Description: Before we proceed to describe the American monkeys distinguished by claws, it may be proper to insert the opposite figure, which is taken from a very pretty little animal, about the size of a small rabbit, lately brought to this country; but not having seen the animal alive, it cannot be here positively stated to which of the subdivisions of Geoffroy, or even the principal divisions of Buffon, viz. the sapajou, or sagoin, it properly belongs. The figure, however, it is presumed, will not be the less interesting. We shall merely add, as a conjecture, that it is a sagoin belonging to the subdivision Callithrix.
Griffith, E. (1821): General and particular description of the vertebrated animals. Order Quadrumana. p. 91.
Distribution: The forests around the Putumayo or Iça on the border with Peru.
Description: This monkey almost has the size of a squirrel monkey. His occiput and back are grey-reddish, the front of the head, the four limbs and the under side of the body is mouse-grey and the tail black. The head is very long, the face pointed, brownish, naked on the nose, the rest covered with short grey hairs, mixed with some stiff black hairs; longer grey hairs around the face, till the throat; the hairs of the body are not as long as those of the other species of this genus. The ears are a bit truncated, naked inside and very haired on the onside. The hands and feet have the same colour as the rest of the legs.
Spix, J.B. de (1823). Simiarum et vespertiliarum Brasilienses species novea; … pp. 20-21.
Remarks: Callithrix cinerascens of Spix is nothing but the young of Callithrix melanochir of the Prince of Neuwied.
Temminck, C.J. (1827). Monographies de mammalogie 1 :XV.
Synonyms: cinerascens is according to Temminck its young. Callithrix gigo – this name is given by Wied to his melanochir, on a way that we can think that it is a generic name.
Cuvier, G. (1829). Le Règne Animal, nouvelle édition 1: 104.
Callithrix cinerascens (Spix, 1823).
That this from Spix proposed species is nothing but the young of C. melanochir was already suggested by Temminck. The colouration is in the plate wrong, if it ressembles the adult.
Wagner, J.A. (1833). Critische Revision des brasilian. Affenarten. Isis von Oken 10(2):994.
Saguinus personatus, young of Variation C (melanochir)
Young of Variation C
Distribution: The forests around the Mucuri, the Alcobaça and Belmonte.
Synonyms: Cebus cinerascens (Spix, 1823); Saguinus melanochir (Cuvier, 1829 – young); Cebus melanochir (Fischer, 1829 – young).
Description: very dense fur; face and hands naked; back and occiput brown, blakcish; tail blackish; front, hands and under side brown-greyish.
Lesson, R.P. (1840). Species des mammifères bimanes et quadrumanes pp. 161-167.
Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Kuhl, 1820; Wied, 1826); Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein); Callithrix gigot (Spix, 1823); Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823); Callithrix cinerascens (Spix, 1823).
Distribution: Alcobaca, Belmonte, Riopardo, Ilheo, Itahype rivers and in Sertam de Bahia.
Description: The pelage is long and the hairs very slack. The forehead is like it has been shaved, covered with dense hairs of the same length. The face is blackish or dark grey. The hairs of the head have an ashy-grey base, a whitish tip and the forehead has a black band. The belly is dark blackish-grey-brown, but on the whole body annulated black and white and therefore ashy-grey. On the upper back are the tips of the hairs yellow-reddish, on the middle and lower back and the sides of the body reddish-chestnut-brown. The four hands are black; the tail is in some almost completely white, in others ashy-grey.
Measurements: head and body 350mm; tail 550mm.
Schinz, H.K. (1844). Systematische verzeichniss aller bis jetz bekannte Säugethiere oder Synopsis Mammalium nach dem Cuvier’schen System 1: 80-83.
Synonyms: Saguinus personatus (Lesson, 1827); Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Cuvier, 1829); Simia personata (Humboldt, 1812); Cebus personatus (Blainville, 1839); Callithrix nigrifrons(Spix, 1823); Callithrix infulatus (Lichtenstein); Callithrix melanochir (Wied-Neuwied, 1820, 1821);Callithrix incanescens (Liechtenstein); Saguinus melanochir (Lesson, 1827); Cebus gigot (Spix, 1823); Pithecia melanochir (Cuvier, 1825); Cebus melanochir (Fischer, 1829); Cebus cinerascens(Spix, 1823); Callithrix donacophilus (D’Orbigny, 1847), etc. etc.
