Literature emiliae

Thomas, 1911

Callicebus emiliae

Distribution: Lower Amazons, type from the Para Zoological Gardens.

Description: Rufous-bellied group. Back rich bay or hazel. Upper surface, instead of the usual grizzled greyish brown found in most of the rufous-bellied titis, rich rufous bay, or hazel, this colour covering the whole back, from the occiput to the rump. On the nape the hairs are grizzled brown and whitish, with rufous tips; on the back they are dark smoky brown for two-thirds their length, their terminal third rich hazel. Crown greyish, more whitish anteriorly. Ears ashy grey, the long hairs on the antitragus tipped with bright orange rufous. Fore limbs from shoulders to wrists, and ill-defined line along flanks (between hazel of the back and the rufous of the belly), and hind limbs from hips to metatarsus grizzled ashy grey; hands and posterior digits whitish. Tail chestnut-brown at base, then deep black (though the bases of the hairs are whitish), the end with a whitish tuft.

Measurements: head and body 320mm; tail 400.

Remarks: Type and adult female, British Museum no. 11.4.28.1. This most handsome and striking species is distinguishable at a glance by the rich deep hazel or maroon-chestnut of its back, no other Callicebus having any such coloration. Its nearest allies would seem to be C. donacophilus, moloch, ornatus, and remulus, but the back in all of these is of the ordinary grizzled greyish, at most with a slight rufous suffusion.

Thomas, O. (1911). Three new mammals from the Lower Amazons. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8) 7:606-607.

Elliot, 1913

Callicebus emiliae

Synonyms: Callicebus emiliae (Thomas, 1911).

Type locality: Lower Amazon (British Museum).

Description: Upper surface rich rufous bay or hazel; hairs on nape grizzled brown and whitish, tips rufous; crown greyish; ears ashy grey, long hairs with black tips; indistinct line on flanks, arms from wrists to shoulders, and legs from hips to ankles grizzled ashy grey; under surface and inner side of limbs bright orange rufous. Tail at base chestnut brown, then black with a whitish tuft at end.

Measurements: Total length, 720mm; tail, 400mm; foot, 81mm.

Remark: I have not seen this specimen.

Elliot, D.G. (1913). A review of the primates 1: 234-257.

Cruz Lima, 1945

Callicebus emiliae

Synonym: Callicebus emiliae (Thomas, 1911).

Description: Upper surface, instead of the usual grizzled greyish brown found in most of the rufous-bellied titis, rich rufous nay, or hazel, this colour covering the whole back, from the occiput to the rump. On the nape the hairs are grizzled brown and whitish, with rufous tips; on the back they are dark smoky brown for two-thirds their length, their terminal third rich hazel. Crown greyish, more whitish anteriorly. Ears ashy grey, the long hairs on the antitragus tipped with bright orange rufous. Fore limbs from shoulders to wrists, and ill-defined line along flanks (between hazel of the back and the rufous of the belly), and hind limbs from hips to metatarsus grizzled ashy grey; hands and posterior digits whitish. Tail chestnut-brown at base, then deep black (though the bases of the hairs are whitish), the end with a whitish tuft (original description).

Measurements: (of the type, skin) head and body 320mm; tail 400; foot 81.

Remarks: Type in the British Museum.
The adult female which we chose from among the three specimens in the collection of the Museu Goeldi, with a reddish cast on the back, within the range of the individual variations in C. remulus, would fall satisfactorily within the description of the form under study were it not for the presence of the characteristic rings which, although not very distinct, were observed on a great number of the dorsal hairs instead of the uniform colouring of the apical section which is said to be distinctive of C. emiliae. The other two specimens of the three truly show a transition of colouring from the first-mentioned to the typical remulus, and it is worthy of note that the three specimens mentioned, as well as the type and only specimen of C. emiliae, are all female. Considering further that the exact locality of origin of the type of this species is not known, we feel that our doubt as to its validity is strengthened, for it may well represent only an extreme of sexual or local variation.

Cruz-Lima, E. da (1945). Mammals of Amazonia Vol. 1. General introduction and primates pp. 175-198.

Vieira, 1955

Callicebus emiliae

Synonym: Callicebus emiliae (Thomas, 1911).

Distribution: known only from type locality.

