Literature torquatus

Hoffmannsegg, 1807

Callitrix torquata

Type locality: Pará Province, Brazil.

Description: Agrees in size and strength with a half-year old cat; only the tail, which is longer than the body, is in length and thickness almost the same as an adult cat. The head has the shape of an egg, the upper side flat, but the back of the head higher. The face is from the eyebrows downwards, and from a line that one could draw from the temple over the middle of the side-whiskers till the throat, one the front side, in comparison with the shaggy body, very flat, as it is covered with 2.5m long yellow-whitish hairs. In between these hairs are some thumb-long black hairs on the eyebrows, lips, whiskers and chin.
The general colour of the animal agrees with the colour of a chestnut. But there is some variation in the colour of the body. The chestnut prevails from the occiput backwards over the neck, from there to the sides towards the elbows, then further on the back, the thighs, lower legs and the first half of the tail. However, it becomes on the head towards the eyebrows, on the sides of the head, on the forearms till the wrist, on terminal half of the feet and on the terminal half of the tail from black-brown to almost black, so that the ends of these parts almost can be called black. The undersides is foxy-red; on the breast, under the ears, near the throat, inner sides of the arms till over the region of the elbows, belly and inner sides of the legs we can call it almost rusty-red.
Very striking is the yellowish-white collar, between the throat and the breast with the width of an inch, which curves upwards and becomes thinner towards just below the ears, resembling the shape of a few days old moon. From this pale colour are also the terminal two-thirds of the fore-hands.
The hairs of the blackish parts and the head, legs, tail and the underside are uniformly coloured, at the base somewhat paler. However, the hairs on the back, the shoulders and somewhat on the sides are annulated with one or two yellowish rings. This gives these parts a speckled appearance.

Measurements: head and body 250mm; tail 350mm.

Hoffmannsegg, J.C. (1807). Beschreibung vier Affenartiger Thiere aus Brasilien. Magasin für die neuestent Entdeckungen des gesammenten Naturkunde 1: 86-96.

Humboldt, 1812

Simia torquata

Synonym: Callithrix torquatus (Hofmannsegg.).

Distribution: Grand-Para.

Description: castanea, abdomine et brachiorum parte anteriore rufis, palmis et macula gulari niveis, canda corpore longiori.

Humboldt, A. von (1812). Recueil d’Observations de Zoologie d’Anatomie Comparée 1 : 357.

Geoffroy St. Hilaire, 1812

Callithrix torquatus

Description: Chestnut-brown pelage; yellow on under parts; a white half-collar; tail slightly longer than body.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (1812). Tableau de Qaudrumanes. Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 19 : 114.

Desmarest, 1819

Callithrix torquatus

Synonym: Callithrix torquatus (Geoffroy, 1812)

Description: this species only is known to us by the sentence of Geoffroy, who mentions a chestnut-brown upper side and yellow under side; a white half collar, and the tail longer than the body.
M. Geoffroy cites M. Hoffmannsegg, as the first has distinguished this species; but this indication doesn’t appear us to be exact, according to the research that we have conducted to obtain more knowledge on this animal.

Desmarest, A.G. (1819). Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle 30: 28-32.

Desmarest, 1820

Callithrix torquatus

Synonyms: Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1809; Geoffroy, 1812).

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Pelage chestnut-brown, yellow on the under parts; a white half-collar; tail a bit longer than the body. This species only is known to us by the characteristic sentence that we mention above, and has been taken by M. Geoffroy from the description given by M. Hoffmannsegg.

Desmarest, A.G. (1820).  Mammalogie ou description des espèces de mammifères 1: 87.

Kuhl, 1820

Callithrix torquatus

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Chestnut-brown, below diluted. Tail longer than body. Hands and semi-collar white, belly and underside reddish.

Remark: C. lugens, C. amictus and C. torquatus may belong to the same species.

Kuhl, H. (1820).  Beiträge zur Zoologie und vergleichenden Anatomie pp. 39.

Schinz, 1821

Callithrix torquatus

Distribution: Pará.

Description: Chestnut-brown, belly and inner sides arms white-yellow, hands and a spot in the throat snowy-white.

Remark: Lugens, torquatus and amictus may all belong to one species?

Schinz, H.K. (1821). Das Thierreich, eingetheilt nach dem Bau der Thiere als Grundlage ihrer Naturgeschichte und der vergleichenden Anatomie von den Herrn Ritter von Cuvier 1: 133.

Griffith, 1821

Simia torquata

Description: described by Hoffmannsegg. Of a brownish colour, yellow beneath. The tail a little longer than the body.

Griffith, E. (1821): General and particular description of the vertebrated animals. Order Quadrumana.  p. 91.

Spix, 1823spix amicta 9x13

Callithrix amicta (Humboldt, 1812)

Distribution: The forests around the Solimoes, near Peru.

Description: M. Humboldt, Geoffroy and Hoffmannsegg learned us about three species of Sagoins (Callithrix torquata, lugens, and amicta) that have more or less the same characters. Therefore M. Kuhl seems to be right when he assumes that there is only one species. As there is isn’t yet a plate of the White-collared Sagoin, I thought it would be useful to draw the individual that I will describe.
The animal has the occiput and the body dark brown, and the four limbs as well as the tail black or even dark brown. The front, the temples and around the face till the throat greyish towards black. The throat, the underside of the neck and the beginning of the chest form a white collar. The hands are yellow-orange, the feet black mixed with a few yellow hairs. The belly also has some dark brown hairs; the ears are large, very visible and covered with black hairs. Above the eyes and the rest of the face is naked, with a reddish hue. The cheeks, lips and chin have whitish hairs. The hairs of the feet are long and stiff; those on the back are soft and 2 thumbs long.
The female and youngsters have the tail less black, and the back is not red but more variated and browner.

Spix, J.B. de (1823). Simiarum et vespertiliarum Brasilienses species novea; … pp. 18-23.

Geoffry Saint-Hilaire, 1827

Callithrix torquatus

Synonyms: Cebus torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1807; Geoffroy, ?; Desmarest, 1820); Callithrix torquatus (Geoffroy, 1812).

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Pelage chestnut-brown, yellow on the under parts; a white half-collar; tail a bit longer than the body. This species is only known to us by the characteristic sentence that we mention above, that M. Geoffroy gave from the description given by M. Hoffmannsegg.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (1827). Sagoin. Dictionnaire Science Naturelle 47 :13.

Temminck, 1827

Remark: The indications of Callithrix torquata, amicta and lugens of the authors must be united in one species.

Temminck, C.J. (1827). Monographies de mammalogie 1 :XV.

Lesson, 1827

Saguinus torquatus

Synonym: Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1807; Geoffroy, 1812); Saguinus torquatus (Desmarest, 1820).

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Chestnut brown pelage, yellow below; a white half-collar; tail just longer than body.

Lesson, R. P. (1827). Manuel de mammalogie ou histoire naturelle de mammifères p 57.

Cuvier, 1827

Simia Callithrix torquatus

Synonym: Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1809); Callithrix torquatus (Geoffroy, 1812).

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Fur chestnut brown; yellow beneath; with a white half collar; tail a little longer than the body.

Remark: Only known by Hoffmannsegg’s description.

Cuvier, G. and Griffith, E. (1827). The Animal Kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization 5:33-34.

Stark, 1828

Callithrix torquatus

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Fur chestnut-brown, yellow below; a half collar of white; tail a little longer than the body.

Stark, J. (1828). Elements of natural history 1:55.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1829

Callithrix torquatus

Description: Pelage brown-chestnut; under parts yellow; a white half-collar.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (1829). Cours de l’histoire naturelle des mammifères. Leçon 10 p. 19. 

Fischer, 1829

Cebus torquatus

Synonyms: Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1809); C. torquatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1810, 1820, 1827).

Description: Chestnut-brown; white hands.

Variation β: Cebus lugens

Synonyms: Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820, Desmarest 1819, 1820, 1827); Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812).

Description: Throat and hands white, forehead purplish

Variation C: Cebus amictus

Synonyms: Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820, Desmarest 1819, 1820, 1827); Callithrix amicta (Spix, 1823); Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812); Saguinus amictus (Lesson, 1827).

Description: Blackish-brown; white collar; hands yellow

Fischer, J.P. (1829). Synopsis mammalium p. 53.

Lesson, 1829

Callithrix torquatus

Distribution: Brazil.

Synonyms: Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Callithrix torquatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Desmarest, 1820).