“This synonymy proves very well how badly know this animal is to the authors, and especially how much men like to create new species to connect their names to it and to throw difficulties in science. With the help of M. Lesson, we are trying to unravel the chaos”.
Remarks: The youngster of this variety has the face and the hands naked; the back and the upper side of the head vary of blackish; the forehead, the hands and the upper side of the body are ash-brown, and the tail blackish. This is the Cebus cinerascens of Spix. He can be found, like the preceding animal, in the forests of Brasil on the borders of the Mucuri, Alcobaca and Belmonte rivers.
Boitard, P. (1848). Dictionnaire Universel d’Histoire Naturelle 11:290-292.
Synonym: Callithrix cinerascens (Spix, 1823).
Distribution: Putumayo or Iça, near the Peruvian border.
Remarks: we only know this species, which’s validity I no longer doubt, only from one specimen that Spix collected.
Wagner, J.A. (1848). Callithrix. Springaffe. Beitrage zur kenntniss der Säugthiere Amerikas Abhandlungen des Königl. Akademie des Wissenschaften München 5: 446-457.
Synonyms: Callithrix cinerascens (Spix, 1823; Wagner, 1840, 1848) ; Callithrix donacophilus (D’Orbigny, 1836; Wagner 1840; I. Geoffroy, 1851).
Remarks: I was wrong in earlier publications to regard C. cinerascens as a Gigo. The C. cinerascens has the size of C. cuprea, from which it differs in having the upper and underside the same colour. All hairs are black and white, but on the back black and pale reddish-yellow (drab) annulated. The head has no black frontal band, the four hands are, like the rest of the limbs, uniformly covered with black and white annulated hairs. The hairs of the tail have a dirty pale-yellowish base, the longer tips are black, giving the tail a black colour.
The full description that D. Orbigny gives for C. donacophilus, is limited to the following words: “The face is naked and blackish, the body red-grey, the head and the belly darker. The hairs of the body are annulated black, white and red, those of the tail uniformly coloured”.
I. Geoffroy comments that the depicted animal had white hands, another grey, while yet another animal, which was more reddish, had brown hands. From a fourth animal he comments that it was much redder, had white on the ears and a dark tail. He also mentions an animal from Peru that was much alike as the others.
From this short description, and the figure, it cannot be denied that C. donacophila and C. cinerascens show large similarities, and that both live in connected areas. As long as the French zoologist do not show in more precise descriptions the differences between both species, I think that I am allowed to lump both species.
Wagner, J. A. (1855). Schreber, die Saugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband, Fünfte Abtheilung : Die Affen.
Distribution: Brazil, on the border with Peru. In the forests near the Putomayo or Iça.
Description: Face small, back and back of head mixed brown and black; Forehead, legs and under sides black-ashy-grey. Tail blackish. Hairs of back of head and back 37,5mm, ashy-black, towards the tip black and rusty; shorter on the head, ashy-grey, directed backwards. Hairs of the underside whitish on root and tip, in the middle with a black ring; on the hands and feet shorter, ashy-grey-blackish. The hairs of the tail pale brown at the base, whitish in the middle and with a black tip.
Measurements: Head and body: 482mm; tail 450mm.
Remark: Wagner and Lesson regard this species as the young of C. melanochir.
Reichenbach, 1862. Die Vollständigiste Naturgeschichte der Affen.
Synonyms: Callithrix cinerascens (Spix, 1823); Callithrix donacophilus (D’Orbigny, 1826; Gray, 1870); Callithrix donacophila (I. Geoffroy, 1851; Schlegel, 1876).
Distribution: Mr. Bates observed this species at Serra dos Parentins, in the Lower Amazon region above the confluence of the Tapajos with the Amazon. It also extends to Bolivia and Peru.
Description: Fur long and similar in character to that of C. torquata; chest and under side of body pale grey or dark reddish-grey; hands and feet grey; back of the same colour; tail mottled grey, the hairs being grey, with black tips.
In some species the fur varies from dark grey washed with rufous, to almost white, the red wash, where it occurs, sometimes deepening, or almost vanishing.
