Literature purinus

Thomas, 1927

Callicebus torquatus purinus

Type locality: Ayapua, Lower Purus River, South of Solimoes.

Distribution: Lower Purus, S. of Solimoes.

Remarks: The British Museum has received from Herr Ehrhardt some further specimens of the beautiful monkeys of the Callicebus torquatus Group, the yellow-handed Titis, and I have now had an opportunity of studying them. In 1914 I described a monkey of this group, accepting for the time being the recognition of the red-bellied and black-bellied forms (respectively torquatus and lugens) as distinct species, to which I added a third under the name of lucifer.
But the available material now available tends to show the essential unity of all the Yellow-handed titis, and I should now propose to consider them as belonging to one species only, whose name would be C. torquatus, and to recognize among them five subspecies, each of which appears to be very constant in colour locally.

Description: Back finely grizzled brown, the hairs ringed with blackish and dull buffy, the whole effect rather more tending to rufous than in regulus. Hairs of crown deep rich chestnut, contrasting with the back. Under surface dull smoky reddish, the red becoming more intense posteriorly, the inner aspect of the thighs rich chestnut-rufous. Throat-patch comparative large. Forearms and feet black; hands yellow. Tail with an intermixture of reddish hairs among the black, as in torquatus.

Measurements: head and body 460mm; tail 510mm; hind foot 95mm.

Thomas, O. (1927). In the titi monkeys of the Callicebus torquatus group. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9) 19: 509-510.

Lönnberg, 1939

Callicebus torquatus purinus

Locality: The Stockholm museum has 2 specimens originating from Taburú, left side of Rio Purús.

Description: These specimens agree with Thomas’ description in having on the crown a patch of bright chestnut rufous contrasting as well with the anterior black part of the crown as with the more or less brown back. The latter has the hairs ringed in both specimens, but the general colour of one is dark rufous brown, that of the other more dull brown. The former of these is rather similar to specimen #1023 of the typical subspecies from Codajaz, if it was not for the bright coronal patch in the specimen from Rio Purús. The short white hairs bordering the naked face are very little developed. The throat patch or “collar” is larger than in the typical specimens and also more white, because the white hairs are only little, or not tipped with orange. The hands are yellowish white, thus paler than in the main form. The lower side is in one specimen bright chestnut red, in the other more dull rufous, but in both the inside of the thighs is chestnut rufous. The tail looks entirely black, but the hairs are in their proximal half chestnut brown.
The difference from the main form is thus not very great, and chiefly confined to the colour of the crown, the throat patch and the hands.

Measurements: Females: total length 793/750mm; tail 430/370mm; hind foot 100/110mm.

Skull: very much like the main form.

Lönnberg, E. (1939). Notes on some members of the genus Callicebus. Arkiv för Zoologi 31 (13): 1-18.

Cruz-Lima, 1945

Callicebus torquatus purinus

Synonym: Callicebus torquatus purinus (Thomas, 1927).

Description: Back finely grizzled brown, the hairs ringed with blackish and dull buffy, the whole effect rather more tending to rufous than in regulus. Hairs of crown deep rich chestnut, contrasting with the back. Under surface dull smoky reddish, the red becoming more intense posteriorly, the inner aspect of the thighs rich chestnut-rufous. Throat-patch comparatively large. Forearms and feet black; hands yellow. Tail with an intermixture of reddish hairs among the black, as in torquatus.

Measurements: (type) head and body 460mm; tail 510mm; foot 95mm.

Remarks: The Museu Nacional possesses three specimens from the same locality as the type, collected by Lako, which exhibit variation in colouring identical to those mentioned by Lönnberg in the specimens of the Stockholm Museum, from Tabarú (Jaburú?), left bank of the Purús. A male corresponds exactly to the original description, a female specimen is similar but slightly paler and rufous on the back, and the third, a male, is almost perfectly identical to the typical torquatus, with a red chestnut back without sharp contrast with the colour of the top of the head and with almost imperceptible rings on the hairs.