Description: This species has for the first time been described in 1809, by M. Hoffmannsegg. He described the animals as having the pelage chestnut-brown, yellow on the under parts; a white half-collar; tail a bit longer than the body.

Lesson, R.P. (1829). Sagouin. Dictionnaire classique d’histoire naturelle 15:55.

Cuvier, 1829

Callithrix lugens

Synonym: Simia lugens (Humboldt).

Description: Blackish with a large white collar.

Remarks: Callithrix amicta (Geoffroy, Spix) and Callicebus torquata (Hoffmannsegg) are supposed to differ little from this species.

Cuvier, G. (1829). Le Règne Animal, nouvelle édition 1: 104.

Cuvier and Voigt, 1831

Simia (Callithrix) lugens

Description: Blackish, with a large white halscollar.

Remark: Callithrix amicta (Geoffroy) and Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg) are supposed to be little different.

Cuvier, G. and Voigt, L.S. (1831). Das Thierreich geordnet nach seiner Organisation 1: 96-97.

Jardine, 1833

Callithrix torquatus (Geoffroy, 1812)

Synonym: Simia torquata (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix torquatus (Geoffroy, 1812).

Distribution: Brasil.

Description: Chestnut-brown; yellowish beneath; throat white, in the form of a collar.

Jardine, W. (1833). The naturalist’s library  1: 223-224.

Wagner, 1833

Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812)

Remarks: That C. torquatus, lugens and amictus are only members of one and the same series of colour changes are, can also been seen on the specimens of our collection. This species proves again that colour gradations are not enough to erect new species.

Wagner, J.A. (1833). Critische Revision des brasilian. Affenarten. Isis von Oken 10(2):994.

Lesson, 1838

Callithrix torquatus

Synonym: Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1809); Callithrix torquatus (Desmarest, 1820).

Distribution: Brasil.

Description: Pelage brown-chestnut, yellow under sides and a white half-collar; the tail slightly longer than the body.

Lesson, R.P. (1838). Compléments de Buffon, 2e édition Pp. 280-281.

Wagner, 1840

Callithrix torquata

a) Black, hands white

Synonyms: Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1809; Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820); Simia torquata (Humboldt, 1812).

b) Blackish-brown, hands yellow

Synonyms: Callithrix amicta (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820; Spix, 1823); Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812).

c) Chestnut-brown, hands white

Synonyms: Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820); Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812).

Distribution: Solimoes, near Peru; Cassiquiare and Rio Guaviaré near San Fernando de Atabapo; mountains on right bank of the Orinoco, behind the mission of Santa Barbara.

Description: Kuhl already suspected that C. torquata, amicta, and lugens belonged to one species, and Temminck agreed with him. One can only find differences between darker and lighter hues, which are not constant. The colour is on the back shiny dark red-brown, more or less becoming black or very deep rusty-brown, the hairs being ringed brown-red and black. The colour on the under side is normally lighter, on the back of the head rusty-red, being at its darkest on the outer sides of the limbs, the underarms and feet being almost completely black. The forehead is shiny black, as are the hairs of the cheeks, which are partly reddish at the base. The tail is either completely black, or the hairs have a reddish base. On there throat there is a wide half-moon-shaped collar, which is in all our specimens of the same light-yellowish colouration, as are the hands. Humboldt reports the colour of the back as being completely black, and the throat and hands as white. Spix reports a reddish face, and the cheeks, lips and chin as woolly white; he also reports that in the females and the youngsters the tail is less black and the back more brown.

Measurements: head and body 375mm; tail 450mm.

Wagner, J.A. (1840). Schreber, die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband, Erste Abtheilung: Die Affen und Flederthiere Pp. 228-234.

Lesson, 1840

Saguinus vidua

Synonym: Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1819, 1820, 1827; Cuvier, 1829; Lesson, 1829); Saguinus lugens (Lesson, 1827); Cebus torquatus var. B (Fisher, 1829; Jardine, 1833); Simia (Callithrix) lugens (Griffith, 1827; Voigt, 1831).

Distribution: The forests near the Cassiquiaire and the Rio Guaviare, near San-Fernando de Atabapo; the mountains of the right bank of the Orinoco.

Description: Crown purple-black; naked face; with a white-bluish mask, square shaped, surrounded by grey above and white below; black hairs around the mouth; shiny black pelage, long and soft hairs; a white scarf on the throat; hands white; feet black.

Variation A:

Synonym: Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812; Desmarest, 1819, 1820, 1827; Lesson, 1829; Geoffroy, 1829; Jardine, 1833); Saguinus amictus (Lesson, 1827); Cebus amictus (Spix, 1823); Cebus torquatus var. C (Fisher, 1829).

Description: Brown-blackish pelage; a white half-collar; hands light-yellowish; tail twice as long as that of a Saimiri; tail brownish.

Variation: Young?

Synonym: Cebus torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1809; Fisher, 1829; Geoffroy, 1829); Callithrix torquatus (Geoffroy, 1812); Simia (callithrix) torquata (Humboldt, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest 1819, 1820, 1827); Saguinus torquatus (Lesson, 1827); Callithrix lugens (Cuvier, 1829; Lesson, 1829; Jardine, 1831).

Description: Chestnut-brown; yellow undersides; white half-collar.

Distribution: Para

Lesson, R.P. (1840). Species des mammifères bimanes et quadrumanes pp. 161-167.

Schinz, 1844

Callithrix lugens

Synonyms: Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1829??); Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1809); Simia torquata (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812); Saguinus Vidua (Lesson, 1827).

Distribution: In the mountains on the Cassiquiare, Guaviare and Orinoco (?) and on the Brazilian border with Peru, on the Solimoes.

Description: The colour of the upper side changes from chestnut-brown to black; the hairs are annulated brown-red and black; the undersides are paler, on the throat there is a white collar. The hands are white or yellowish, the feet deep black, as are the forearms. The tail is black and red on the underside.


Tschudi, 1844

Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812)

Distribution: Northern Peru, until 12º S.

Description: head completely black; crown and neck black-red; back black-brown; throat and upper part of chest yellowish-white; the hands are somewhat more yellowish, the feet black, as is the tail; Belly less intensive black-brown as the back.

Remarks: Humboldt described in 1812 this monkey as Simia amicta and Simia lugens. Temminck (1827) added also C. torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1809), which is according to us correct, as this species varies of al the monkeys probably the most; the by the travellers reported deviations in colours are mostly only indicative for age differences.

Tschudi,  J. J von (1844). Theriologie. Untersuchungen über die Fauna Peruana 45-47.

Boitard, 1848

Saguinus vidua and Saguinus lugens

Synonyms: Saguinus vidua (Lesson 1829),  or Saguinus lugens (Lesson, 1829), Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812); Cebus torquatus (Fischer, 1829). “Its synonymy is confusing”.

Distribution: in the forest around the Cassiquiaire, the Rio Guavarie and the right bank of the Orinico.

Description: He has a long and soft pelage, shiny black, with a beautiful white scarf around the throat; he has a black crown; his face is naked, with a black square in the form of a mask, white-bluish, grey above and white below; black hairs around the mouth; hands white, feet blackish.

Variation 1: The ruffed Sagouin

Synonyms: Simia amicta (Humboldt); Saguinus and Callithrix amictus (Lesson); Cebus amictus (Spix).

Description: His pelage is brown-blackish with a white half-collar; hands light-yellowish; tail brownish. He is twice as large as a Saimiri.

Variation 2: The collared Sagouin

Synonyms: Simia torquata (Humboldt); Callithrix torquatus (Geoffroyi); Callithrix lugens (Lesson, Cuvier); Cebus torquatus (Fischer).

Description: His pelage is chestnut-brown above, yellow below, with a white half-collar.

Distribution: Pará.

Remarks: Is probably only the juvenile of the species mentioned before.

Boitard, P. (1848). Dictionnaire Universel d’Histoire Naturelle 11:290-292.

Lesson, 1848

Callithrix lugens and Callithrix torquata

Synonym: Callithrix amicta is only an age variation.

Distribution: Orinoco.

Description: is a charming animal with the upper side of the head black-purplish. The face is naked with a white-bluish square mask, bordered with grey on the upper side and white below. The pelage is black with a white tie.

Lesson, R.P. (1848). Etudes sur les Mammifères Primates. Revue Zoologique par la Societé Cuvierienne 11:232-233.

Wagner, 1848

Callithrix torquata

Synonyms: Callithrix torquata, amicta and lugens.