Forbes, H.O. (1896). A Handbook of the Primates pp. 159-165 + plate 14.
Synonym: Callithrix cinerascens
Distribution: Bolivia, Peru.
Description: Under and upper side different colours. The under side is vivid coppery or pallid red. Tail with long hairs at the base. Ventral side from the throat backwards and the inner side of the limbs pale-red. Hairs of the other parts of the body annulated brown and grey-white; predominantly grey-white on the tail. Washed with red on the back. Ears whitish.
Remarks: I agree with Forbes to unite cinerascens with donacophila.
Meerwarth, H. (1897-1898). Simios (macacos) do novo mundo. Boletin do Museo Paraense de Historia Natural y Etn. 2: 121-154.
Synonyms: cinerascens (Spix, 1823); donacophilus (d’Orbigny, 1826 ; Schlegel, 1876).
Distribution: Lower Amazonia, Sierra dos Parentins, east of Rio Tapajos; Peru; Bolivia.
Trouessart, E.L. (1898-1899). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium 1: 44-46.
Distribution: Lower Amazonia; Peru; Bolivia.
Trouessart, E.L. (1904-1905). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium Quinquennale Suppl. Pp. 25-26.
Synonyms: Callithrix cinerascens (Spix, 1823; Reichenbach, 1862; Forbes, 1894).
Type locality: Forest of the Potomaio and Iça rivers, on the border of Peru (Munich Museum).
Description: Hairs on forehead yellowish white at base, then black, and tips greyish white; back of neck yellowish; upper parts of body rufous, becoming blackish on rump; cheeks and chin white with a greyish sub terminal black ring; limbs brown, hairs tipped with greyish white, and with a sub terminal black ring; under parts of body greyish white; hands and feet similar to limbs, but darker almost black, the hairs tipped with grey; tail brownish black, tip reddish, the hairs, except those of the tip, being yellowish white at base, remainder black.
Measurements: Total length, 865mm; tail, 465mm; foot, 90mm.
Remarks: The above description was taken from the specimen labelled as Spix’s type in the Munich Museum. As will be noticed it bears no resemblance whatever to the figure on plate XIV of Spix’s work, and is generally quite different from his description, at the same time it is not like any of the described species of the genus. In general appearance it is a reddish brown animal with nearly all the hairs tipped with greyish white, and most of them with a sub terminal black ring. The tail appears black with a red tip. I have never seen a grey or ashy Callicebus like Spix’s figure, and doubt if one exists in any collection. If the present example in the Munich Museum is really the type of C. cinerascens the general idea of its appearance will have to be changed from Spix’s figure of an ashy grey animal, to a reddish brown one speckled with greyish white. If Spix’s draughtsman intended to represent the present type by the figure on plate XIV, he made a grievous failure. The type specimen is unique.
Elliot, D.G. (1913). A review of the primates 1: 234-257.
Still with provisional character we include the following sauá.
One specimen with a dead full-term foetus was killed at the headwaters of Gy-Paraná, latitude 12 degrees. The (members of the Indian tribe) parecis called it otôhô.
It is very similar to C. melanochir, from which it mainly differs by the greyish colour of its hands and feet, by its general colour and also by the colour on the back that is reddish towards the neck but not towards the sacral area. The tail is the same colour of the feet but somewhat discoloured at the tip.
Miranda-Ribeiro, A. de (1914). Historia natural. Zoologia. Mammiferos. Commissao de Linhas Telegráphicas Estratégicas de Matto-Grosso ao Amazonas, Anexo no. 5 1-49.
Synonym: Callithrix cinerascens (Spix, 1823).
Rode, P. (1938). Catalogue des Types de Mammifères du muséum national d’histoire naturelle – 1, Ordre des Primates pp. 34-36.
Cabrera and Ypes, 1940
Distribution: Spix discovered this species in the streams of the Putumayo, but much later it was encountered by Bates in the lower Tapajos, en in our days it was observed by dr. Miranda Ribeiro in the Gy-Parana, which shows that the species has a large range.
Description: Resembles C. melanochir and C. gigot, and like them is greyish washed with red; but in this animal the hue is shown much more in the front, and the hands and feet are greyish, not black.