Vieira, C. da C. (1955). Lista remissiva dos mamiferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 8 (10): 375-379.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus moloch moloch

Synonyms: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Simia moloch (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix moloch (Geoffroy, 1812); Saguinus moloch (Lesson, 1840); Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus emiliae (Thomas, 1911); Callicebus moloch (Elliot, 1913).

Distribution: Lower Amazonas, from the mouth of the Tapajos.

Remarks: The concurrence between remulus and moloch has been demonstrated by Lönnberg (1939), who noticed that variations in tinge of the pelage colour can occur on the same locality. C. emiliae, based on only one specimen of the lower Amazon, cannot be considered distinct of the typical form, neither by characters or origin.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de     Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus moloch emiliae

Synonym: Callicebus emiliae (Thomas, 1911).

Type locality: “Lower Amazonas, Brazil”. Type in British Museum, received from Jardim Zoologico do Pará.

Distribution: unknown.

Description: This is most probably an invalid race; it is based upon a single skin from unknown locality and, in all likelihood, represents an individual or sexual (female) variation of one of the other races of moloch. Lima maintains it to be within the range of variation of remulus, i.e. typical moloch, on the basis of the reddish wash on the upper parts of a female in the Goeldi Museum, differing merely in the presence of characteristic, though indistinct, annulations on the majority of the dorsal hairs in lieu of the supposedly uniform colour of the corresponding hairs in emiliae. Two other skins, also female, are transitional.
Upper parts (from occiput to rump) rich rufous-bay or hazel instead of the usual grizzled greyish-brown of most of the rufous-bellied group of Callicebus. On nape hairs grizzled brown and whitish, with rufous tips; on back dark smoky-brown at base for two-thirds of length and terminal one-third rich hazel. Crown greyish, whiter anteriorly; ears with ashy-grey hairs, the long hairs on antitragus tipped with black. Under parts and medial surfaces of limbs bright orange-rufous. Fore-limbs from shoulders to wrists, hind-limbs from hips to metatarsus and a line along flanks (between hazel of back and orange of belly) grizzled ashy-grey; hands and fingers and toes whitish. Tail chestnut brown at base, remainder black (the hairs with whitish bases), except tip, which bears sharply distinct whitish tuft.

Measurements: head and body 320mm; tail 400mm; foot 81mm.

Skull: cranial capacity, 18.5cc.

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Hershkovitz, 1963

Callicebus moloch moloch

Synonyms: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1907); Callithrix moloch (Geoffroy, 1812); Callithrix Moloch (Kuhl, 1820); C. moloch (Wagner, 1840); Callicebus moloch (Elliot, 1913); (Callithrix) hypoxanta (Illeger, 1815); (Callithrix) hypokantha (Olfers, 1818); Simia sakir (Giebel, 1855); Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus emiliae (Thomas, 1911).

Type locality: Originally said to be “around the city of Pará”, where the species is not known to occur. The type locality is now redetermined as the right bank of the lower Rio Tapajóz, district of Santarem, Para, Brazil. Two cotypes in Berlin Museum, one in Paris Museum.

Distribution: South of the Rio Amazonas, from the left bank of the Rio Tocantins to the right bank of the Rio Tapajoz, Pará, Brazil.

Remarks: The type of Callicebus emiliae from the “lower Amazons” also belongs here. Said to differ from donacophilus, moloch, ornatus and remulus by its “rich bay or hazel” back, its description actually applies to any one of several specimens of moloch at hand from the lower Rio Tapajóz.

Specimens examined: Brazil – Para: Fordlandia, Piquiatuba, Tapaiuna, Tauary, Tavio.


Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus moloch

Synomyms: Callicebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Callithrix hypoxanta (Illeger, 1815); Callithrix hypokantha (Olfers, 1818); Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908), Callicebus emiliae (Thomas, 1911); Callicebus geoffroyi (Miranda Ribeiro, 1914).

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus moloch

Synonyms: Cebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Callithrix hypoxantha (Illeger, 1815 – nom numen); Callithrix hypokantha (Olfers, 1818); Simia sakir (Giebel, 1855); Callicebus remulus (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus emiliae (Thomas, 1911) and Callicebus geoffroyi (Miranda Ribeiro, 1914).

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