Distribution: The species has a large range in the north-western part of South-America. Tschudi indicates that it lives from 12°S in Peru to the north. Spix has found the on the Solimoes on the Peruvian border, and Natterer at S. Gabriel at the left bank of the Negro River. Humboldt found them even further to the north, in the forests of the Cassiquiare and Guaviaré Rivers near S. Fernando de Atabapo, and the mountains on the right bank of the Orinico behind the mission of S. Barbara. Therefore its range must be between 12°S and 5°N, but restricted to the western half.

Description: from a female Natterer has noted that the iris hazel-brown is, the face and the ears black, the upper eyelids dirty white, the upper back dark chestnut-brown, which becomes on the lower back black-brown; the upperside of the forehands is brownish-yellow and the tail is black.

Wagner, J.A. (1848). Callithrix. Springaffe. Beitrage zur kenntniss der Säugthiere Amerikas Abhandlungen des Königl. Akademie des Wissenschaften München 5: 446-457.

I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1851

Callithrix amictus

Confounded by some authors with C. torquatus of Hoffmannsegg (1807), but that has the under parts reddish while these are black in C. amictus, like the upper parts.

Remarks: The Paris Museum has three specimens:
– the type of the species, collected in Portugal by Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire in 1808;
– an individual acquired in 1849;
– an individual acquired in 1843. This specimen resembles very much the others, but has less white on the throat.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I. (1851).  Catalogue méthodique de la collection des mammifères. Part 1 Mammifères, Introduction et catalogues des primates pp. 39-41.

Wallace, 1852

Callithrix torquatus

Distribution: only on the upper Rio Negro.

Wallace, A.R. (1852). On the monkeys of the Amazon. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London pp. 107-110.

Wagner, 1855

Callithrix torquatus

Synonym: Callithrix torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1807; Wagner, 1840 – part).

Distribution: only known from Pará, the northern parts of Brazil.

Description: According to the description of Hoffmannsegg is the upper side chestnut-brown, going towards black on the under sides of the limbs and on the terminal half of the tail; the under side foxy-red, almost rusty-coloured. The collar, stretching out from the ears towards the throat, is yellowish-white; the hands have the same colour.

Remarks: With I. Geoffroy I agree that C. torquata, from which we both have not seen a specimen, should be separated from C. amicta, because of the different distribution and colours. The C. torquata is only known from Pará, the northern parts of Brazil.

Wagner, J. A. (1855). Schreber, die Saugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband, Fünfte Abtheilung : Die Affen

Reichenbach, 1862

Callicebus torquata

Synonyms: Simia torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1807; Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix torquata (Geoffroy, 1812); Cebus torquatus (Fischer, 1829); Callithrix lugens (Cuvier, 1829; Lesson, 1829); Saguinus torquatus (Lesson, 1827).

Distribution: Brazil, Pará.

Description: Differs from amicta in having a foxy-red underside, further chestnut-brown with white collar.

Remarks: Lesson and others regard this species as the young of amicta, but I. Geoffroy doesn’t agree with this.

Reichenbach, 1862. Die Vollständigiste Naturgeschichte der Affen.

Gray, 1866

Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg)

Description: Fur soft, with abundant, elongated, stiffer hairs. The hands white, the feet black.

Gray, J.E. (1866). Notice of some new species of Callithrix in the collection of the British Museum. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (3) 17: 57-58.

Gray, 1870

Callithrix torquatus

Synonyms: Callithrix torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1807; Geoffroy, 1812); Saguinus viduus (Lesson, 1840).

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Dark-reddish black brown; hairs red below, with black tips; crown dark; narrow margin to face white; narrow collar round the neck reddish white; hands white; feet black; tail black, with the hair red at the lower part; forehead black.

Gray, J.E. (1870). Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats in the collection of the British Museum pp. 54-57.

Schlegel, 1876

Callithrix torquata

Synonyms: Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1809); Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1811); Callithrix torquatus (Geoffroy, 1812); Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812); Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812); Callithrix amicta (Spix, 1823).

Distribution: Sieber discovered this species in Pará, apparently on the right bank of the mouth of the Toccatas; Humboldt reports the species from the forests along the Cassiquiare and Rio Guaviaré, near St. Fernando de Atapo, and the granite mountains on the right bank of the Orinoco, behind the Santa Barabara mission; Natterer collected individuals on the banks of the Upper Rio Negro, near St. Gabriel south of the mouth of the Rio Vaupé, near Marabitanos and between Mont Cocuy and St. Carlos on the mouth of the Cassiquiare (according to von Pelzeln); Spix collected his animals in the forests of Olivença (St. Pablo), on the left bank of the Solimoes. Tschudi reports that this species also lives in northern Peru.
Gray reported that an animal in the British Museum was collected by Schomburgk in Guyana. However, Schomburgk reported in his publication that he has encountered only 11 species of primates, none of them being C. torquata.

Description: Blackish going towards brown-reddish, especially on the back, the neck and the occiput; replaces in front of the chest by a white or white-yellowish scarf and on the forehands by white going towards yellow-reddish.

Remarks: The Leiden Museum has one specimen from Olivença, originating from the voyage of Spix, and a second individual from Amazonia.

Schlegel, H. (1876). Les singes, Simia. Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Pays-Bas 12 :230-241.

Von Pelzen, 1883

Callithrix torquata

Synonyms: Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1806; Wagner, 1848 (part); Schlegel, 1876); Callithrix amicta (Humboldt, 1812; Wagner, 1855).

Distribution: S. Gabriel, left bank of the Rio Negro; Cocuy; Marabitanas.

Description: female, S. Gabriel, left bank of the Rio Negro, near houses, 5 January 1831. Iris hazelnut-brown. Translucent skin of the face, black ears, upper eyelids dirty-white. Reproductive parts blackish, the border of the anus covers with a crown of black hairs. Forehead, area around the ears, cheeks and underside chin, sides of the neck, arms, legs and tail black. Skull, neck, upper back dark chestnut-brown becoming black-brown at the lower back. Upper side of hands brownish-yellow, like gloves. A white band from below the area of the ear around the throat.

Measurements: Female: Total length: 83,8cm; tail 46,1cm; length of hairs on tip of tail 4,4cm.

Pelzen, A. von (1883). Brasilische Säugethiere pp. 19-20.

Jentink, 1892

Callithrix torquata

Remarks: the Leiden museum has two individuals:
– an adult individual, from the forests of Olivença (St. Pablo), on the left bank of the Solimoes, Peru. From the collections of Spix;
– an adult female from Amazonia.

Jentink, F.A. (1892). Catalogue systématique des mammifères (singes, carnivores, ruminants, pachydermes, sirènes et cétacés). Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle des Pays Bas 11: 51-53.

Forbes, 1896

Callithrix torquata

Synonym: Cebus torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1811); Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812); Saguinus vidua (Lesson, 1840); Callithrix torquatus (Gray, 1870); Callithrix torquata (Schlegel, 1876).

Distribution: Confined to the upper reaches of the Rio Negro, Brazil.

Description: Head round; face short; ears short, nearly naked; nose flat. Fur soft and woolly, intermixed with many long, stiff, dark reddish-brown hairs, the hairs red at the base, and black at the tips; forehead black; crown of head dark brown; a narrow white band around the face; a narrow collar round the neck, reddish-white; hands white; hair of feet red at base, but black at the tips.

Forbes, H.O. (1896). A Handbook of the Primates pp. 159-165 + plate 14..

Meerwarth, 1897

Callithrix torquata

Synonym: Callithrix amicta.

Distribution: Pará; Amazonas, upper Rio Negro, Orinoco.

Description: Under and upper side the same colour, never coppery; hands and feet black, tail covered with hairs of the same length. Colour predominantly black, becoming red-brown on the back, the neck and the occiput; on the chest a large white or white-yellow line; hands white-yellowish.

Meerwarth, H. (1897-1898). Simios (macacos) do novo mundo. Boletin do Museo Paraense de Historia Natural y Etn. 2: 121-154.

Trouessart, 1898-1899

Callithrix torquata

Synonym: torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1807; Schlegel, 1876; Pelzeln, 1883); lugens (Humboldt, 1811; Geoffroy, 1812); vidua (Lesson, 1840).

Distribution: Brazil, Amazonia, Para, Rio Cassiquiare, Rio Guaviare, Orinoco; Upper Rio Negro, Sao Gabriel, Marabitanos; Northern Peru.

a)amicta (Humboldt, 1811; Spix, 1833).

Trouessart, E.L. (1898-1899). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium 1: 44-46

Trouessart, 1904-1905

Callicebus torquata

Distribution: Northern Brazil, Amazonia, from Pará till Northern Peru.

a) – amicta

Distribution: Amazonia.

