Literature geoffroyi

Miranda-Ribeiro, 1914

Callicebus geoffroyi, nom. nov.

The first specimen of this primate was given to me by the Indian Joaquim Parecis while we camped at Porto da Passagem above Pomanta Bueno. Unfortunately that skin was useless as the gunshot removed a big part of the animal’s head. Later on, once separated from the core of the expedition I was descending to Gy-Paraná and the same Indian gave me, at Urupá, another specimen that I could prepare. I noticed that its coat was very pale and the specimen collected was very similar to the drawing given by Is. Geoff. S. Hilaire, which seems not to reproduce the C. moloch described by Hoffmansegg.

Miranda-Ribeiro, A. de (1914). Historia natural. Zoologia. Mammiferos. Commissao de Linhas Telegráphicas Estratégicas de Matto-Grosso ao Amazonas, Anexo no. 5 1-49.

Cruz Lima, 1945

Callicebus remulus

Synonyms: Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus geoffroyi (Miranda Ribeiro, 1914).

Remarks: Modified forms of C. remulus have been found on the Iriri, affluent of the Xingú, and at Sao Joao on the Araguaya River. Possibly these specimens are the form that Miranda Ribeiro with certain reservations named C. geoffroyi.
Miranda Ribeiro had occasion to compare two skins which he had obtained at Urupa, on the Gy-parana, with those of the British museum collection, and although he allocated them to this species he makes reservations as to its validity, leaving for a future time his exposition of reasons. It should be noted that at the same locality and at Porto do Passagem on the Pimenta Bueno he obtained other specimens with a very pale colouring to which he gave the name C. geoffroyi and which he says are very close to I. Geoffroy’s plate, which does not seem to resemble closely Hoffmannsegg’s C. moloch. It is possible, therefore, that they are identical to the specimens we mentioned above which belonged to a dealer that buys for the German zoological gardens, all of which would strengthen our doubts. Lönnberg thinks that C. moloch and C. remulus are synonymous.

Cruz-Lima, E. da (1945). Mammals of Amazonia Vol. 1. General introduction and primates pp. 175-198.

Vieira, 1955

Callicebus remulus

Synonyms: Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus geoffroyi (Miranda Ribeiro, 1914).

Distribution: South-east of Amazonas; Para (region between Tapajos and Xingu rivers; Santarem, Caxiricatuba, Bom Hardin, Piquiatuba; Rio Araguaia).

Vieira, C. da C. (1955). Lista remissiva dos mamiferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 8 (10): 375-379.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus moloch donacophilus

Synonyms: Callithrix donacophilus (D’Orbigny, 1835 and 1847); Saguinus personatus variation B (Lesson, 1840); Callithrix cinerascens (Forbes, 1894 – part); Callicebus donacophilus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus geoffroyi? Miranda Ribeiro, 1914 = nom nud.); Callicebus modestus (Lönnberg, 1939).

Distribution: Central and northern Bolivia, and west of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de     Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hershkovitz, 1963

Callicebus moloch donacophilus

Synonyms: Callithrix donacophilus (d’Orbigny, 1836); Callicebus moloch donacophilus (Carbrera, 1958); Callicebus gigot donacophilus (Hill, 1960); Callicebus pallescens (Thomas, 1907); Callicebus moloch pallescens (Cabrera, 1958); Callicebus gigot pallescens (Hill, 1960); Callicebus geoffroyi (Miranda Ribeiro, 1914); Callicebus cinerascens (Miranda Ribeiro, 1914 (of Spix?)); Callicebus remulus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1914 – not Thomas).

Remarks: Callicebus moloch donacophilus is extremely pale in the southern and south-western part of its range. Elsewhere, it is difficult to distinguish from neighbouring races and allocations of some individuals may be arbitrary. Miranda Ribeiro (1914) referred one specimen from Urupá, Rio Jiparaná to Callicebus remulus. Another from the same locality was said to resemble much moloch but was described under the new name C. geoffroy. A third from higher up the Jiparaná at 12º S, was ascribed to Callicebus cinerascens but said to be much like C. melanochir of Bahia. The details of its colouration point only to donacophilus and true moloch. Geographically they are nearest the former to which they are assigned.

A dominantly greyish specimen at hand from Puerto Casado, Rio Paraguay, north of Concepción, the type locality of pallescens, agrees very closely to the description and coloured figure of the type of donacophilus. Another specimen from Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, Bolivia is browner while one from Todos Santos, Cochabamba, with comparatively poorly developed ear tufts is warmly coloured throughout except for its greyish hands, feet and tail.


De Vivo, 1985

Callicebus moloch

Callicebus geoffroyi of Miranda-Ribeiro, 1914, type locality Urupa, Rondonia, was named after a single skin but was not formally described except for a comment on its similarity to a plate by I. Geoffroy (1844, plate 3) captioned as moloch Hoff. but that Miranda-Ribeiro did not consider to represent “true” moloch. I have not found the holotype of C. geoffroyi in the Museu Nacional but the skin of MNRJ 2925, without locality, is identified by Miranda-Ribeiro himself as geoffroyi (see also Avila-Pires, 1963). This skin is in poor condition but it compares favourably with I. Geoffroy’s plate which, in my opinion, represents an individual of C. moloch. The Museu Nacional specimen differs from the Nova Colina skin by having lighter throat and forehead. This type of variation, however, is found in other series of C. moloch I have examined. Therefore C. geoffroyi Miranda-Ribeiro should be considered a junior synonym of C. moloch Hoffmannsegg, 1807, and not of C. moloch donacophilus D’Orbigny, 1835, as proposed by Hershkovitz (1963).


Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus moloch

Synomyms: Callicebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Callithrix hypoxanta (Illeger, 1815); Callithrix hypokantha (Olfers, 1818); Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908), Callicebus emiliae (Thomas, 1911); Callicebus geoffroyi (Miranda Ribeiro, 1914).

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus moloch

Synonyms: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Callithrix hypoxantha (Illeger, 1815 – nom numen); Callithrix hypokantha (Olfers, 1818); Simia sakir (Giebel, 1855); Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus emiliae (Thomas, 1911) and Callicebus geoffroyi (Miranda Ribeiro, 1914).

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