Cabrera and Ypes (1940). Mamiferos Sud Americanos. Compana Argentina de Editores, Buenos Aires pp. 85-88.
Cruz Lima, 1945
Synonym: Callithrix cinerascens (Spix, 1823).
Distribution: Spix found his species in the forests of the Iça or Putumayo River on the Peruvian boundary with the state of Amazonas. Miranda Ribeiro provisionally considers as belonging to this species a specimen captured on the Otoho stream, in the headwaters of the Gy-parana, at 12 degrees of south latitude. According to the description of the external appearance of this animal is very similar to C. melanochir, from which it differs in that its hands and feet are greyish like the general colouring and the back rufescent near the nape and not near the sacral region, the tail being the colour of the feet and turning only slightly paler towards the tip. As may easily be seen, this description differs in small details from Elliot’s description of Spix’s type.
Description: Hairs on forehead yellowish white at base, then black, and tips greyish white; back of neck yellowish; upper parts of body rufous, becoming blackish on rump; cheeks and chin white with a greyish sub terminal black ring; limbs brown, hairs tipped with greyish white, and with a sub terminal black ring; under parts of body greyish white; hands and feet similar to limbs, but darker almost black, the hairs tipped with grey; tail brownish black, tip reddish, the hairs, except those of the tip, being yellowish white at base, remainder black (Elliot’s description of the type in the Munich Museum).
Measurements: Total length, 865mm; tail, 465mm; foot, 90mm.
Remarks: Type in the Munich Museum.
The description given above differs in some points from that given by Spix and differs completely from the illustration of the same publication. This was observed by Elliot, who believes the specimen is different not only from the description and from the illustration, but also from any other described species of the genus. Forbes’ description also differs in various points, but this may be explained by the fact that the author considers as synonymous the species donacophilus of d’Orbigny, incorporating for this reason into his description characteristics of both species. The inclusion of the lower Amazon in the area of geographical distribution attributed to this species by Forbes, who cites Bates’ findings in the Parintins Mountains, is due certainly to confusion with the species hoffmannsi and moloch, which are allied to d’Orbigny species in a certain way.
Cruz-Lima, E. da (1945). Mammals of Amazonia Vol. 1. General introduction and primates pp. 175-198.
Synonym: Callithrix cinerascens (Spix, 1823).
Distribution: Region of the river Iça, border with Peru.
Vieira, C. da C. (1955). Lista remissiva dos mamiferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 8 (10): 375-379.
Synonyms: Callithrix cinerascens (Spix, 1823); Callithrix melanochir (Fischer, 1829); Callithrix gigo variation (Gray, 1870); Callicebus cinerascens (Elliot, 1913).
Distribution: West Brazil, the river-basin of the Solimoes, y probably the adjacent part of Colombia and Peru.
Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.
Type locality: Forest along Rio Iça (= Brazilian part of Rio Putumayo), a left bank tributary of Amazon on boundary between Brazil and Peru. Type in Münich Museum.
Distribution: Forests along Rio Iça and Rio Putumayo on both sides of Peruvian-Brazilian border. Miranda Ribeiro provisionally assigned to this species a specimen captured on the Otoho, a stream of the headwaters of the Gy-Parana, 12º S., but Lima noted the likeness of the description to that of C. melanochir, differing in the greyish colour of the extremities, which are thus not contrasted with the general body colour as they are in melanochir.
Characters: A rare titi affined to moloch or intermediate between moloch and cupreus. Thomas (1908) noted its likeness as regards colour of extremities to hoffmannsi –a race of moloch– while Lima points out that Forbes had confused it with moloch on the evidence of Bates’s report of finding it in the Parintins Mountains. Forbes, moreover, included it with donacophilus, one of the southern species, whilst Rode (1938) definitely identified it with d’Orbigny without giving any reason.
There has been much confusion also, as pointed out by Elliot and Lima, on account of the discrepancy between Spix’s plate and the accompanying description, especially in view of the fact that the type specimen (examined by Elliot) differs from both. The description here given is based, like that contributed by Lima, on Elliot’s report upon the type.