Trouessart, E.L. (1904-1905). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium Quinquennale. Suppl. Pp. 25-26.

Elliot, 1913

Callicebus torquatus

Synonyms: Cebus torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Simia (Callithrix) lugens (Humboldt, 1811; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820; Geoffroy, 1828); Simia (Callithrix) torquatus (Humboldt, 1811, 1815); Callithrix torquatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Geoffroy, 1828; Wagner, 1840, 1855; Tschudi, 1846; Wallace, 1852; Reichenbach, 1862; Gray, 1870; Schlegel, 1876; von Pelzeln, 1883; Forbes, 1894); Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812, 1828; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820; Reichenbach, 1862); Sanguinus vidua (Lesson, 1840; 1842).

Type locality: right bank of the River Tocantins, near its mouth.

Distribution: River Tocantins; mountains on right bank of the Orinoco, near Mission of Santa Barbara; the forests near the Rio Cassiquiare and the Rio Guaviare near St. Fernando de Atabapo; upper reaches of the Rio Negro; forest of Olivença on the right bank of the Rio Solimoes; Southern Peru, (Tschudi).

Description: Fur long, soft, woolly; ears short, nearly naked. Face naked, or with a few short white hairs on lips and cheeks; forehead, sides of head in front of ears, limbs, feet and tail black; upper parts dark maroon; under parts paler with the throat white, this hue extending as a kind of collar up to the ears; hands yellowish white.

Measurements: Total length, 800mm; tail, 475mm.

Skull: intertemporal width, 35; breadth of braincase, 39; palatal length, 18; median length of nasals, 15; length of upper molar series, 16; length of mandible, 43; length of lower molar series, 18.

Elliot, D.G. (1913). A review of the primates 1: 234-257.

Elliot, 1914

In the “Annals and Magazine of natural History” of March 1914, Mr. Oldfield Thomas states that C. lugens E. Geoffroy and C. amictus E. Geoffroy and Simia lugens Humboldt, together with Saguinus vidua Lesson are all black bellied species, and are one and the same, but presents no proofs to sustain the position he takes. In determining a species we are generally obliged to rely upon the description given by its author or on his type if existing, and lacking the latter, upon some specimen coming from the type locality if that is known. But should none such specimens be available, and the original description be so brief and unsatisfactory as to make it impossible to decide what the animal really looks like, it is then placed among the undeterminable forms.
In the ‘Annals du Museum,’ Vol. XIX, 1812, p. 114, E. Geoffroy describes these two monkeys as follows:
“3. Veuve. Callithrix lugens (Humboldt). “Pelage noirâtre; gorge et mains antérieures blanches: queue à peine plus longue que le corps.”
This species was described by Humboldt as given below.
“4. C. à fraise. Callithrix amictus. “Pelage brun-noirâtre; un demi-collier blanc; mains de devant jaunes: queue plus longue d’un quart que le corps.”
It will at once be noticed that in both descriptions the colour of the arms, legs, feet, tail and under parts of the body are not given, and in no other of his publications does E. Geoffroy give any further information of these species. He undoubtedly believed he had two distinct animals before him, and he diagnosed them so as to emphasize their distinctness. However his lugens is taken from Humboldt and is blackish, has only a white throat, hands white, and tail nearly as long as the body; while amictus is blackish brown, a white half collar, yellow hands, and a tail longer than the body. If lugens had a white collar it is inconceivable that neither Humboldt nor E. Geoffroy should not have mentioned it. I could not find the type of lugens in the Paris Museum, nor any specimens bearing that name, and I have no recollection of seeing one in any collection. It differs from amictus in being without a white collar, having white hands, a tail that is shorter and without the brown hue of the pelage.
The Simia lugens Humboldt is described in the Synoptical List as follows: ” Simia lugens, atra facie albo-maculata, gula nivea, manibus anterioribus albis, posterioribus nigris”. It will here be also noticed no mention is made of the colour of the under parts, but earlier in the volume is a more detailed description; he gives this as ” Corpus, cauda, crura et brachia nigra,” and in the French description he states ” elle a le poil doux, lustre, d’un beau noir et un peu relevé. Ce pelage est d’une teinte uniforme sur le corps entier de l’exception de la face du col et des mains de devant.” Here we have an entirely black monkey with a snowy throat and hands white, an animal not represented in any collection at the present time.
Humboldt probably did not know C. amictus for he gives only a brief Latin description in his Synoptical List evidently founded on the French one of E. Geoffroy, and makes no mention of the species elsewhere in the volume. C. amictus is a very rare animal in collections. I do not think that I have seen half a dozen examples in the Museums of England and the Continent. It was generally considered by the earlier writers, who probably had never seen a specimen at that time, as C. torquatus, and it may be said that if an example of amictus has lost the hair on the under side of the body it is not easy to distinguish one from the other. There was one adult specimen in the British Museum, but not in good condition, and it was not until I saw the alleged type in the Paris Museum that I was satisfied that C. torquatus and C. amictus were distinct. E. Geoffroy states that amictus has “mains de devant jaunes,” but all the specimens that I saw had white hands. Certainly the hands of the so-called type in the Paris Museum were white, and I do not remember seeing any examples with yellow hands as given by E. Geoffroy. If, therefore, this should affect its specific standing, then the animal now recognized as amictus would have to take a new name, and we would be obliged to wait for the appearance of a yellow-handed amictus. Mr. Thomas has brought forward a problem incapable of any satisfactory solution. There are no specimens extant to prove what exactly were the species the two authors described. We have been obliged to drop many from our lists as indeterminable and C. lugens E. Geoffroy and S. lugens Humboldt had better go with them. It may have been an error to place lugens among the synonyms of C. torquatus. It would have been a greater’ error to state that it was the same as amictus (there being no proof whatever to sustain the assertion), and make that name a synonym of lugens.
It is easy for one to assume anything that occurs to him, but an assumption without facts to support it, is, to say the least, a most unstable foundation upon which to establish a species. Towards the close of his remarks Mr. Thomas assumes that his new species Callicebus lucifer, the chief character of which is a “chestnut rufous tail,” is probably the same as Spix’s amictus, in spite of the fact that Spix’s figure shows a black tail, and in his Latin description be writes “caudae sublonge brunneo-nigris,” and in the French one “la queue d’un noir luisant.” It may be well to state that Lesson’s description of his vidua is not an original one, but merely founded upon that of Humboldt’s lugens, and therefore whatever Humboldt’s species is (at present unknown), the vidua Lesson would be its synonym.

Allen, J.A. (1914). New South American Monkeys. Bulletin of the AMNH 33:647-648.

Thomas, 1914

Callicebus lucifer

Type locality: Yahuas, North of Loreto, about 2º40’S – 70º30’W, alt. 500m.

Distribution: Eastern Peruvian Amazonas.

Description: Like C. lugens Humb. (syn. Amictus, Geoff.), but the tail chestnut-rufous instead of black. Belly black, not red as in C. torquatus.

Remarks: By some accident the synonymies of the yellow-handed titis have got confused in prof. Elliot’s recent great work on the primates. He calls the red-bellied species C. torquatus, putting C. lugens and Saguinus vidua among its synonyms, while the black-bellied one he terms amictus. But a study of the original descriptions of these four animals shows that while torquatus is red-bellied, lugens, amictus, and vidua are all black-bellied and are clearly synonymous with each other, lugens being the earliest name. Its type-locality is the Upper Orinico, not Olivença, Solimoes, as stated, the latter locality being taken from Spix, whose specimen was probably C. lucifer.
Specimens of this group are very rare in collections, and the British Museum only contains six, two of each species, as follows:
C. torquatus – Adult; Rio Negro; bought in 1842; collector unknown. Head and forelimbs: Ega, Amazon; H.W. Bates
C. lugens – Young specimen from Maipures, Orinico, practically a topotype of the species; coll. G.K. Cherrie. Adult specimen; “Guiana” (no doubt incorrect); Sir R. Schomburgk.
C. lucifer – Type and paratype from Yahuas, as above.

Thomas, O. (1914). On various South-American Mammals. Annals and Magazine of Natural    History (8) 13:345.

Thomas, 1927

Callicebus torquatus torquatus

Distribution: Lower Rio Negro and Lower Solimoes.

Description: Under surface and inner aspect of thighs deep rufous. Back uniform dark chestnut-reddish. Tail-hairs mixed reddish and black.

Remarks: The British Museum has received from Herr Ehrhardt some further specimens of the beautiful monkeys of the Callicebus torquatus Group, the yellow-handed Titis, and I have now had an opportunity of studying them. In 1914 I described a monkey of this group, accepting for the time being the recognition of the red-bellied and black-bellied forms (respectively torquatus and lugens) as distinct species, to which I added a third under the name of lucifer.
But the available material now available tends to show the essential unity of all the Yellow-handed titis, and I should now propose to consider them as belonging to one species only, whose name would be C. torquatus, and to recognize among them five subspecies, each of which appears to be very constant in colour locally.

Thomas, O. (1927). In the titi monkeys of the Callicebus torquatus group. Annals and Magazine of   Natural History (9) 19: 509-510.

Lönnberg, 1939

Callicebus torquatus

Locality: The Stockholm museum has 7 specimens originating from Codajaz, northern side of Rio Solimoes.

Description: Although these specimens all have been collected at the same locality, they display a certain individual variation with regard to the shades of colour, as usually is the case within this genus. The general pattern is, however, the same and may be described as follows. The forehead and anterior part of the crown is pure black, and the same extends downward on either side of the face. In most of the specimens, representing both sexes, there is a narrow border of short white hairs surrounding the naked face, which latter only is beset with scattered black, bristly hairs. In one specimen the border of white hairs extends also to the lower side and surrounds the chin. Behind the black area the crown is very dark reddish, perhaps most nearly approaching “claret brown”, but different in different specimens and sometimes of the same shade as the colour of the back, which is somewhat variable.
It may be termed mahogany brown in some specimens, in other it is less reddish and might be called very dark rufous brown. This colour may be affected in various ways. In some specimens the distal half of the hairs is only gradually darkening from the mahogany red middle parts. In other specimens the hairs are annulated with various shades of rufous on more or less pronounced black. The in such a way produced general colour may become from more or less mahogany to dark rufous brown. The “collar”, which has caused the specific name torquatus, is only little developed. The (sometimes somewhat yellowish) white hairs of the same are to a greater extend very broadly tipped with pale orange rufous, and in some specimens entirely substituted by hairs of that colour, so that nothing white is to be seen. The lower parts of the body are rufous brown, sometimes resembling to some degree “burnt Siena” (Ridgeway), in other cases more like chestnut. This more or less rufous colour extends to the upper parts of the arms and to the legs. The arms are black below the elbow and in some specimens still higher up. The hands are ochre yellow. The feet are black and this extends upwards sometimes to the knee without any sharp limit, but in some specimens still higher up although only as an irregular suffusion. The tail is exteriorly quite black, but the hairs are, especially in the proximal parts of the organ, more or less, dark reddish or brownish in their inner, not visible portion. Only in one of the specimens, an adult female, the tail has partly a somewhat brownish appearance, because the hairs are distinctly annulated with brown.

Measurements: Males: total length 660/700/830mm; tail 410/405/485mm; hind foot 95/–/95mm. Females: total length 785/770/750mm; tail 420/455/420mm; hind foot 95/92/96mm.

Skull: measurements and description of 4 individuals in publication.

Remarks: As the above description of seven specimens proves, the colour pattern is subjected to a certain variation even in one and the same locality. It agrees, however, essentially with the original description of Hoffmannsegg, as quoted by Wagner (1855), since I. Geoffroy (1851) had drawn attention to an earlier misunderstanding. Thomas (1914, 1927) has then further widened the knowledge about this titi monkey and also described several subspecies of the same, which have been based on differences in colour. Considering the great individual variation which is displayed by these monkeys, and which has, to some extend, been set forth above, it is, however, somewhat uncertain, whether all of these may hold good, when a greater number of specimens have been available for comparison.

The dimensions of the skulls in Titi monkeys in this collection are rather similar in all species. In some respects C. torquatus appears, however, to be somewhat larger than the others with regard to length and zygomatic breadth, although the difference is not great.

Lönnberg, E. (1939). Notes on some members of the genus Callicebus. Arkiv för Zoologi 31 (13):1-18.

Tate, 1939

Callicebus torquatus torquatus

Distribution: the torquatus group, the only division of Callicebus that shows any relationship with the Guiana area, reaches that region merely along its western and south-western and south-western margin. The “viudita” was unknown to the Indians at Mt. Auyan-tepui.

Description: The colour pattern of the skins in monkeys of this group is distinguishable by the buffy-white of the hands and the white pectoral patch. The dorsal colour in the northwest of the range (lugens of upper Orinoco) is black, tail black or reddish black, without pale tip. The representative in north Peru is reddish black, and specimens from Teffe appear dull dark reddish. Torquatus (Hoffmannsegg), from ‘o Certao, inner Pará”, was an ally of lugens, but with a chestnut suffusion over the upper parts and proximal portion of limbs and tail. The under parts were coloured russet.

Remarks: lugens was placed by Elliot in the synonymy of torquatus (Hoffmannsegg). It is better recognized as a geographical race of the latter. We now have extensive series of true lugens from the Cassiquiare, whose range Humboldt gave as the Cassiquiare and Guiviare, as well as a number of specimens of duida from Duida. The colour of hands, feet and throat patch, and the dorsal brownish clouding appear to be variables of insufficient value for the differentiation of duida as a race. I have no evidence of the occurrence of lugens in the Caura valley east of the Parima Mountains.

Tate, G.H.H. (1939). The mammals of the Guiana region. Bulletin of AMN 76: 219-220.

Cabrera and Ypes, 1940

Callicebus torquatus

Distribution: extreme south of Venezuela, north-eastern Brazil, the drainage of the Upper Orinoco, Negro, Solimoes, Iça, Tonantins and Purus.

Description: Dark chestnut brown, towards black on the head, on the tail and the under parts. The throat is white, as a collar. The hands are also white, or yellowish.

Measurements: head and body: 350mm; tail: 450mm.

Remarks: It appears that the drainage of each river has a slightly different race of the same species: the animals of the upper Rio Negro, for instance, have a black tail, and lower back is also very black while the animals of the Iça are predominantly chestnut, and those of the Tonantins more red, but with the legs black.

Cabrera and Ypes (1940). Mamiferos Sud Americanos. Compana Argentina de Editores, Buenos Aires pp. 85-88.

Cruz-Lima, 1945

Callicebus torquatus torquatus

Synonym: Callitrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1807).

Distribution: They are also reported from the regions of the upper Amazon and Orinoco, but Thomas thinks that in the upper Amazon there is confusion with his form lucifer. The supposed occurrence of torquatus in the regions of the upper Orinoco, Cassiquiare and Guaviare may also be attributed to the mistaken identification of this form with lugens. The designation of the Tocantins as the origin of the type must be a mistake.

Description: Face bare, black with a few short white hairs on lips. Fur thick, long, soft with a mixture of many long, stiff, dark reddish brown hairs (Forbes); ears small, almost bare; forehead, sides of the head in front of ears., limbs and tail black; hands yellowish white (Elliot), white (Forbes); feet black (Elliot), the hairs red at base (Forbes). Dorsal surface dark maroon (Elliot), from the top of the head the hairs red at base and black-tipped (Forbes). Under parts paler maroon or bright red chestnut; throat white, this colour extending as a kind of collar around the face up to the ears, bordering outside the black stripe.

Measurements: total length 800mm; tail 470mm.

Remarks: Elliott includes in this monograph Callithrix lugens and Saguinus vidua in the synonymy of C. torquatus, thus following Forbes, when in accordance with the original descriptions the first two are synonyms of C. amictus, as Thomas was able to show (Thomas, 1914). Elliot, in replying to Thomas, (Elliot, 1914), explains his stand, alleging that the deficiency of the original descriptions prevents the identification of the rare specimens of these species which exist in the museums, and says that if he was mistaken in including C. lugens among the synonyms of C. torquatus he would be committing a greater error in including it in the synonymy of C. amictus without further proofs to back this point of view, and considers that no satisfactory solution is possible. His defence does not seem logical. The principal distinction between the forms under consideration – torquatus and amictus – is in the colouring of the under parts, which are vivid chestnut in the former and in the latter blackish like the rest of the body. E. Geoffroy’s very brief descriptions (Geoffroy, 1812) of lugens and amictus do not mention the colour of the under parts, nor is it mentioned for lugens in Humboldt’s Synoptic list (Humboldt, 1812); it is Elliot himself who cites the latter more detailed descriptions given in the same volume in which lugens is described as having “corpus, cauda, crura et brachia nigra” and in the same description in French: “elle a le poil douce, lustre, d’un beau noir et un peu relevé: ce pelage est d’une teinte uniforme sur le corpse entire, à l’exception de la face, du col et des mains de devant”. This alone is sufficient to prevent the identification of C. lugens with C. torquatus; and the differences cited by E. Geoffroy between lugens and amictus, i.e. that the former has a white throat and white hands and a tail only slightly longer than the body, do not justify a specific separation. As we had the occasion to observe, the length of the tail in relation to the body varies from individual to individual in the same species, and in the related species C. torquatus the development of the collar and the whitening of the hands are a result of age, for the young commonly have much less developed collar and hands less pure white, slightly yellowish. For this reason we believe Thomas was right. Schlegel, on the other hand, before Forbes and Elliot, has also confused these ill-fated species, and Trouessart considers torquatus, lugens, and viduus synonymous, and amictus a subspecies. Thomas later (Thomas, 1927) altered his point of view to a certain extent, considering lugens (=amictus =viduus), as well as lucifer, a subspecies of torquatus.

The confusion by authors of this species with lugens, (=amictus = viduus) has contributed to making not only its description but also its geographical distribution uncertain. Thomas separated it from other similar species because of the colouring of the under parts, which places it in part among the cupreus group, although in reality the other characteristics of the colouring allocate it to the black-bellied group, with whose members it has been considered synonymous and to which, nowadays, it is considered closely united. Spix, agreeing with Kuhl, not only considers C. lugens and amictus synonymous, but also thinks that the allocation of torquatus to amictus leaves one in doubt as to which the description really refers. More modern authors, like Forbes and Elliot, maintain the separation but confuse the synonyms. As these animals are rare and very sparsely represented in scientific collections, a satisfactory comparative study has not yet been possible, but the subdivision of the species, as it appears in the key, according to Thomas’ latest views seems to us neared reality.

Cruz-Lima, E. da (1945). Mammals of Amazonia Vol. 1. General introduction and primates pp. 175-198.

Vieira, 1955

Callicebus torquatus torquatus

Synonym: Cebus torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1807).

Distribution: Amazonas (Tefé, Codajás, Rio Negro); Pará (Foz do Tocantins).

Vieira, C. da C. (1955). Lista remissiva dos mamiferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 8 (10): 375-379.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus torquatus torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1807)

Synonyms: Simia torquata (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix torquatus (Geoffroy, 1812); Saguinus torquatus (Lesson, 1827); Callithrix torquata (Wagner, 1848); Callicebus torquatus (Elliot, 1913); Callicebus torquatus torquatus (Thomas, 1927).

Distribution: Lower Amazonas, from the Rio Negro.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus torquatus torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1807)

Type locality: Çertao (= Sertao), inner Pará, on right bank of Rio Tocantins, near its confluence with Amazon. There is considerable doubt as to the type locality, as given by Hoffmannsegg, being a correct habitat for the animal in its wild state. Like many early specimens, it was probably picked up near Pará, having been brought there from elsewhere. Type in Berlin Museum.

Distribution: Thomas concluded that the true locality for the specimen answering to the original description of typical torquatus was the lower reaches of the Rio Negro and the Lower Rio Solimoes. Examples from the Upper Negro and Upper Solimoes pertain to different, though allied, races. The designation of the type locality as “the right bank of the Rio Tocantins near its mouth” (Elliot, 1913) is undoubtedly erroneous. Tefé on the Amazon would be better regarded as its centre of characterization. Vieira (1955) adds Codajaz and Foz de Tocantins as localities for this race.

Description: Differing from all the other races except ignitus and purinus in its bright chestnut dorsal surface and relatively light (deep rufous) under parts. Face black, almost naked, with short white hairs on lips and cheeks, sometimes extending to chin; forehead and sides of head anterior to ears black; limbs (except hands) and tail black (tail mixed with reddish according to Thomas (1927)); crown, nape and dorsal parts of body dark maroon, the hairs being red basally and black at tip; under parts, including medial aspects of thighs, lighter maroon or bright chestnut, varying individually to burnt sienna; pectoral region white; hands white or yellowish-white, including digits and metacarpal region.

Measurements: (Lima) head and body 330mm; tail 470mm; (Lönnberg) hind foot 95mm.

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Hershkovitz, 1963

Callicebus torquatus torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1807)

Synonyms: Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix amictus (E. Geoffroy, 1812); Callithrix amicta (Spix, 1823); Callithrix amictus (Tschudi, 1844); Callicebus torquatus (Ihering, 1904); Callicebus torquatus (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus lucifer (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus torquatus lucifer (Thomas, 1927); Callicebus torquatus purinus (Thomas, 1927); Callicebus torquatus regulus (Thomas, 1927); Callicebus torquatus ignitus (Thomas, 1927); Callicebus torquatus torquatus (Thomas, 1927); Callicebus torquatus (Cruz Lima, 1945); Callicebus torquatus lucifer (Cabrera, 1958); Callicebus torquatus amictus (Cabrera, 1958).

Type locality: Originally given as the interior of Pará, Brazil. Whatever the extent and concept of Pará in Hoffmannsegg’s time, the species is unknown within the present limits of that State and probably does not occur there. Thomas (1927) gave the distribution of torquatus as “Lower Rio Negro and Lower Solimoes”. Lönnberg (1939) recorded and described in detail six specimens from Codajaz on the left side of the Solimoes as typical torquatus. It is proposed therefore to restrict the type locality of Callicebus torquatus torquatus Hoffmannsegg to Codajaz, north bank of Rio Solimoes, Amazonas, Brazil. Type in Berlin Museum.
Schlegel (1876) believed that the type locality of torquatus might be “on the right bank of the mouth of the Tocantins (Pará) where the traveller (i.e. Sieber, collector of the type) has not been. This locality is outside the known range of the genus. Nevertheless, Elliot (1913) gave “right banks of the River Tocantins near its mouth” as the actual type locality. Cruz Lima (1945) questioned this designation but Cabrera (1958) followed Elliot and defined the distribution of true torquatus as the “lower Amazon, from the Rio Negro”, an area partly outside the range of Callicebus and whole outside that of C. torquatus. Hill (1960) also specified the right bank of the Tocantins as the origin of the type. Farther in his text, however, Hill joined Cruz Lima in casting doubt on the authenticity of this locality.

Distribution: The Amazonian region from the Rio Purus, Amazonas, Brazil, west at least to the Juruá on the south and possibly to the left bank of the Yavari; north of the Solimoes and Japurá (Caquetá), thence into Colombia and Peru between the middle Caqueta on the north, the Marañon on the south and the lower Rio Tigre on the west.

Description: (key to species:) general body colour reddish to black, under parts hardly or not at all defined from upper parts; hind feet and tail to tip, black; white to buffy or orange throat patch or ruff almost always present and well defined from chest; forearms black above and below; hands or fingers white or yellow; trunk dominantly reddish or reddish brown.

Remarks: Some authors have regarded Callicebus amictus (E. Geoffroy) as a separate species or as a subspecies of C. torquatus. Others have treated amictus as identical with torquatus sensu stricto or lumped it with lugens. Elliot (1914) persuaded himself to dismiss it as unidentifiable. The type of amictus was brought from the Lisbon Museum to Paris in 1808, by E. Geoffroy. According to Rode (1938) the Lisbon Museum had received the specimen from Count von Hoffmannsegg. This is improbable. Hoffmannsegg could not have been aware of the existence of the Lisbon specimen for he emphatically declared that nothing like the type and only specimen of his C. torquatus had ever reached Europe before. Because of confusion regarding the status of amictus, Spix (1823) redescribed a skin identified as such and determined the type locality as Sao Paulo de Olivença, upper Rio Solimoes, near the Peruvian border. Carbrera (1958) followed Spix and adopted amictus as the name for the upper Amazonian race of Callicebus torquatus. Two specimens at hand from the Rio Nanay, a small tributary of the Marañon at the westernmost point of the range in Peru, agree with the original description of amictus and with the individual figured by Spix and seem to confirm the distinctness of this form. However, some evidence, albeit meagre, points to the existence of blackish brown amictus and reddish brown torquatus phenotype with intermediates all along the Solimoes and Marañon.

Specimens examined: Total 5. Brazil – Amazonas: Lago de Ayapuá, Rio Purús; and from no precise location. Peru – Loreto: Santa Lucia, Nanay

Variation within the species: The northernmost race, Callicebus torquatus lugens (Humboldt) is darkest, with body or trunk deep blackish brown, throat patch or gular ruff well developed and sharply defined white or creamy. The westernmost race, medemi, is less black, browner, with gular ruff extending from ear to ear in some specimens to obsolete or absent in others, face more thinly haired, hands entirely black in some, with a more or less concealed admixture of golden hairs in others. Southward, between the Rios Putumayo and Caqueta, medemi grades into reddish, or reddish brown populations of torquatus. Here the yellow becomes dominant on the fingers (cf. ignitus Thomas) before extending over the metacarpals. In some populations (Codajáz, c.f. Lönnberg 1939) the throat patch tends to blend or become confused wit the surrounding reddish of the under surface.
Individuals or populations of torquatus from the north bank of the Solimoes with uniformly reddish trunks such as the type of ignitus Thomas from the Rio Tonantins, mingle with somberly coloured ones with dark under parts such as those Thomas (1927) described and recorded as lucifer. Similarly, on the south side of the Solimoes, brightly coloured individuals of torquatus with reddish belly and thighs (purinus, Thomas) seem to be randomly distributed with brownish ones with dark bellies (regulus, Thomas). Lönnberg (1939) noted that a series of reddish torquatus from Jaburú, middle Rio Purus, south of the Solimoes, was hardly distinguishable from another from Codajáz, north of the Solimoes. He nevertheless kept them apart by recording each series under the names purinus and torquatus, respectively. Two reddish brown dark bellied specimens at hand from the Rio Nanay, Peru, on the north side of the Marañon, agree with the original description of the brownish dark-bellied regulus Thomas from south of the Solimoes.
Apparent absence of features for consistently distinguishing the populations of one side of the Solimoes from those of the other is remarkable. Cabrera (1958) rejected colour as a subspecific character but nevertheless recognized a northern Amazonian race (lucifer) and a southern race (amictus).
The possibility that Callicebus torquatus torquatus is dichromatic in some parts of its range is suggested in the above discussion. The only evidence, however, is the reference by Thomas (1927) of the occurrence of reddish (ignitus, type an immature) and blackish form (lucifer) representatives of torquatus in the same locality on the Rio Tonantins and the somewhat obscure note by Cruz Lima (1945) that a male and female from Fonteboa, type locality of regulus, represent the reddish and dark phase, respectively. Nothing is known of seasonal and age variation in colour and pelage and no differences are apparent between the sexes. Nevertheless, whether considered individually or collectively, all populations of subspecies torquatus, as recognized here, can be distinguished from medemi and lugens by their more reddish colour and by their contrastingly whitish or yellow hands or fingers, respectively.


Egozcue et al. 1969

Callicebus torquatus

Diploid number of chromosomes 2n=20.

Five pairs of submetacentrics, 5 pairs of acrocentrics. Since only one female was studied, there is no information on the sex chromosomes.

Egozcue, J., Perkins, E.M., Hagemenas, F. and Ford, D.M. (1969). The chromosomes of some Platyrrhini (Callicebus, Ateles and Saimiri). Folia primatologia 11: 17-27.

 Handley Jr., 1976

Callicebus torquatus

Specimens collected at the following localities: Belen, Rio Cunucunuma, 56 km NNW Esmeralda, 150 m; Boca Mavaca, 84 km SSE Esmeralda, 138 m; Capibara, Brazo Casiquiare, 106 km SW Esmeralda, 130 m; 7 km SE Esmeralda, 135 m; Rio Mavaca, 108 km SSE Esmeralda, 140 m; Tamatama, Rio Orinoco, 135 m.

Handley, Jr. C.O. (1976). Mammals of the Smithsonian Venezuelan Project. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin, Biological Series 20(5): 1-91.

Hershkovitz, 1988

Callicebus torquatus torquatus

Member of the torquatus group.

Hershkovitz, P. (1988) Origin, Speciation, and Distribution of South American Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus (Family Cebidae, Platyrrhini), by Philip Hershkovitz . Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 140 (1): 240-272.

Soini et al., 1989

Callicebus torquatus torquatus

Distribution: the region north of the Maranon-Amazonas River, Peru.


Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus torquatus torquatus

Member of the torquatus Group.

Synonyms: Callitrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Callithrix amictus (E. Geoffroy, 1812)

Type locality: Said to be the interior of Para (sensu lato), Brazil; redetermined by Hershkovitz (1963a, p. 56) as “Codajaz,” north bank Rio Solimoes above the mouth of the Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. One syntype, perhaps the holotype, possibly still preserved in the Berlin Museum. One syntype in the Paris Museum.

Distribution: In Amazonas, Brazil; north bank of the Rio Solimoes between the lower Rio Negro and lower Rio Japura, northern limits undetermined but presumably the low divide between the Rios Japura-Solimoes and the Rio Negro-Uapes.

Description: Hands whitish, buffy orange to rufous with or without mixture of blackish hairs; tail blackish or with mixture of reddish; under parts except throat blackish, reddish brown, or reddish; chest and belly reddish or reddish brown; hairs of back and sides weakly banded to uniformly reddish brown; throat collar weakly defined, sometimes absent.

Comparisons: Distinguished from Callicebus torquatus purinus by blackish crown not sharply demarcated from mahogany nape, hairs of back uniformly coloured or faintly banded; from C. t. regulus by reddish brown under parts, back of crown not markedly differentiated from forehead or nape; from C. t. lucifer and most C. t. lugens by reddish brown or mahogany coloration throughout; from C. t. medemi by hands yellow, golden, or orange.

Specimens examined: Total 18. Brazil – Amazonas: Codajas; Lago do Arara; Manacapuru; Manaus; “Rio Negro”.

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Aquino and Encarnacion, 1994

Callicebus torquatus

Distribution: According to Hershkovitz (1988), it is distributed in north-eastern Peru north of the rivers Nanay and Amazonas to the Rio Putumayo.

Description: Pelage generally dark-brown. Few whitish hairs around mouth; forehead and cheeks blackish, crown dark-brown. Neck and upperparts dark brown, throat with a creamy-yellow patch. Upper arms and thighs dark-brown, forearms and lower legs blackish, hands with short creamy-yellow hair. Tail entirely dark-brown.


Defler, 1994

Callicebus torquatus

Localities: 1. Defler’s (1983) study sites (5º10’N, 69º10’W); 2. Upper Tuparro river (Defler, personal observation in 1983) (4º52’N, 69º22’W); 3. Middle Tuparro river (Defler, personal observation in 1983) (4º55’N, 68º45’W); 4. Mouth of Vichada river (south side) (Defler, personal observation in 1983) (4º50’N, 67º48’W); 5. South bank Vichada river, opposite Santa Rita (Defler, personal observation in 1991) (4º50’N, 68º22’W); 6. South bank of Vichada river (Defler, personal observation in 1991) (4º40’N, 68º40’W); 7. North bank of Vichada river (Defler, personal observation in 1991) (4º23’N, 60º05’W); 8. North (left) bank of Guayuabero river (Hernandez-C., personal communication) (2º20’N, 73º45’W); 9. Several sites along road between Mocoa and Puerto Asis (Hernandez-C., personal communication, and Defler, personal observation in 1976) (0º30′-1ºN, 76º30’W); 10. Both banks of Cahuinari river (Defler, several observations in 1987) (1º38’N, 71º50’W); 11. South (right) bank of Miriti-Parana river (Defler, personal observation (1983b)) (1º06’S, 7º30’W); 12. South (right) bank of Caqueta river (Defler, personal observation in 1986) (1º30’S, 70ºW); 13. South (right) bank of Caqueta river (Defler, personal observation in 1987) (1º18’S, 9º40’W); 14. Caparu Biological Research Station north of Taraira Lake (Defler, personal observation in 1983-1992) (1º15’5, 69º35’W); 15. Both banks of lower Purue river, Brazil (Defler, personal observation in 1987 (1º45’5, 68º15’W); 16. Inland on both sides of Amacayacu creek, Amacayacu National Park, Amazonas (Defler, personal observation in 1991) (3º50’S, 70º18’W); 17. Purite river, a boundary of Amacayacu National Park (Defler, personal observation in 1993 (3º25′-3º35’S, 69º30′-70º); 18. Cotuhe river, northern border of Amacayacu National Park (Defler, personal observation in 1993) (3º10’S, 70º15’W).


Kobayashi, 1995

Callicebus torquatus torquatus

Based on cranial measurements, the genus can be divided in five groups:

  • the donacophilus group (including modestus, olallae, d. donacophilus and d. pallescens)
  • the cupreus group (including caligatus, c. cupreus, c. discolor and c. ornatus)
  • the moloch group (including brunneus, h. hoffmannsi, h. baptista, moloch and cinerascens)
  • the personatus group (including p. personatus, p. nigrifrons, p. melanochir)
  • the torquatus group (including t. lucifer, t. lugens, t. medemi, t. regulus, t. purinus and t. torquatus).

The group position of C. dubius remains uncertain; C. oenanthe and C. barbarabrownae were not examined.

Kobayashi, S. (1995). A phylogenetic study of Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: 1. Phyletic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36(1): 101-120.

Anonymous, 1995

Callicebus torquatus torquatus

Distribution: right bank of the Rio Negro (lower Rio Negro near its mouth).


de la Torre et al., 1995

Callicebus torquatus

Locality: Cuyabeno Reserve, north-eastern Ecuador, in the Sucumbios Province. It extends from the origins of the Rio Cuyabeno throughout it hydrographic system, until it empties into the Rio Aguarico; then 60km east to the lakes Zancudococha and Lagartococha.


Voss and Emmons, 1996

Callicebus torquatus

Localities: Rio Cunucunuma, a black-water tributary of the upper Orinoco; Igarape-Açu (left bank of
lower Rio Uruçu (4°30’S, 64°29’W), Amazonas, Brazil; Lago da Fortuna (left bank of Rio Jurua; 5°05’S, 67°10’W), Brazil; SM-1 (oil-drilling site between Rio Uruçu and Rio Coari; 4°50’S, 65°1 6’W), Amazonas, Brazil; Rio Miriti-Parana (study site on right bank, ca. 18 airline km WNW of confluence with left bank of lower Caquetá at ca. 1°11’S, 70°02’W), Amazonas, Colombia. Rio Peneya (left-bank tributary of middle Caqueta; study sites located ca. 30-40 km upstream from mouth at 0°07’S, 74°22’W), Caqueta, Colombia.

Voss, R.S. and Emmons, L.H. (1996). Mammalian diversity in neotropical lowland rainforests: a preliminary assessment. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 230: 1-114.

Boubli, 1999

Callicebus torquatus

Locality: Pico da Neblina National Park, Brazil, near the Venezuelan border (01°10’N to 00°26’S, 65°03’W to 66°52’W).

Boubli, J.P. (1999). Feeding Ecology of Black-headed Uacaris (Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus) in Pico da Neblina National Park, Brazil. International Journal of Primatology, 20: 719-749.

Barros et al., 2000

Callicebus torquatus sp.

The diploid number of the specimen of Callicebus torquatus is 2n = 22. The autosomal complement is composed of four pair of large biarmed chromosomes (where pair 4 shows a prominent secondary constriction in the short arm) and six pairs of small acrocentrics. The X chromosome is submetacentric and of average size, the smaller chromosome of two arms of the karyotype

The karyotypic differences between the two taxa (C. t. torquatus and C. torquatus sp.) are the first indication that the torquatus group may be composed of distinct species with specific karyotypes.

Remarks: a specimen was housed at Centro Nacional de Primatas (National Primate Center, FSESP, Belem, Para). Benirschke and Bogart (1976) described the karyotypes of two female specimens of C. torquatus torquatus and compared them with C. moloch cupreus, finding few homologous segments between the two subspecies. The diploid number was 2n = 20 and the karyotype corresponded to that previously described by Egozcue et al. (1969), with four large pairs of biarmed chromosomes, five pairs of small acrocentrics, plus a median submetacentric X.

Barros, R. M. S.; Pieczarka, J. C.; Brigido, M. D. C. O.; Muniz, J. A. P. C.; Rodrigues, L. R. R. and Nagamachi, C. Y. (2000). A new karyotype in Callicebus torquatus (Cebidae, Primates). Hereditas 133: 55-58.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus torquatus torquatus

Synonyms: Callithrix torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Simia amicta (E. Geoffroy, 1812); Callicebus torquatus ignitus (Thomas, 1927).

Distribution: A small strip on the north bank of the Rio Japurá-Solimoes, within the southern part of the range of C. t. lugens.

Remarks: Almost certainly there are several species among what Hershkovitz (1990) designated as subspecies. I have little experience with this group and so leave them as subspecies of the one species, except for the strikingly distinct black-handed medemi.


Van Roosmalen et al., 2002

Callicebus torquatus

Type locality: Interior of state of Pará (before 1850 including the state of Amazonas), Brazil, redetermined by Hershkovitz (1963) as Codajás, a town on the north bank of the Rio Solimoes, state of Amazonas. Type, perhaps the holotype, mounted in the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany; another syntype, no. 687(522), in the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, collected before 1806 by F.W. Sieber, donated in 1808 to the Lisbon Museum, Portugal, by Count von Hoffmannsegg, and later removed to Paris, France.

Distribution: State of Amazonas, Brazil; left (north) bank of Rio Solimões/Rio Japurá, west as far as Río Apaporis/upper Río Vaupés. The range in the north is delineated by the Rio Negro/Rio Uaupés, east at least as far as the town of Codajás, maybe even as far as the town of Manacapurú, both on the north bank of the Rio Solimões, west of Manaus.

Description: Forehead, crown, sideburns, back, trunk and outer surface of limbs uniformly dark reddish to blackish brown; under parts, chest and belly reddish or reddish brown; throat collar weakly defined, buffy, not extending to ear base; hands and feet whitish or buffy; tail blackish mixed with reddish. Distinguished from C. purinus by blackish forehead and dark reddish crown not sharply demarcated from mahogany nape, hairs of back uniformly coloured or faintly banded, and white cheiridia; from C. regulus by reddish brown instead of brown to blackish under parts, back of crown not markedly differentiated from forehead and nape, and white cheiridia; from C. lucifer and C. lugens by overall reddish brown or mahogany coloration and white hands and feet; from C. medemi by buffy or white instead of black cheiridia.

van Roosmalen, G.M.; van Roosmalen, T. and  Mittermeier, R.A. (2002). A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10(Suppl.): 1-52.

Bonvicino et al., 2003

Callicebus torquatus

Locality: Fonte Boa, Rio Solimões, Amazonas State, Brazil.

Remarks: Morphometric comparisons allowed us to identify 4 significantly different cranial variables between Callicebus lugens, C. torquatus and C. purinus, in agreement with the proposition that these taxa are valid species.

Bonvicino, C.R., Penna-Firme, V., Nascimiento, F.F. do, Lemos, B., Stanyon, R, and Seuánez, H.N.(2003). The lowest diploid number (2n-16) yet found in any primate: Callicebus lugens. Folia Primatologica 74: 141-149.

Souza et al., 2004

Callicebus torquatus

Distribution: Cumunidade Boa Esperança (02º28’12’’S, 64º44’27’’W).


Barnett et al., 2005

Callicebus torquatus

Locality: the Jaú National Park (JNP) is situated some 220 km west of Manaus, on the south bank of the Rio Negro. Bordered by the Rio Unini to the north and Rio Carabinani to the south, it holds the complete drainage basin of the Rio Jaú (see map).

Barnett, A.A.; Volkmar de Castilho, C.; Shapley, R.L. and Anicácio, A. (2005). Diet, Habitat Selection and Natural History of Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary in Jaú National Park, Brazil. International Journal   of Primatology. 26(4): 949-969.

Bueno et al., 2006

Callicebus torquatus ssp. 

Karyotype of a female C. torquatus (2n=20; NF = 26:8 Bi, 10 Acro).

Description: A female of the Matecaña Zoo. Due to the absence of details on the pictures obtained with the blood sample it was impossible to assign a subspecies to the individual.

Bueno, M.L.; Ramírez-Orjuela, C.; Leibovici, M. and Torres, M. (2006) Información cariológica del género Callicebus en Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiano Ciencia 30 (114): 109-115. 

Defler et al., 2010

Callicebus torquatus

Distribution: Callicebus torquatus was found at the headwaters of La Solita creek (appr. 0°54’57.42″N 75°39’15.76″W).


Garcia et al., 2010

Callicebus torquatus

Locality: 01°01’11.49″N- 75°52’28.71″W

Remark: The point on the map marked Callicebus torquatus identifies a sighting of a C. torquatus group, suggesting that originally, when the forest was intact, C. torquatus and C. caquetensis were sympatric.

García, J. ; Defler, T.R. and Bueno, M.L. (2010). The conservation status of Callicebus caquetensis (Pitheciidea): a new species in southern Caquetá Department, Colombia. Neotropical Primates 17(2): 37-46.

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