red phenotype”; MZUSP 18964, 20253, 20255, 20058, 20067 (RO, Nova Brasília Polonoroeste, right margin of Ji-Paraná River – 10°56’S61°20’W “red phenotype”, and MPEG 19709, 19710, 19712, 19713 (Alvorada d’Oeste, BR 429 linha 64 km 87, left margin of Ji-Paraná River – 11°23’S62°18’W normal phenotype. Monção et al. (2008) also assigned specimens they called C. bernhardi (here, “red phenotype”) to 90 km west of Alto Alegre dos Parecis (Chapada dos Parecis, Rondonia). Roosmalen (2002) states that there is a gap in the range of Callicebus at the southern portion of this region, between Sucunduri/Juruena River and Tapajós River. I could not find any specimens in Brazilian museums from this region. Wide rivers such as the Juruena / Teles Pires / Tapajós are no barriers isolating the three phenotypes of C. moloch. Gascon et al. (2000) observed that wide rivers are not always obstacles to put apart small mammals and frogs as well. Localities for C. bernhardi indicated by Roosmalen et al. (2002) are: 51 (AM, Comunidade de Nova Olinda, right margin of Aripuanã River, Novo Aripuanã – holotype, INPA 3929 only skeleton) and 57 (AM, Mariepauá River, right tributary of Madeira River – paratypes of C. bernhardi). Specimens MNRJ 2480 and 2481 (from AM, right margin of São João do Aripuanã River) presents “light phenotype” and this locality is only 30 km straight line from locality 51 and 60 km from locality 57, mentioned above, on the same bank of Aripuanã River. In the locality 109 (PA, UHE Tucuruí rio Tocantins) it is possible to find both “light and normal phenotype” as can be seen in specimens MPEG 21442, 21443, 22014, 22015, 22016, 22017, 22016 (normal phenotype) MPEG 22018 (light phenotype), one evidence of polymorphism. “Red phenotype” can be found far to the east from known localities of C. bernhardi. Specimens MPEG 21972 (locality 112- Ig. Patauá, Itaituba, PA), MPEG 22000 (BR 230 Itaituba, PA) and IPBHN 207, 208, 209 (locality 52- Ig. Almas, Juruena River, Apiacás, MT) are “red phenotype”. These localities are among others where phenotype can be normal phenotype or light phenotype, one more evidence of polymorphism.

Remarks: One specimen from Alta Floresta (locality 55) MPEG 24590, label identificated as C. bernhardi, had its DNAmt sequenced and it is more similar to the sequence of IPBHN 207 (from Apiacás, MT), both “red phenotypes”. A phylogenetic analysis for Callicebus carried by me (to be published elsewhere) shows strong evidence for the three phenotypes of C. moloch to be considered a polymorphism of the same taxon. Also, C. bernhardi appears as sister group of C. moloch. It is possible to recognize a trend to a clinal variation along a east-west transect through the range of the species, with specimens from western localities showing more pigmented ventral parts (phenotype red) and specimens with lighter ventral parts (phenotype light) to the east. “Normal phenotype” is found throughout the range. Moore (2009) found similar results in C. cupreus. C. hoffmannsi showed similar south-north differences in ventral amount of pigments as can be seen bellow. Based on this, I suggest here C. bernhardi, Roosmalen et al. (2002), to be considered as a junior synonym of C. moloch.

Auricchio, P. (2010). A morphological analysis of some species of Callicebus. Neotropical Primates 17(2): 47-58.

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