Forehead with hairs annulated yellowish-white, black and greyish-white from below upwards; nape yellowish; dorsal surface of body rufous, becoming blackish on rump; tail brownish-black, the tip rufous, the hairs (except at tip) yellowish-white basally and remainder black, cheeks and chin white, hairs with greyish subterminal band; under parts greyish-white; limbs brown, the hairs with greyish-white tips; hands and feet similar but darker, almost black, the hairs tipped with grey.
Measurements: head and body 400mm; tail 465mm; foot 90mm.
Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy 4 (A): 98-147.
Synonym: Callithrix cinerascens
Remarks: Type specimen present in Munich collection.
Kraft, R. (1983). Die von JB Spix beschriebenen neotropischen Primaten und Chiropteren Verzeichnis der in der Zoologischen Staatssammlung München. Spixiana Supplement . 9:429-441.
Member of the moloch group.
Remarks: Callicebus cinerascens is essentially a relict species of the stock from which arose all other species of the moloch group. Colouration of the ten specimens from four localities in the middle Rio Madeira basin indicate that the prototype of C. cinerascens must have been greyish or buffy agouti in all parts except dorsum orange or reddish agouti to buffy agouti, facial skin unmodified blackish and hairy. A few specimens of living cinerascens diverge from the prototype only in their trend towards pheomelinazation of sideburns, throat and digits.
Status of C. cinerascens as a relict species was not acquired through differentiation per se, but by extinction of all populations intermediate between it and the ancestral form of the moloch group. This may be no more than a taxonomic phenomenon.
Herskovitz, P. (1988) Origin, Speciation, and Distribution of South American Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus (Family Cebidae, Platyrrhini), by Philip Hershkovitz . Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 140 (1): 240-272.
Member of the moloch Group.
Synonyms: ?Simia cineracia (Griffith, 1821); Callithrix cinerascens (Spix, 1823).
Type locality: Said to be the forests of the Rios Putumayo or Içá at the Peruvian border, Amazonas, Brazil. Spix was in the area during January 1820, but there is no evidence that he or anyone else ever collected the species there. Holotype in Zoologische Staatssammlung, Munchen.
Distribution: Brazilian specimens from parts of south-eastern Amazonas, Rondonia, and Mato Grosso in the upper Rio Madeira basin agree with cinerascens and nothing else. The only Callicebus known from the stated type region between the Rios Putumayo or Içá and the Rio Solimoes, are C. cupreus discolor and C. torquatus lucifer. It is unlikely that Callicebus cinerascens would occur here on the north bank of the Rio Solimoes, and also in the Rio Madeira basin on the south bank of the Rio Amazonas. Either the type locality given by Spix is wrong, or the south bank titis are not C. cinerascens.
Description: Forehead, crown, sides of body, chest, belly, limbs, and tail greyish to blackish agouti, all contrasting with tawny agouti middorsum; largest species of moloch group.
Measurements: See publication.
Comparisons: Distinguished from all other species of Callicebus by greyish agouti forehead, crown, sides of body, chest, belly, and limbs except sometimes digits; sideburns and throat usually greyish agouti but sometimes yellowish approaching condition in C. hoffmannsi hoffmannsi; the contrastingly coloured reddish brown agouti dorsum is as in C. moloch, from which it is readily distinguished by greyish agouti chest, belly, inner surface of limbs, and inconspicuously coloured sideburns. Nearest resemblance in size and coloration is with the dominantly blackish agouti C. personatus melanochir, but the greyish agouti limbs, forehead, and pelage surrounding face and ears of C. cinerascens are distinctive.
Specimens examined: Total 10. Brazil – Amazonas: Prainha; Mato Grosso: Sao Joao, Aripuana; Rondonia: Otoho, Rio Jiparana.
Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.
Based on cranial measurements, the genus can be divided in five groups:
- the donacophilus group (including modestus, olallae, d. donacophilus and d. pallescens)
- the cupreus group (including caligatus, c. cupreus, c. discolor and c. ornatus)
- the moloch group (including brunneus, h. hoffmannsi, h. baptista, moloch and cinerascens)
- the personatus group (including p. personatus, p. nigrifrons, p. melanochir)
- the torquatus group (including t. lucifer, t. lugens, t. medemi, t. regulus, t. purinus and t. torquatus).
The group position of C. dubius remains uncertain; C. oenanthe and C. barbarabrownae were not examined.
Kobayashi, S. (1995). A phylogenetic study of Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: 1. Phyletic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36(1): 101-120.