Cruz-Lima, E. da (1945). Mammals of Amazonia Vol. 1. General introduction and primates pp. 175-198.

Vieira, 1955

Callicebus torquatus purinus

Synonym: Callicebus torquatus purinus (Thomas, 1907).

Distribution: Amazonas (Jaburú, Rio Purús).

Vieira, C. da C. (1955). Lista remissiva dos mamiferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 8 (10): 375-379.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus torquatus amictus (Geoffroy, 1812)

Synonyms: Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812), Callithrix amicta (Spix, 1823), Saguinus amictus (Lesson, 1827), Cebus torquatus (Fischer, 1829), Callicebus amictus (Elliot, 1913), Callicebus torquatus purinus (Thomas, 1927), Callicebus torquatus regulus (Thomas, 1927).

Distribution: Amazonas of Brazil, south of the Solimoes.

Remarks: The short original diagnosis of amictus, and even more the description of Spix, agrees very well with the form of torquatus that lives south of the Solimoes and that Thomas has described since under the names purinus and regulus, as the under parts were reddish or blackish, which appears to be an individual character.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus torquatus purinus (Thomas, 1927)

Type locality: Ayapua, lower Rio Purus, Brazil. Type in British Museum.

Distribution: Known from the type locality in the Lower Rio Purús and from Jaburu, on the left bank of the Rio Purús (Lönnberg).

Description: A red-bellied form allied to typical torquatus, but back finely grizzled brown, the hairs ringed with blackish and dull buff, the general effect being more rufous than in regulus, especially hind-limbs, but less so than in ignitus or torquatus.
Hairs of crown deep chestnut, contrasting with back; hands yellow; forearms and feet black; tail with intermixture of reddish hairs among the back, as in typical torquatus. Under parts dull smoky-reddish, the rufous tinge more intense caudally, the medial surface of thighs being rich chestnut. Throat patch comparatively large. Differences from typical torquatus slight, chiefly affecting the crown (Lönnberg).

Measurements: (of male type) head and body 460mm; tail 510mm; hind foot 95mm.

Remarks: Type in British Museum.

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Hershkovitz, 1963

Callicebus torquatus torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1807)

Synonyms: Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix amictus (E. Geoffroy, 1812); Callithrix amicta (Spix, 1823); Callithrix amictus (Tschudi, 1844); Callicebus torquatus (Ihering, 1904); Callicebus torquatus (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus lucifer (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus torquatus lucifer (Thomas, 1927); Callicebus torquatus purinus (Thomas, 1927); Callicebus torquatus regulus (Thomas, 1927); Callicebus torquatus ignitus (Thomas, 1927); Callicebus torquatus torquatus (Thomas, 1927); Callicebus torquatus (Cruz Lima, 1945); Callicebus torquatus lucifer (Cabrera, 1958); Callicebus torquatus amictus (Cabrera, 1958).