Ferrari et al., 2000
Localities: see map (south-eastern border of Rondonia).
Distribution: The apparently restricted distribution of the ashy titi monkey (C. cinerascens) in southern Amazonas and Rondonia (Hershkovitz, 1990) may be at least partly a result of the relative lack of localities from this region. As the known distribution of this species coincides with the zone of transition from forest to savannah habitats in southern Amazonia, it is possible that it may also be ecologically distinct from other members of the C. moloch species group, although more data will be required before such differences can be defined.
Ferrari, S.F.; Iwanga, S.; Messias, M.R.; Ramos, E.M.; Ramos, P.C.S.; da Cruz Neto, E. and Coutinho, P. E.G. (2000). Titi Monkeys (Callicebus spp., Atelidae: Platyrrhini) in the Brazilian State of Rondônia. Primates, 41 (2): 229-234.
Synonyms: Callithrix cinerascens (Spix, 1823).
Distribution: South-eastern Amazonas, Rondonia, and Mato Grosso, upper Rio Madeira.
Description: (after Hershkovitz, 1990). Body mainly greyish to blackish agouti, except middorsal region, which is contrastingly tawny agouti. Sideburns and throat greyish or yellowish agouti.
Remarks: Hershkovitz (1990) doubted the correctness of the type locality, because otherwise only C. cupreus and C. torquatus are known from there. He noted that the frequently yellowish colour of the sideburns and throat approaches that of C. hoffmannsi and the contrasting dorsum resembles C. moloch; only the grey-agouti under parts are really distinctive.
Roosmalen et al., 2002
Type locality: Spix is assumed to have collected this specimen along the Río Putumayo or Rio Içá near the Peruvian border, State of Amazonas, Brazil, but there is no evidence that it was actually collected there. Specimens from the Rio Madeira basin south of the Rio Amazonas perfectly match the description on account of the holotype. Therefore, the type locality given by Spix must be wrong. The holotype is a male, collected by J. von Spix but not given a date (he was in the area during January, 1820), mounted (including the skull), No. 3, Zoologische Staatssammlung, München, Germany.
Distribution: Hershkovitz (1990) includes three localities in his gazetteer: Prainha, right bank of Rio Aripuanã, Amazonas, Brazil (162a); São João, right bank of Rio Roosevelt (Hershkovitz gives here Rio Aripuanã, but his map indicates the Rio Roosevelt, a left bank tributary of Rio Aripuanã), Mato Grosso (205); and Otoho, right bank of upper Rio Roosevelt (Hershkovitz gives here Rio Ji-Paraná, but his map indicates Rio Roosevelt, Rondônia).
This species has been observed in the wild by M.G.M. van Roosmalen at the following localities along the right bank of Rio Aripuanã: Cipotuba, situated on the east bank of Lago Cipotuba (05°48’23”S, 60°12’76”W), Prainha, Igarapé da Prainha (05°45’S, 60°12’W), São João, Igarapé Terra Preta (05°28’S, 60°22’W), and along the right bank of the Rio Madeira in the vicinity of the town of Novo Aripuanã (05°07’08”S, 60°22’45”W), left bank of lower Rio Arara (40 km E of Novo Aripuanã, 05°12’S, 60°04’W), and in the vicinity of the town of Borba (04°22’S, 59°35’W). Rylands (1982) observed C. cinerascens on the east bank of the Rio Aripuanã at the Núcleo Pioneiro de Humboldt, Aripuanã, (then of INPA) (10°10’S, 59°27’W). M. G. M. van Roosmalen kept a live specimen from the left bank of the Rio Canumã.
The species is parapatric with C. hoffmannsi along the east bank of the Rio Canumã in the interfluve delineated by the lower Rio Madeira and Rio Canumã, with C. baptista along the north bank of the Paraná do Urariá, at the northern tip of its range, with C. bernhardi along the west bank of the lower Rio Aripuanã in the interfluve delineated by the Rios Aripuanã and Roosevelt (its left bank tributary) and Rio Sucundurí, most likely including the interfluve between the Rios Acarí and Sucundurí, with C. hoffmannsi or a new, still to be described species of titi along the east bank of the Rio Sucundurí (east as far as the Rio Juruena).