Variation within the species: The northernmost race, Callicebus torquatus lugens (Humboldt) is darkest, with body or trunk deep blackish brown, throat patch or gular ruff well developed and sharply defined white or creamy. The westernmost race, medemi, is less black, browner, with gular ruff extending from ear to ear in some specimens to obsolete or absent in others, face more thinly haired, hands entirely black in some, with a more or less concealed admixture of golden hairs in others. Southward, between the Rios Putumayo and Caqueta, medemi grades into reddish, or reddish brown populations of torquatus. Here the yellow becomes dominant on the fingers (cf. ignitus Thomas) before extending over the metacarpals. In some populations (Codajáz, c.f. Lönnberg 1939) the throat patch tends to blend or become confused wit the surrounding reddish of the under surface.
Individuals or populations of torquatus from the north bank of the Solimoes with uniformly reddish trunks such as the type of ignitus Thomas from the Rio Tonantins, mingle with somberly coloured ones with dark under parts such as those Thomas (1927) described and recorded as lucifer. Similarly, on the south side of the Solimoes, brightly coloured individuals of torquatus with reddish belly and thighs (purinus, Thomas) seem to be randomly distributed with brownish ones with dark bellies (regulus, Thomas). Lönnberg (1939) noted that a series of reddish torquatus from Jaburú, middle Rio Purus, south of the Solimoes, was hardly distinguishable from another from Codajáz, north of the Solimoes. He nevertheless kept them apart by recording each series under the names purinus and torquatus, respectively. Two reddish brown dark bellied specimens at hand from the Rio Nanay, Peru, on the north side of the Marañon, agree with the original description of the brownish dark-bellied regulus Thomas from south of the Solimoes.
Apparent absence of features for consistently distinguishing the populations of one side of the Solimoes from those of the other is remarkable. Cabrera (1958) rejected colour as a subspecific character but nevertheless recognized a northern Amazonian race (lucifer) and a southern race (amictus).
The possibility that Callicebus torquatus torquatus is dichromatic in some parts of its range is suggested in the above discussion. The only evidence, however, is the reference by Thomas (1927) of the occurrence of reddish (ignitus, type an immature) and blackish form (lucifer) representatives of torquatus in the same locality on the Rio Tonantins and the somewhat obscure note by Cruz Lima (1945) that a male and female from Fonteboa, type locality of regulus, represent the reddish and dark phase, respectively. Nothing is known of seasonal and age variation in colour and pelage and no differences are apparent between the sexes. Nevertheless, whether considered individually or collectively, all populations of subspecies torquatus, as recognized here, can be distinguished from medemi and lugens by their more reddish colour and by their contrastingly whitish or yellow hands or fingers, respectively.


Hershkovitz, 1988

Callicebus torquatus purinus

Member of the torquatus group.

Hershkovitz, P. (1988) Origin, Speciation, and Distribution of South American Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus (Family Cebidae, Platyrrhini), by Philip Hershkovitz . Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 140 (1): 240-272.

Peres, 1988

Callicebus torquatus torquatus

Localities: Brazil, Amazonas, Igarape-Açu (left bank of lower Rio Urucu (4°30’S, 64°29’W). Brazil, Amazonas, SM-1 (oil-drilling site between Rio Urucu and Rio Coari; 4°50’S, 65°1 6’W).

Peres, C. A. 1988. Primate community structure in western Brazilian Amazonia. Primate Conservation 9: 83-87.

Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus torquatus purinus

Member of torquatus Group.

Synonym: Callicebus torquatus purinus (Thomas, 1927).

Type locality: Aiapua (Ayapuya), lower Rio Purus, Amazonas, Brazil. Type in British Museum.

Distribution: In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, south of the Rio Solimoes between the lower Rio Purus and the Rio Tefe.

Description: Hands whitish, buffy orange to rufous with or without mixture of blackish hairs; tail blackish or with mixture of reddish; under parts except throat blackish, reddish brown, or reddish; Chest and belly brown or blackish; hairs of back and sides strongly to faintly banded; throat collar contrastingly coloured buffy, yellowish, or whitish, the collar extending to ear base.

Comparisons: Distinguished from C t. torquatus by reddish brown crown sharply contrasted with blackish forehead, marked agouti pattern of back, throat collar well developed and sharply defined from surrounding parts; from C. t. regulus and C. t. lucifer by reddish brown under parts; from lugens by more reddish coloration throughout, crown always sharply defined from nape; from medemi by dominantly yellowish or orange hands.

Specimens examined: Total 11. Brazil – Amazonas: Aiapua; Ega (see Tefe); Jaburu; Lago Aiapua; Lago Tefe; LagoTauaria, Rio Purus; Rio Mamoria-Mirim, Rio Purus; Tefe.

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Kobayashi, 1995

Callicebus torquatus purinus

Based on cranial measurements, the genus can be divided in five groups:

  • the donacophilus group (including modestus, olallae, d. donacophilus and d. pallescens)
  • the cupreus group (including caligatus, c. cupreus, c. discolor and c. ornatus)
  • the moloch group (including brunneus, h. hoffmannsi, h. baptista, moloch and cinerascens)
  • the personatus group (including p. personatus, p. nigrifrons, p. melanochir)
  • the torquatus group (including t. lucifer, t. lugens, t. medemi, t. regulus, t. purinus and t. torquatus).

The group position of C. dubius remains uncertain; C. oenanthe and C. barbarabrownae were not examined.

Kobayashi, S. (1995). A phylogenetic study of Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: 1. Phyletic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36(1): 101-120.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus torquatus purinus

Synonyms: Callicebus purinus (Thomas, 1914)

Distribution: South of the Amazon, between the Rios Juruá and Purus.

Remarks: Almost certainly there are several species among what Hershkovitz (1990) designated as subspecies. I have little experience with this group and so leave them as subspecies of the one species, except for the strikingly distinct black-handed medemi.


Van Roosmalen et al., 2002

Callicebus purinus

Type locality: Lago Ayapuá, left bank of lower Rio Purús, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Type is an adult male, skin and skull, in the British Museum of Natural History, London.

Distribution: In the state of Amazonas, Brazil, south of the Rio Solimões between the Rios Purús and Juruá. It extends south as far as the Rio Tapauá or even the Rio Pauiní if the species reported to occur between the Rios Tapauá and Pauiní, left bank of tributaries of the Rio Purús, does not represent a new form.

Description: Hands whitish, lower arms and feet black, hairs of back and sides dark red-brown, strongly to faintly banded, tail blackish with mixture of reddish, under parts except throat dark reddish brown or reddish, throat collar contrastingly coloured buffy, yellowish, or whitish, the collar well developed and extending to ear base, sideburns, forehead (blaze) and ears black, sharply contrasting with white whiskers and bright red crown. Distinguished from C. torquatus by bright reddish crown sharply contrasting with black forehead and sideburns, marked strongly to faintly banded agouti pattern of back, throat collar more developed and sharply defined from surrounding parts, and black instead of white or buffy feet; from C. regulus, C. lugens and C. lucifer by reddish brown instead of blackish under-parts (chest and belly) and by more reddish coloration throughout, the crown always sharply defined from nape; and from C. medemi by more reddish coloration throughout, and white or yellowish instead of black hands.

van Roosmalen, G.M.; van Roosmalen, T. and  Mittermeier, R.A. (2002). A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10(Suppl.): 1-52.

Bonvicino et al., 2003

Callicebus purinus

Localities: Lago Ayapuá and Lago Taoaria Grande, Rio Purus, Amazonas State, Brazil.

Remarks: Morphometric comparisons allowed us to identify 4 significantly different cranial variables between Callicebus lugens, C. torquatus and C. purinus, in agreement with the proposition that these taxa are valid species.

Bonvicino, C.R., Penna-Firme, V., Nascimiento, F.F. do, Lemos, B., Stanyon, R, and Seuánez, H.N.(2003). The lowest diploid number (2n-16) yet found in any primate: Callicebus lugens. Folia Primatologica 74: 141-149.

Haugaasen and Peres, 2009

Callicebus torquatus purinus

Locality: Lago Uauaçu in the lower Rio Purús region of central-western Brazilian Amazonia.

Haugaasen, T. and Peres, C.A. (2009). Interspecific primate associations in Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. Primates 50: 239–251.

Auricchio, 2010

Callicebus purinus

Localities: AM Lg. Taoaria Grande, Rio Purus (6°30’S 64°15’W); AM Lg. Ayapuá, R. Purus (04°28’S 62°08’W).

Auricchio, P. (2010). A morphological analysis of some species of Callicebus. Neotropical Primates 17(2): 47-58.

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