Description: Forehead, crown, sides of body, chest, belly, limbs, and tail greyish to blackish agouti, all contrasting with tawny or reddish brown agouti middorsum; upper surface of cheiridia blackish mixed with grey (hair tips greyish); tail predominantly blackish, mixed with grey, proximal one third mixed with tawny agouti like the outer surface of legs; arms blackish, the hairs greyish tipped as in crown; hairs of dorsum and sides of body with 4 bands, a 2 cm wide blackish tawny proximal one, a 1 cm wide tawny band, a 1 cm wide black band, and a 0.3 cm wide, tawny agouti distal tip.
Distinguished from all other titi species by greyish agouti forehead, crown, sides of body, chest, belly, and limbs; sideburns and throat usually greyish to greyish agouti.
van Roosmalen, G.M.; van Roosmalen, T. and Mittermeier, R.A. (2002). A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10(Suppl.): 1-52.
Almeida Noronha, et al., 2007
Distribution: During both trips we observed C. cinerascens repeatedly along the banks of the Rios Sucundurí and Abacaxis, close to the left bank of the Rio Tapajós and the right bank of the Rio Bararatí (see map with 24 localities). These new occurrence records extend the eastern limit of C. cinerascens’ range beyond that proposed by van Roosmalen and colleagues (2002). We now predict that this species’ range should extend north to the Rio Paraná do Urariá, east to the left bank of the Rio Abacaxis and the left bank of the upper Rio Tapajós, west as far as the right bank of the Rio Madeira, and south to the corridor formed between the Rios Aripuanã-Roosevelt and Tapajós-Juruena, in the states of Amazonas and Mato Grosso. The most southerly record is Otoho on the right bank of the Rio Roosevelt in Mato Grosso (see map).
Remarks: During this study we found no overlap between the range of C. cinerascens range and that of any other species of Callicebus, suggesting that this species is parapatric with its sister taxa, C. hoffmannsi, C. baptista and C. bernhardi. While interviewing a resident of a community on the left bank of the Rio Tapajós (06°34’S, 58°28’W), near the Rio Palmares in the municipality of Maués, Amazonas State, we discovered that a grey titi monkey with light spots on its throat occurs in the area. It is possible that this is C. hoffmannsi (van Roosmalen et al., 2002) and that the Rio Palmares represents the eastern limit for C. cinerascens and serves as a point of contact between the two species.
Almeida Noronha, M. de; Spironello, W.R. and Campista Ferreira, D. (2007). New Occurrence Records and Eastern Extension to the Range of Callicebus cinerascens (Primates, Pitheciidae). Neotropical Primates 14(3),137-139.
Localities: AM Prainha Rio Aripuanã (07°16’S 59°19’W); AM Prainha perto de Cipotuba dir Rio Aripuanã (07°16’S 60°20’W).
Auricchio, P. (2010). A morphological analysis of some species of Callicebus. Neotropical Primates 17(2): 47-58.
Sampaio et al., 2012
Distribution: our results show a considerable extension of the distribution range of C. cinerascens.
Localities: PN do Juruena, on the border of Rondônia and Mato Grosso (08°54’34”S 58°33’29”W / 08°56’19”S 58°33’41”W / 08°50’50”S 58°28’19”W ); PN do Juruena, on the border of Rondônia and Pará (07°17’21”S 58°10’41”W / 06°58’44”S 58°21’58”W / 06°58’17”S 58°23’40”W); between the rio Juruena and the rio Teles Pires, near the rio Cravari. (12°32’S 57°52’W); between the rios Cabaxi, Guaporé and Juruena (15°01’44”S 59°37’W/ 14°50’S 59°57’W); west of the rio Cabaxi and north of the rio Guaporé (60°30’S 13°01’W).
Besides in the 16 protected areas reported by Noronha et al. (2007), the species can also be found in Estaçao Ecológica de Iquê and the Estaçao Ecológica do Rio Flor do Prado, both in Mato Grosso.
Remarks: The discovery of C. cinerascens in this area indicates that two related species live in the Juruena-Teles Pires interfluvium, as C. moloch lives on the right margin of the Juruena River. This species has also been registered on the left margin of the Teles Pires river, which is proven with three specimens in the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi.