Literature lugens

Humboldt, 1812

Simia lugens

Synonym: the Viduata of the Orinoco (Humboldt, 1812) ; Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812).

Distribution: The forests on the banks of the Cassiquiare and the Rio Guaviaré, near San Fernando de Atabapo. The granite mountains on the right bank of the Orinoco, behind the Santa-Barbara mission

Description: atra, facie albo-maculata, gula nivea, minibus anterioribus albis, posterioribus nigris.
With the exception of the night monkey, no other monkey of the Orinoco differs that much by its behaviour than the Viudita, that I call Simia lugens. La Viudita has a round head, a very short muzzle and a very nice expression. The pelage is soft, shiny, beautiful black, and a uniform tinge all over the body, with the exception of the face, the throat and the hands. The hairs on the crown have a purplish hue. The face is covered with a square mask and a whitish colour fading into blue. This mask is surrounded by a thin pure white zone. Two white stripes go from the eyes to the temples. The mask is mixed with grey around the orbits. The eyes are brown fading into green. There are black hairs besides the mouth. The ears are almost naked. The throat has a white zone of 30mm large which forms only a half-ring; the neck from above is completely black. The feet are the same black colour as the rest of the body, but the hands are white on the outside and black on the inside. The tail is completely black, a bit longer than the body, with long hairs of 25mm long.

Humboldt, A. von (1812). Recueil d’Observations de Zoologie d’Anatomie Comparée 1 : 319-321.

Geoffroy St. Hilaire, 1812

Callithrix lugens

Synonym: La Viduita, Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812).

Distribution: Mountains close to Cassiquiare.

Description: Blackish pelage; throat and hands white; tail just longer than the body.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (1812). Tableau de Quadrumanes. Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 19 : 113-114.

Desmarest, 1819

Callithrix lugens (Humboldt, 1812)

Synonyms: Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812); La Viudita (Humboldt, 1812).

Distribution: The forests on the banks of the Cassiquiare and the Rio Guaviaré, near San Fernado de Atabapo. The granite mountains on the right bank of the Orinoco, behind the Santa-Barbara mission.

Description: The Viudita of Humboldt is a pretty monkey; the body is approximately 4 thumbs long, with the tail a little bit longer. The head is round, his muzzle short, the hairs soft, shiny, uniformly black, with the exception of the throat and the hands, which are white; the face is whitish-blue, with two white lines between the eyes and the temples; the hairs of the crown have a purplish hue, the eyes are brown; the ears are almost naked; the feet are black, as is the tail. This monkey eats birds.

Desmarest, A.G. (1819). Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle 30: 30-31.

Humboldt and Bonpland, 1820

Simia lugens

Distribution: Right bank of the Orinoco in the Granite-mountains, behind the Santa Barbara mission. On the banks of the Guaviare, near San Fernando de Atabapo.

Description: nice, shiny black hairs. Its face is covered with a square, whitish to bluish mask. This mask includes the eyes, nose and mouth. The ears are small and almost naked. The throat of the widow is covered in front with a white, thumb white line that forms a half-ring. The feet are like the body black, but the hands are white and on the inside shiny black.

Humboldt, A. von and Bonplandt, A. (1820). Reise in die Aequinoctial Gegegenden des neuen continents. Volume 3: 457-458.

Desmarest, 1820

Callithrix lugens

Synonyms: Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812).

Distribution: The forests on the banks of the Cassiquiare and the Rio Guaviaré, near San Fernado de Atabapo. The granite mountains on the right bank of the Orinoco, behind the Santa-Barbara mission.

Description: Blackish pelage; throat and hands white; tail hardly longer than body. The hairs are soft and shiny, a nice uniform black, with the exception of the throat and the hands, which are white; the face is whitish-blue, with two white lines between the eyes and the temples; the hairs of the crown have a purplish hue; the feet are black, as is the tail.

Remark: M. Kuhl thinks that personatus, lugens and amicta are one and the same species.

Desmarest, A.G. (1820).  Mammalogie ou description des espèces de mammifères 1: 87.

Kuhl, 1820

Callithrix lugens

Synonym: Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy 1812).

Distribution: Rio Cassiquiare, Rio Guaviare and Orinoco.

Description: Dark; throat and hands white, body 450mm long, hairs on head purplish.

Remark: C. lugens, C. amictus and C. torquatus may belong to the same species.

Kuhl, H. (1820).  Beiträge zur Zoologie und vergleichenden Anatomie pp. 39.

Schinz, 1821

Callithrix lugens

Synonym: La Viduita (Humboldt)

Distribution: In the forest of Cassiquiare and Guaviare.

Description: Black without beard with white-spotted face, white throat and forearms. The feet black, the hands on the outside white, black on the inside, the nails black.

Remark: Lugens, torquatus and amictus may all belong to one species?

Schinz, H.K. (1821). Das Thierreich, eingetheilt nach dem Bau der Thiere als Grundlage ihrer Naturgeschichte und der vergleichenden Anatomie von den Herrn Ritter von Cuvier 1: 132.

Griffith, 1821

Simia Lugens

Synonym: Simia Lugens (Humboldt)

Description: This name is derived from a fancied similarity of the colours of the animal to a widow’s mourning dress. The anterior hands are white above, and black beneath, the hinder hands are black; the prevailing colour is black, and the animal altogether has the appearance of a little black dog, with a longish tail. It is in general tame and fearful, and does not like its hands to be touched; but though usually gentle, it becomes furious at the sight of a small bird, which it will seize and devour with all the avidity of the cat or weasel tribe.

Griffith, E. (1821): General and particular description of the vertebrated animals. Order Quadrumana.  pp. 90-92.

Spix, 1823

Callithrix amicta (Humboldt, 1812)

Distribution: The forests around the Solimoes, near Peru.

Description: M. Humboldt, Geoffroy and Hoffmannsegg learned us about three species of Sagoins (Callithrix torquata, lugens, and amicta) that have more or less the same characters. Therefore M. Kuhl seems to be right when he assumes that there is only one species.

Spix, J.B. de (1823). Simiarum et vespertiliarum Brasilienses species novea; … pp. 18-23.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1827

Callithrix lugens

Synonyms: La Viduita (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812; Desmarest, 1820).

Distribution: The forests of Brazil on the banks of the Cassiquiare and the Rio Guaviaré, near San Fernando de Atabapo. The granite mountains on the right bank of the Orinoco, behind the Santa-Barbara mission.

Description: Can become one foot long. His hairs are soft and shiny, a nice uniform black, with the exception of the throat and the hands, which are white; the face is whitish-blue, with two white lines between the eyes and the temples; the hairs of the crown have a purplish hue; the feet are black, as is the tail.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (1827). Sagoin. Dictionnaire Science Naturelle 47 :13.

Temminck, 1827

Remark: The indications of Callithrix torquata, amicta and lugens of the authors must be united in one species.

Temminck, C.J. (1827). Monographies de mammalogie 1 :XV.

Lesson, 1827

Saguinus lugens

Synonym: Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812), La Viduita (Humboldt, 1812).

Distribution: according to M. Humboldt: forests on banks of rivers at San Fernando de Atapabo, and on the granite mountains of the Santa-Barbara mission.

Description: Blackish pelage, throat and hands white; tail just longer than body.

Lesson, R. P. (1827). Manuel de mammalogie ou histoire naturelle de mammifères p. 56-57.

Cuvier and Griffith, 1827

Simia Callithrix lugens

Synonyms: Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812); La Viduita (Humboldt).

Distribution: Banks of the Cassiquiare.

Description: Fur blackish; throat and anterior hands white; tail a little longer than the body, black.

Remarks: Dr. Kuhl considers lugens, amictus and personata to be varieties of the same species.

Cuvier, G. and Griffith, E. (1827). The Animal Kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization 5: 33.

Stark, 1828

Callithrix lugens

Synonym: Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812).

Distribution: South America.

Description: Fur blackish; throat and anterior hands white; tail scarcely longer than the body; about a foot long.

Stark, J. (1828). Elements of natural history 1:55.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1829

Callithrix lugens

Description: Pelage blackish; throat and hands white.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (1829). Cours de l’histoire naturelle des mammifères. Leçon 10 pp. 18. 

Fischer, 1829

Cebus torquatus

Synonyms: Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1809); C. torquatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1810, 1820, 1827).

Description: Chestnut-brown; white hands.

Variation β: Callithrix lugens

Description: Throat and hands white, forehead purplish

Variation C: Callithrix amictus

Description: Blackish-brown; white collar; hands yellow.

Fischer, J.P. (1829). Synopsis mammalium Pp. 52-54.

Lesson, 1829

Callithrix lugens

Synonyms: Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812; Desmarest, 1820)

Distribution: the forests on the border of the Orinoco and at San-Fernando de Atapabo.

Description: This animal is appr. a foot long. His hairs are soft and shiny, uniform black, with the exception of the upper side of the chest and the hands which are perfectly white; the face is whitish-blue, with two white lines between the eyes and the temples; the hairs of the crown have a purplish hue; the feet are black, as is the tail.

Lesson, R.P. (1829). Sagouin. Dictionnaire classique d’histoire naturelle 15:55.

Cuvier, 1829

Callithrix lugens

Synonym: Simia lugens (Humboldt).

Description: Blackish with a large white collar.

Remarks: Callithrix amicta (Geoffroy, Spix) and Callicebus torquata (Hoffmannsegg) are supposed to differ little from this species.

Cuvier, G. (1829). Le Règne Animal, nouvelle édition 1: 104

Cuvier and Voigt, 1831

Simia (Callithrix) lugens

Description: Blackish, with a large white halscollar.

Remark: Callithrix amicta (Geoffroy, Spix) and Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg) are supposed to be little different.

Cuvier, G. and Voigt, L.S. (1831). Das Thierreich geordnet nach seiner Organisation 1: 96-97.

Jardine, 1833

Callithrix lugens

Distribution: the banks of the rivers Guaviare and Cassiquaire.

Description: black; throat and anterior hands white; tail scarcely longer than the body.

Jardine, W. (1833). The naturalist’s library  1: 223-224.

Wagner, 1833

Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812)

Remarks: That C. torquatus, lugens and amictus are only members of one and the same series of colour changes are, can also been seen on the specimens of our collection. This species proves again that colour gradations are not enough to erect new species.

Wagner, J.A. (1833). Critische Revision des brasilian. Affenarten. Isis von Oken 10(2):994.

Lesson, 1838

Callithrix lugens

Synonym: Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix lugens (Desmarest, 1820).

Distribution: the forests on the banks of the Rio Orinoco and San-Fernado de Atapabo.

Description: Its pelage consists of soft, shiny uniform hairs, except at the chest and the hands which are white. The face is whitish with a bluish tinge, with two white lines between the eyes and the temples. The hairs on the occiput are black with a purplish hue; the tail and the feet are black.

Lesson, R.P. (1838). Compléments de Buffon, 2e édition Pp. 280-281.

Wagner, 1840

Callithrix torquata

a) Black, hands white

Synonyms: Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1809; Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820); Simia torquata (Humboldt, 1812).

b) Blackish-brown, hands yellow

Synonyms: Callithrix amicta (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820; Spix, 1823); Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812).

c) Chestnut-brown, hands white

Synonyms: Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820); Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812).

Distribution: Solimoes, near Peru; Cassiquiare and Rio Guaviaré near San Fernando de Atabapo; mountains on right bank of the Orinoco, behind the mission of Santa Barbara.

Description: Kuhl already suspected that C. torquata, amicta, and lugens belonged to one species, and Temminck agreed with him. One can only find differences between darker and lighter hues, which are not constant. The colour is on the back shiny dark red-brown, more or less becoming black or very deep rusty-brown, the hairs being ringed brown-red and black. The colour on the under side is normally lighter, on the back of the head rusty-red, being at its darkest on the outer sides of the limbs, the underarms and feet being almost completely black. The forehead is shiny black, as are the hairs of the cheeks, which are partly reddish at the base. The tail is either completely black, or the hairs have a reddish base. On there throat there is a wide half-moon-shaped collar, which is in all our specimens of the same light-yellowish colouration, as are the hands. Humboldt reports the colour of the back as being completely black, and the throat and hands as white. Spix reports a reddish face, and the cheeks, lips and chin as woolly white; he also reports that in the females and the youngsters the tail is less black and the back more brown.

Measurements: head and body 375mm; tail 450mm.

Wagner, J.A. (1840). Schreber, die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband, Erste Abtheilung: Die Affen und Flederthiere Pp. 228-234.

Lesson, 1840

Saguinus vidua

Synonyms: Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1819, 1820, 1827; Cuvier, 1829; Lesson, 1829); Saguinus lugens (Lesson, 1827); Cebus torquatus var. B (Fisher, 1829; Jardine, 1833); Simia (Callithrix) lugens (Griffith, 1827; Voigt, 1831).

Distribution: The forests near the Cassiquiaire and the Rio Guaviare, near San-Fernando de Atabapo; the mountains of the right bank of the Orinoco.

Description: Crown purple-black; naked face; with a white-bluish mask, square shaped, surrounded by grey above and white below; black hairs around the mouth; shiny black pelage, long and soft hairs; a white scarf on the throat; hands white; feet black.

Variation A:

Synonyms: Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812; Desmarest, 1819, 1820, 1827; Lesson, 1829; Geoffroy, 1829; Jardine, 1833); Saguinus amictus (Lesson, 1827); Cebus amictus (Spix, 1823); Cebus torquatus var. C (Fisher, 1829).

Description: Brown-blackish pelage; a white half-collar; hands light-yellowish; tail twice as long as that of a Saimiri; tail brownish.

Variation: Young?

Synonyms: Cebus torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1809; Fisher, 1829; Geoffroy, 1829); Callithrix torquatus (Geoffroy, 1812); Simia (callithrix) torquata (Humboldt, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest 1819, 1820, 1827); Saguinus torquatus (Lesson, 1827); Callithrix lugens (Cuvier, 1829; Lesson, 1829; Jardine, 1831).

Description: Chestnut-brown; yellow undersides; white half-collar.

Distribution: Pará.

 Lesson, R.P. (1840). Species des mammifères bimanes et quadrumanes pp. 161-167.

Schinz, 1844

Callithrix lugens

Synonyms: Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1829??); Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1809); Simia torquata (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812); Saguinus Vidua (Lesson, 1827).

Distribution: In the mountains on the Cassiquiare, Guaviare and Orinoco (?) and on the Brazilian border with Peru, on the Solimoes.

Description: The colour of the upper side changes from chestnut-brown to black; the hairs are annulated brown-red and black; the undersides are paler, on the throat there is a white collar. The hands are white or yellowish, the feet deep black, as are the forearms. The tail is black and red on the underside.

Schinz, H.K. (1844). Systematische verzeichniss aller bis jetz bekannte Säugethiere oder Synopsis Mammalium nach dem Cuvier’schen System 1: 80-83.

Tschudi, 1844

Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812)

Distribution: Northern Peru, until 12º S.

Description: head completely black; crown and neck black-red; back black-brown; throat and upper part of chest yellowish-white; the hands are somewhat more yellowish, the feet black, as is the tail; Belly less intensive black-brown as the back.

Remarks: Humboldt described in 1812 this monkey as Simia amicta and Simia lugens. Temminck (1827) added also C. torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1809), which is according to us correct, as this species varies of al the monkeys probably the most; the by the travellers reported deviations in colours are mostly only indicative for age differences.

Tschudi,  J. J von (1844). Theriologie. Untersuchungen über die Fauna Peruana 45-47.

Lesson, 1848

Callithrix lugens and Callithrix torquata

Synonym: Callithrix amicta is only an age variation.

Distribution: Orinoco.

Description: is a charming animal with the upper side of the head black-purplish. The face is naked with a white-bluish square mask, bordered with grey on the upper side and white below. The pelage is black with a white tie.

Lesson, R.P. (1848). Etudes sur les Mammifères Primates. Revue Zoologique par la Societé Cuvierienne 11:232-233.

Boitard, 1848

Saguinus vidua and Saguinus lugens

Synonyms: Saguinus vidua (Lesson 1829),  or Saguinus lugens (Lesson, 1829), Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812); Cebus torquatus (Fischer, 1829). “Its synonymy is confusing”.

Distribution: in the forest around the Cassiquiaire, the Rio Guavarie and the right bank of the Orinico.

Description: He has a long and soft pelage, shiny black, with a beautiful white scarf around the throat; he has a black crown; his face is naked, with a black square in the form of a mask, white-bluish, grey above and white below; black hairs around the mouth; hands white, feet blackish.

Variation 1: The ruffed Sagouin

Synonyms: Simia amicta (Humboldt); Saguinus and Callithrix amictus (Lesson); Cebus amictus (Spix).

Description: His pelage is brown-blackish with a white half-collar; hands light-yellowish; tail brownish. He is twice as large as a Saimiri.

Variation 2: The collared Sagouin

Synonyms: Simia torquata (Humboldt); Callithrix torquatus (Geoffroyi); Callithrix lugens (Lesson, Cuvier); Cebus torquatus (Fischer).

Description: His pelage is chestnut-brown above, yellow below, with a white half-collar.

Distribution: Pará.

Remarks: Is probably only the juvenile of the species mentioned before.

Boitard, P. (1848). Dictionnaire Universel d’Histoire Naturelle 11:290-292.

Wagner, 1848

Callithrix torquata

Synonyms: Callithrix torquata, amicta and lugens.

Distribution: The species has a large range in the north-western part of South-America. Tschudi indicates that it lives from 12°S in Peru to the north. Spix has found the on the Solimoes on the Peruvian border, and Natterer at S. Gabriel at the left bank of the Negro River. Humboldt found them even further to the north, in the forests of the Cassiquiare and Guaviaré Rivers near S. Fernando de Atabapo, and the mountains on the right bank of the Orinico behind the mission of S. Barbara. Therefore its range must be between 12°S and 5°N, but restricted to the western half.

Description: from a female Natterer has noted that the iris hazel-brown is, the face and the ears black, the upper eyelids dirty white, the upper back dark chestnut-brown, which becomes on the lower back black-brown; the upperside of the forehands is brownish-yellow and the tail is black.

Wagner, J.A. (1848). Callithrix. Springaffe. Beitrage zur kenntniss der Säugthiere Amerikas Abhandlungen des Königl. Akademie des Wissenschaften München 5: 446-457.

Wagner, 1855

Callithrix amicta

Synonyms: Callithrix amicta (Wagner, 1840; Tschudi, 1844; I. Geoffroy, 1851); Callithrix lugens (Humboldt, 1812).

Distribution: north-western Brazil and Peru.

Reichenbach, 1862

Callithrix lugens

Synonyms: Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812); Saguinus lugens (Lesson, 1827); Saguinus vidua (Lesson, 1840); Cebus torquatus (Fischer, 1829).

Distribution: In the forests near the Cassiquiare and Rio Guaviaré near San Fernando de Atabapo; mountains on right bank of the Orinoco.

Description: Shiny black, face bluish, square, with white, black hairs around the muzzle, throat snowy-white, hands white, feet black. Hairs on head purple.

Measurements: head and body 388mm; tail 488mm.

Reichenbach, 1862. Die Vollständigiste Naturgeschichte der Affen.

Schlegel, 1876

Callithrix torquata

Synonyms: Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1809); Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1811); Callithrix torquatus (Geoffroy, 1812); Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812); Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812); Callithrix amicta (Spix, 1823).

Distribution: Sieber discovered this species in Pará, apparently on the right bank of the mouth of the Toccatas; Humboldt reports the species from the forests along the Cassiquiare and Rio Guaviaré, near St. Fernando de Atapo, and the granite mountains on the right bank of the Orinoco, behind the Santa Barabara mission; Natterer collected individuals on the banks of the Upper Rio Negro, near St. Gabriel south of the mouth of the Rio Vaupé, near Marabitanos and between Mont Cocuy and St. Carlos on the mouth of the Cassiquiare (according to von Pelzeln); Spix collected his animals in the forests of Olivença (St. Pablo), on the left bank of the Solimoes. Tschudi reports that this species also lives in northern Peru.
Gray reported that an animal in the British Museum was collected by Schomburgk in Guyana. However, Schomburgk reported in his publication that he has encountered only 11 species of primates, none of them being C. torquata.

Description: Blackish going towards brown-reddish, especially on the back, the neck and the occiput; replaces in front of the chest by a white or white-yellowish scarf and on the forehands by white going towards yellow-reddish.

Remarks: The Leiden Museum has one specimen from Olivença, originating from the voyage of Spix, and a second individual from Amazonia.

Forbes, 1896

Callithrix torquata

Synonym: Cebus torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1811); Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812); Saguinus vidua (Lesson, 1840); Callithrix torquatus (Gray, 1870); Callithrix torquata (Schlegel, 1876).

Forbes, H.O. (1896). A Handbook of the Primates pp. 159-165 + plate 14.

Trouessart, 1898-1899

Callithrix torquata

Synonyms: torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1807; Schlegel, 1876; Pelzeln, 1883); lugens (Humboldt, 1811; Geoffroy, 1812); vidua (Lesson, 1840).

Distribution: Brazil, Amazonia, Para, Rio Cassiquiare, Rio Guaviare, Orinoco; Upper Rio Negro, Sao Gabriel, Marabitanos; Northern Peru.

a) amicta (Humboldt, 1811; Spix, 1833).

Trouessart, E.L. (1898-1899). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium 1: 44-46.

 Elliot, 1913

Callicebus torquatus

Synonyms: Cebus torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820; Geoffroy, 1828); Simia torquatus (Humboldt, 1811, 1815); Callithrix torquatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Geoffroy, 1828; Wagner, 1840, 1855; Tschudi, 1846; Wallace, 1852; Reichenbach, 1862; Gray, 1870; Schlegel, 1876; von Pelzeln, 1883; Forbes, 1894); Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812, 1828; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820; Reichenbach, 1862); Sanguinus vidua (Lesson, 1840; 1842).

Elliot, D.G. (1913). A review of the primates 1: 234-257.

 Allen, 1914

Callicebus lugens duida subsp. nov.

Type locality: base of Mount Duida (altitude 700 feet), Venezuela

Description: Similar to typical lugens, but hands yellow instead of white, white throat patch more or less strongly tinged with yellow, and back, especially anteriorly, with the black more or less suffused basally with brown, often giving a rufous brown tone to the surface.

Measurements: (Type and 3 paratypes), total length, 765 (748-780)mm; head and body, 345 (338-350)mm; hind foot, 90 (85-95)mm.

Skull: (Type and paratypes), total length, 64.4 (64-66); occipitonasal length, 59 (58-60); zygomatic breadth, 43.7 (42-46); orbital breadth, 38.5 (37.5-39.3); postorbital breadth, 33.2 (31-33); breadth of braincase, 36.4 (35-38); length of nasals, 11.2 (10-12); maxillary toothrow, 15.2 (15-16).

Remarks: Represented by 6 specimens, 5 adults and 1 quarter-grown young, all from the type locality. In several of the adults the throat is yellowish white. In the young one it is clear white; the hands also are paler than in the adults, and the extreme tips of many of the hairs on the back are bright red. The dorsal pelage in the adults has a more or less rufous tone basally, which in strong light imparts a faint rufous tinge to the surface, from the nape to the middle of the back, more noticeable in some specimens than in others. In a dull light they all appear black. The type locality of Callicebus lugens (Humboldt) is “les forêts qui avoisinet le Cassiquiare et le Rio Guaviare, près de San Fernando de Atabapo.” The mission of San Fernando, where Humboldt spent considerable time, may be taken therefore as the type locality. This mission is about 150 miles west of Duida on the Orinoco River. The type locality of E. Geoffroy’s Callithrix amictus is unknown (“le Brésil?”). It was secured, with much other South American material, by E. Geoffroy on his visit to Lisbon in 1808, and hence probably came from Brazil, then a Portuguese colony. The type was still extant in the Paris Museum in 1851, according to I. Geoffroy’s ‘Catalogue méthodique de la Collection des Mammiferes,’ etc., of the Museum d’Histoire Naturelle of Paris, where it is thus recorded (p. 40): “♂ Type de l’espece. Du voyage de M. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire en Portugal en 1808.” It is thus not likely to have come from the Upper Orinoco region of Venezuela. Yet the Duida specimens seem to agree well with the description of the type of C. amictus; but there may be a yellow-handed black Callicebus in some part of Brazil, for which the name should be reserved. It is therefore thought best to give a provisional name to the Duida form. It is also possible that lugens may not always have white hands, a point to be yet decided. At present very few specimens of the lugensamictus group have reached museums.

Allen, J.A. (1914). New South American Monkeys. Bulletin of the AMNH 33:647-648.

Elliot, 1914

In the “Annals and Magazine of natural History” of March 1914, Mr. Oldfield Thomas states that C. lugens E. Geoffroy and C. amictus E. Geoffroy and Simia lugens Humboldt, together with Saguinus vidua Lesson are all black bellied species, and are one and the same, but presents no proofs to sustain the position he takes. In determining a species we are generally obliged to rely upon the description given by its author or on his type if existing, and lacking the latter, upon some specimen coming from the type locality if that is known. But should none such specimens be available, and the original description be so brief and unsatisfactory as to make it impossible to decide what the animal really looks like, it is then placed among the undeterminable forms.
In the ‘Annals du Museum,’ Vol. XIX, 1812, p. 114, E. Geoffroy describes these two monkeys as follows:
“3. Veuve. Callithrix lugens (Humboldt). “Pelage noirâtre; gorge et mains antérieures blanches: queue à peine plus longue que le corps.”
This species was described by Humboldt as given below.
“4. C. à fraise. Callithrix amictus. “Pelage brun-noirâtre; un demi-collier blanc; mains de devant jaunes: queue plus longue d’un quart que le corps.”
It will at once be noticed that in both descriptions the colour of the arms, legs, feet, tail and under parts of the body are not given, and in no other of his publications does E. Geoffroy give any further information of these species. He undoubtedly believed he had two distinct animals before him, and he diagnosed them so as to emphasize their distinctness. However his lugens is taken from Humboldt and is blackish, has only a white throat, hands white, and tail nearly as long as the body; while amictus is blackish brown, a white half collar, yellow hands, and a tail longer than the body. If lugens had a white collar it is inconceivable that neither Humboldt nor E. Geoffroy should not have mentioned it. I could not find the type of lugens in the Paris Museum, nor any specimens bearing that name, and I have no recollection of seeing one in any collection. It differs from amictus in being without a white collar, having white hands, a tail that is shorter and without the brown hue of the pelage.
The Simia lugens Humboldt is described in the Synoptical List as follows: ” Simia lugens, atra facie albo-maculata, gula nivea, manibus anterioribus albis, posterioribus nigris”. It will here be also noticed no mention is made of the colour of the under parts, but earlier in the volume is a more detailed description; he gives this as ” Corpus, cauda, crura et brachia nigra,” and in the French description he states ” elle a le poil doux, lustre, d’un beau noir et un peu relevé. Ce pelage est d’une teinte uniforme sur le corps entier de l’exception de la face du col et des mains de devant.” Here we have an entirely black monkey with a snowy throat and hands white, an animal not represented in any collection at the present time.
Humboldt probably did not know C. amictus for he gives only a brief Latin description in his Synoptical List evidently founded on the French one of E. Geoffroy, and makes no mention of the species elsewhere in the volume. C. amictus is a very rare animal in collections. I do not think that I have seen half a dozen examples in the Museums of England and the Continent. It was generally considered by the earlier writers, who probably had never seen a specimen at that time, as C. torquatus, and it may be said that if an example of amictus has lost the hair on the under side of the body it is not easy to distinguish one from the other. There was one adult specimen in the British Museum, but not in good condition, and it was not until I saw the alleged type in the Paris Museum that I was satisfied that C. torquatus and C. amictus were distinct. E. Geoffroy states that amictus has “mains de devant jaunes,” but all the specimens that I saw had white hands. Certainly the hands of the so-called type in the Paris Museum were white, and I do not remember seeing any examples with yellow hands as given by E. Geoffroy. If, therefore, this should affect its specific standing, then the animal now recognized as amictus would have to take a new name, and we would be obliged to wait for the appearance of a yellow-handed amictus. Mr. Thomas has brought forward a problem incapable of any satisfactory solution. There are no specimens extant to prove what exactly were the species the two authors described. We have been obliged to drop many from our lists as indeterminable and C. lugens E. Geoffroy and S. lugens Humboldt had better go with them. It may have been an error to place lugens among the synonyms of C. torquatus. It would have been a greater’ error to state that it was the same as amictus (there being no proof whatever to sustain the assertion), and make that name a synonym of lugens.
It is easy for one to assume anything that occurs to him, but an assumption without facts to support it, is, to say the least, a most unstable foundation upon which to establish a species. Towards the close of his remarks Mr. Thomas assumes that his new species Callicebus lucifer, the chief character of which is a “chestnut rufous tail,” is probably the same as Spix’s amictus, in spite of the fact that Spix’s figure shows a black tail, and in his Latin description be writes “caudae sublonge brunneo-nigris,” and in the French one “la queue d’un noir luisant.” It may be well to state that Lesson’s description of his vidua is not an original one, but merely founded upon that of Humboldt’s lugens, and therefore whatever Humboldt’s species is (at present unknown), the vidua Lesson would be its synonym.

Elliot, D.G. (1914). The status of Callithrix lugens (Humboldt) and Callithrix amictus (E. Geoffroy). Bulletin of AMNH 33: 599-601.

Thomas, 1914

Callicebus lucifer, sp. n.

Type locality: Yahuas, North of Loreto, about 2º40’S – 70º30’W, alt. 500m.

Distribution: Eastern Peruvian Amazonas.

Description: Like C. lugens Humb. (syn. amictus, Geoff.), but the tail chestnut-rufous instead of black. Belly black, not red as in C. torquatus.

Remarks: By some accident the synonymies of the yellow-handed titis have got confused in prof. Elliot’s recent great work on the primates. He calls the red-bellied species C. torquatus, putting C. lugens and Saguinus vidua among its synonyms, while the black-bellied one he terms amictus. But a study of the original descriptions of these four animals shows that while torquatus is red-bellied, lugens, amictus, and vidua are all black-bellied and are clearly synonymous with each other, lugens being the earliest name. Its type-locality is the Upper Orinico, not Olivença, Solimoes, as stated, the latter locality being taken from Spix, whose specimen was probably C. lucifer.
Specimens of this group are very rare in collections, and the British Museum only contains six, two of each species, as follows:
C. torquatus – Adult; Rio Negro; bought in 1842; collector unknown. Head and forelimbs: Ega, Amazon; H.W. Bates
C. lugens – Young specimen from Maipures, Orinico, practically a topotype of the species; coll. G.K. Cherrie.  Adult specimen; “Guiana” (no doubt incorrect); Sir R. Schomburgk.
C. lucifer – Type and paratype from Yahuas, as above.

Thomas, O. (1914). On various South-American Mammals. Annals and Magazine of Natural History(8) 13:345.

 Allen, 1916

Callicebus lugens duida

Distribution: Rio Cunucunumá (near Rio Orinoco).

One of the first sounds that reached our ears after we had left the Rio Orinoco and were paddling slowly against the strong current of the Rio Cunucunuma, was a loud chorus of frantic, anguished little oh’s coming from the tree-tops. The canoemen said the sound was produced by a ” monito negro, ” and I was eager for a glimpse of the creatures; but it was not until some weeks later that I saw a troop of half a dozen moving rapidly through the trees. They travelled at a good rate of speed and made long leaps from the top of one tree into the branches of another. At frequent intervals during the early morning and late afternoon, they gave voice to their feelings in a series of fifteen to twenty oh’s uttered in a high pitch, at first long drawn and plaintive, but ending short and jerky so that they sounded almost as if they were uttering one long wail while they covered the mouth with the hands and withdrew them alternately in rapid succession. The cry was very penetrating, all the individuals of a troop seemed to participate, and occasionally it could be heard at midday, but I do not recall that we ever heard it after sundown. This species seemed to be very abundant. I saw them daily in pairs and in small troops of five or six. One pair which I collected had a onethird grown young which the male was carrying. At first the young was shy and frightened but did not attempt to bite. It ate greedily of rice, raisins, sugar, and wild fruits, preferring a small red berry of insipid taste (a species of fig) which grew abundantly on tall trees and upon which the adults feed regularly. After a few days it played about the tent cheerfully and could be picked up and carried about. Sometimes it assumed a most serious expression and uttered a few feeble little oh’s in imitation of its wild brethren. A slight shot-wound, which a thorough examination had failed to reveal, became infected after about ten days and the little animal died. It was quite cheerful to the end and ate heartily a few hours before it died. At about four in the afternoon these marmosets could be found in the trees near the river, but I could never find them actually drinking, although once I saw two low down in the branches. When a troop was disturbed they made off in a body. If surprised suddenly with a shot, they scattered in all directions and sat in the tree-tops, concealed, some little distance away and uttered short whining grunts, evidently to prevent the individuals of the troop from straying too far and becoming permanently separated. The first time I heard this sound I mistook it for the low grunt of a herd of suspicious peccaries.

Allen, J.A. (1916). Mammals collected on the Roosevelt Brazilian expedition, with field notes by Leo E. Miller. Bulletin of the AMNH 35: 609-610.

Thomas, 1927

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Synonyms: amictus (Geoffroy); vidua (Lesson).

Distribution: Upper Rio Negro.

Remarks: The British Museum has received from Herr Ehrhardt some further specimens of the beautiful monkeys of the Callicebus torquatus Group, the yellow-handed Titis, and I have now had an opportunity of studying them.
In 1914 I described a monkey of this group, accepting for the time being the recognition of the red-bellied and black-bellied forms (respectively torquatus and lugens) as distinct species, to which I added a third under the name of lucifer.
But the available material now available tends to show the essential unity of all the Yellow-handed titis, and I should now propose to consider them as belonging to one species only, whose name would be C. torquatus, and to recognize among them five subspecies, each of which appears to be very constant in colour locally.

Description: Under surface and inner aspect of thighs smoky or blackish. Tail absolutely black. Back uniform black or suffused with reddish. Crown dark chestnut.

Remarks: Owing to the brevity of the description, the loss of the type, and the absence of an exact locality, it is quite impossible to identify Geoffroy’s C. amictus, but it has previously been considered as a synonym of C. lugens, and may well be left in that position. C. vidua, Lesson, is certainly also a synonym of the same species.

Thomas, O. (1927). On the titi monkeys of the Callicebus torquatus group. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9) 19: 509-510.

Tate, 1939

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Synonyms: Simia (Callithrix) lugens (Humboldt, 1812); Callicebus lugens duida (Allen, 1914).

Distribution: the torquatus group, the only division of Callicebus that shows any relationship with the Guiana area, reaches that region merely along its western and south-western and south-western margin. The “viudita” was unknown to the Indians at Mt. Auyan-tepui.

Description: The colour pattern of the skins in monkeys of this group is distinguishable by the buffy-white of the hands and the white pectoral patch. The dorsal colour in the northwest of the range (lugens of upper Orinoco) is black, tail black or reddish black, without pale tip. The representative in north Peru is reddish black, and specimens from Teffe appear dull dark reddish. Torquatus (Hoffmannsegg), from ‘o Certao, inner Pará”, was an ally of lugens, but with a chestnut suffusion over the upper parts and proximal portion of limbs and tail. The under parts were coloured russet.

Remarks: lugens was placed by Elliot in the synonymy of torquatus (Hoffmannsegg). It is better recognized as a geographical race of the latter. We now have extensive series of true lugens from the Cassiquiare, whose range Humboldt gave as the Cassiquiare and Guiviare, as well as a number of specimens of duida from Duida. The colour of hands, feet and throat patch, and the dorsal brownish clouding appear to be variables of insufficient value for the differentiation of duida as a race. I have no evidence of the occurrence of lugens in the Caura valley east of the Parima Mountains.

 Tate, G.H.H. (1939). The mammals of the Guiana region. Bulletin of AMNH 76: 219-220.

Cruz-Lima, 1945

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Synonyms: Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812), Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812) and Saguinus vidua (Lesson, 1840).

Description: Similar to C. torquatus. Face bare with white hairs on cheeks and on the lower lip. Head, including the sides and throat, limbs, feet, whole of tail and under parts black or blackish. Colour of upper part of chest extended upward to the ears like a collar, white; hands white. Dorsal surface of the body washed with rufous or reddish.

Measurements: (type) total length 860mm; tail 480mm; foot 76mm.

Remarks: Elliott includes in this monograph Callithrix lugens and Saguinus vidua in the synonymy of C. torquatus, thus following Forbes, when in accordance with the original descriptions the first two are synonyms of C. amictus, as Thomas was able to show (Thomas, 1914). Elliot, in replying to Thomas, (Elliot, 1914), explains his stand, alleging that the deficiency of the original descriptions prevents the identification of the rare specimens of these species which exist in the museums, and says that if he was mistaken in including C. lugens among the synonyms of C. torquatus he would be committing a greater error in including it in the synonymy of C. amictus without further proofs to back this point of view, and considers that no satisfactory solution is possible. His defence does not seem logical. The principal distinction between the forms under consideration – torquatus and amictus – is in the colouring of the under parts, which are vivid chestnut in the former and in the latter blackish like the rest of the body. E. Geoffroy’s very brief descriptions (Geoffroy, 1812) of lugens and amictus do not mention the colour of the under parts, nor is it mentioned for lugens in Humboldt’s Synoptic list (Humboldt, 1812); it is Elliot himself who cites the latter more detailed descriptions given in the same volume in which lugens is described as having “corpus, cauda, crura et brachia nigra” and in the same description in French: “elle a le poil douce, lustre, d’un beau noir et un peu relevé: ce pelage est d’une teinte uniforme sur le corpse entire, à l’exception de la face, du col et des mains de devant”. This alone is sufficient to prevent the identification of C. lugens with C. torquatus; and the differences cited by E. Geoffroy between lugens and amictus, i.e. that the former has a white throat and white hands and a tail only slightly longer than the body, do not justify a specific separation. As we had the occasion to observe, the length of the tail in relation to the body varies from individual to individual in the same species, and in the related species C. torquatus the development of the collar and the whitening of the hands are a result of age, for the young commonly have much less developed collar and hands less pure white, slightly yellowish. For this reason we believe Thomas was right. Schlegel, on the other hand, before Forbes and Elliot, has also confused these ill-fated species, and Trouessart considers torquatus, lugens, and viduus synonymous, and amictus a subspecies. Thomas later (Thomas, 1927) altered his point of view to a certain extent, considering lugens (=amictus =viduus), as well as lucifer, a subspecies of torquatus.

A rare animal in collections and commonly confused with C. torquatus, from which, however, it differs in the blackish colour of the under parts. Owing to this confusion with C. torquatus, its geographical distribution is uncertain, but according to the most accurate information now available its range is limited to the region of the head-waters of the Orinoco and Negro Rivers. A young specimen in the British Museum collection comes from Maipures on the Orinoco, and Schomburgk’s specimen, which is said to have come from Guiana, has a different origin according to Thomas, who also believes that the specimens to which Spix refers in the forests of Olivença, on the Solimoes, probably belong to the species C. lucifer.

Cruz-Lima, E. da (1945). Mammals of Amazonia Vol. 1. General introduction and primates pp. 175-198.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus torquatus lugens (Humboldt, 1811)

Synonyms: Callithrix lugens (Geoffroyi, 1812), Saguinus lugens (Lesson, 1827), Cebus torquatus (Fischer, 1829), Saguinus vidua (Lesson, 1840), Callicebus lugens (Thomas, 1914), Callicebus lugens duida (Allen, 1914), Callicebus torquatus lugens (Thomas, 1927).

Distribution: Southern Venezuela, Amazonas, and the contiguous part of Colombia.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus torquatus lugens (Humboldt, 1812)

Synonyms: Simia (Callithrix) lugens (Humboldt, 1812); S. (C.) amicta (Humboldt, 1812); Saguinus vidua (Lesson, 1840); Callicebus lugens duida (Allen, 1914).

Type locality: Forests bordering Rio Cassiquiare and Rio Guaviare, near San Fernando de Atabapo., Upper Rio Orinoco, Venezuela. Type locality of amicta, forest of Sao Paulo de Olivença, near Rio Solimoes, Brazil. Type locality of duida, base of Mount Duida (700ft asl.), Venezuela. Type in Paris Museum. Type of duida in American Museum.

Distribution: Western and south-western parts of the Guiana region, especially the forests bordering the Cassiquiare, Guaviare and Orinoco rivers. Tate examined a large series from the Cassiquiare region and also topotypes of duida from Mount Duida. He concluded that the supposed differences of duida from lugens were based on characters liable to individual variation. Tate found no evidence of the spread of lugens to the east of the Parima Mountains or in the Caura valley. The same author states that the titi is unknown to the Indians at Mount Auyan-tepui.

Description: The most melanistic of all the races of torquatus. Face, forehead and sides of head anterior to ears, black, as in typical torquatus. Crown-patch dark chestnut; back uniformly black, slightly suffused with reddish in some individuals; tail uniformly black; under parts black. Throat black, pectoral patch white, large and conspicuous; hands white, forearms and feet black.

Measurements: (of an example in Paris Museum) head and body 380mm; tail 480mm; hind foot 76mm.

Remarks: For a discussion on the status of lugens and amicta, see Elliot (1914).

Olivares, 1962

Callicebus torquatus

Locality: the left margin of the Río Guayabera.

Olivares, A. (1962). Aves de la región sur de la Sierra de la Macerena, Meta, Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 11:307-308.

Herskovitz, 1963

Callicebus torquatus lugens (Humboldt, 1812)

Synonyms: Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix torquata (Temminck, 1827); Saguinus viduata (1840); Callicebus lugens (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus lugens duida (Allen, 1914); Callicebus torquatus (Tate 1939).

Type locality: near San Fernando de Atabapo, at the confluence of the Rio Orinoco and Guaviare, Amazonas, Venezuela. No type specimen in existence.

Distribution: From the upper Rio Orinoco basin in Amazonas, Venezuela and the Rio Guyabere-Guaviare in Vaupés, Colombia, south to the north bank of the Rio Apoporis in Colombia and the upper Rio Negro in Amazonas, Brazil.
According to Dr. Medem Callicebus torquatus is unknown north of the upper Rio Guaviare. On the other hand, Thomas (1914) records a specimen collected at Maipures, a village on the Colombian side of the Orinoco just south of the mouth of the Rio Tuparro and north of the Rio Guaviare. Thus, determination of the northern limits of the range of the species becomes problematical. To further complicate matters, a specimen collected by Natterer at Sao Gabriel on the left bank of the Rio Negro make sit appear that the range of the species may extend to the Rio Branco. In either case, the long history of collecting in the areas concerned gives reason to believe that Callicebus torquatus does not occur north of the Rio Meta in Colombia, outside the state of Amazonas in Venezuela and anywhere in the Guianas including the Brazilian portion.

Description: (key to species:) general body colour reddish to black, under parts hardly or not at all defined from upper parts; hind feet and tail to tip, black; white to buffy or orange throat patch or ruff almost always present and well defined from chest; forearms black above and below; hands or fingers white or yellow; trunk dominantly blackish or blackish brown.

Specimens examined: Total 5. Colombia – Vaupés: La Maria, near Laguna Grande west of San José del Guaviare; upper Caño Grande, upper Rio Inirida; Laguna de Espejo, Lago de El Dorado, upper Rio Vaupes. Brazil – no precise locality.

Variation within the species: The northernmost race, Callicebus torquatus lugens (Humboldt) is darkest, with body or trunk deep blackish brown, throat patch or gular ruff well developed and sharply defined white or creamy. The westernmost race, medemi, is less black, browner, with gular ruff extending from ear to ear in some specimens to obsolete or absent in others, face more thinly haired, hands entirely black in some, with a more or less concealed admixture of golden hairs in others. Southward, between the Rios Putumayo and Caqueta, medemi grades into reddish, or reddish brown populations of torquatus. Here the yellow becomes dominant on the fingers (cf. ignitus Thomas) before extending over the metacarpals. In some populations (Codajáz, c.f. Lönnberg 1939) the throat patch tends to blend or become confused wit the surrounding reddish of the under surface.
Individuals or populations of torquatus from the north bank of the Solimoes with uniformly reddish trunks such as the type of ignitus Thomas from the Rio Tonantins, mingle with somberly coloured ones with dark under parts such as those Thomas (1927) described and recorded as lucifer. Similarly, on the south side of the Solimoes, brightly coloured individuals of torquatus with reddish belly and thighs (purinus, Thomas) seem to be randomly distributed with brownish ones with dark bellies (regulus, Thomas). Lönnberg (1939) noted that a series of reddish torquatus from Jaburú, middle Rio Purus, south of the Solimoes, was hardly distinguishable from another from Codajáz, north of the Solimoes. He nevertheless kept them apart by recording each series under the names purinus and torquatus, respectively. Two reddish brown dark bellied specimens at hand from the Rio Nanay, Peru, on the north side of the Marañon, agree with the original description of the brownish dark-bellied regulus Thomas from south of the Solimoes.
Apparent absence of features for consistently distinguishing the populations of one side of the Solimoes from those of the other is remarkable. Cabrera (1958) rejected colour as a subspecific character but nevertheless recognized a northern Amazonian race (lucifer) and a southern race (amictus).
The possibility that Callicebus torquatus torquatus is dichromatic in some parts of its range is suggested in the above discussion. The only evidence, however, is the reference by Thomas (1927) of the occurrence of reddish (ignitus, type an immature) and blackish form (lucifer) representatives of torquatus in the same locality on the Rio Tonantins and the somewhat obscure note by Cruz Lima (1945) that a male and female from Fonteboa, type locality of regulus, represent the reddish and dark phase, respectively. Nothing is known of seasonal and age variation in colour and pelage and no differences are apparent between the sexes. Nevertheless, whether considered individually or collectively, all populations of subspecies torquatus, as recognized here, can be distinguished from medemi and lugens by their more reddish colour and by their contrastingly whitish or yellow hands or fingers, respectively.

Hernandez-Camacho and Cooper, 1976

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Distribution: C. t. lugens occupies the area from the Guaviare and Guayabero rivers southward to the Putumayo and Colombian Amazon rivers, except for the habitats of C. t. medemi in the area between the upper Caqueta and Putumayo rivers. It also exists northward from the lower Guaviare River at least to the lower Tomo River in the Vichada Comisaria.
Recent collection (near Leticia) of a C. torquatus specimen with rather dull and somewhat brownish upperparts represents the only specimen with adequate locality data known to us from the Colombian bank of the Amazon. This description is consistent with brownish individual variants of C. t. lugens seen almost throughout the range of the subspecies.
Behavioural observations have been limited to the northern extreme of lugens distribution (probably also the northernmost limit of the genus) between the Tomo and Tuparro rivers, as well as the Guayabero River.

Remarks: Two C. torquatus specimens from the southern bank of the lower Guamues River near Puerto Leguizamo have light-yellowish hands and distinctly ferruginous under parts (including ventral tail surface). This pattern is in contrast with the blackish under parts of typical C. t. lugens and approaches the characteristics claimed for C. t. lucifer (Thomas, 1914), a subspecies not separable from C. t. lugens according to Hershkovitz (1963).

Hernandez-Camacho, J. and Cooper, R.W. (1976). The nonhuman primates of Colombia. Neotropical Primates: Field Studies and Conservation. Pp. 47-49.

Handley, 1976

Callicebus torquatus

Localities: Territorio Federal AMAZONAS, Belen, Rio Cunucunuma, 56 km NNW Esmeralda, 150 m (3°39’N-65°46’W (to 3°37’N-65°53’Wand 3°43’N-65°42″W); Boca Mavaca, 84 km SSE Esmeralda, 138 m (2°30’N-6°53’W to 2°33’N-65°02’W and 2°2.3’N-65°16’W); Capibara, Brazo Casiquiare, 106 km SW Esmeralda, 130 m (2°37’N-66°19’W); 7 km SE Esmeralda, 135 m (3°11’N-65°33’W; Rio Mavaca, 108 km SSE Esmeralda, 140 m (2°15’N-65°17’W); Tamatama, Rio Orinoco, 135 m (3°10’N-65°49’W).

Remark: a total of 31 specimens were collected.

Defler, 1983

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Locality: Territorio Faunistico “El Tuparro”, between the Top and Tuparro rivers, west of the Orinoco river, Colombia.

Defler, T.R. (1983). Some population characteristics of Callicebus torquatus lugens in eastern Colombia. Lozania 38: 1-9.

Milton and Nessimian, 1984

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Locality: Tiquie River area of Brazil near the Colombian border (see map).

Milton, K. and Nessimian, J.L. (1984). Evidence for lnsectivory in Two Primate Species (Callicebus orquatus lugens and Lagothrix lagothricha lagothricha) from Northwestern Amazonia. American Journal of Primatology 6:367-371.

Bodini, 1987

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Distribution: Venezuela, south of the Orinoco (see map).

Remarks: Hill originally suggested that C. torquatus is found as far east as Guyana, although this was questioned by both Handley (1976) and Hershkovitz (1963), who reported Venezuelan specimens only from Territorio Federal Amazonas. Handley (1976) reported 31 specimens from southern Territorio Federal Amazonas. Bodini (1981) reported specimens from Maripa, Camp Canaracuni, and the Rio Antavari in Venezuela. Recent reports by Kinzey (1982) and Bodini (1981) confirm the presence of C. torquatus in Guiana Region.

Specimens examined: Bolivar: Canaracuni; Maripa, 150km from Ciudad Bolivar; Rio Antavari; Alto Paragua. T.F. Amazonas: Alto Caño Caname, dep. Atabapo; Alto Ventuari; Boca Caño Maica, Rio Ventuari; Caño Yagua, Cerro Cucurito, dep. Atabapo; Cacuri, Alto Ventuari; La Esmeralda; Rio Cunucunuma; Rio Puruname; La Neblina, east of Rio Varia.

Bodini, R. and Pérez-Hernández, R. (1987) Distribution of the species and subspecies of cebids in Venezuela. Fieldiana. Zoology, New Series (39): 231-244.

Hershkovitz, 1988

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Member of the torquatus group.

Hershkovitz, P. (1988) Origin, Speciation, and Distribution of South American Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus (Family Cebidae, Platyrrhini), by Philip Hershkovitz . Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 140 (1): 240-272.

Hernandez-Camacho and Defler, 1989

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Distribution: its distribution extends from Vichada (from the right margin of the Tomo river and the West sector of Tuparro NP), the Rio Guaviare, the Rio Guyabero and the Rio Duda region (Meta) south till the upper Rio Caquetá, and in the west of the Igará-Paraná till the Rio Amazonas.

Remarks: the suspecific status of populations in the Comisaria of Amazonas south of the Rio Caquetá needs further studies.

Bodini, 1989

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Distribution: the “viudita” is restricted to the Federal Amazonas territory and the Edo Bolivár. (see map). Before I have indicated that the eastern limit of the species is Edo. Bolivár is the left bank of the Rio Antavari (63º10’ – 5º20’) and the northern limit is near Maripa (65º10’- 7º32’).

Remarks: this is the only subspecies of Callicebus torquatus present in Venezuela.

Localities: Edo. Bolivár – Kanaracuni (64º10’- 4º36’); Maripce, 150km of Bolivar city (65º09’- 7º22’); Rio Antavari (63º10’- 5º20’); Alto Paragua. Ter. Fed. Amazonas – Alto Caño Caname, dept. Atabapo (67º06’- 3º33’); Alto Ventuari (67º06’- 3º50’); Boca Caño Maica, Río Ventuari (66º30’- 4º05’); Caño Yagua, Cerro Cucurito, dept. Atabapo (66º25’- 3º38’); Kacuri (65º26’- 4º49’); La Esmeralda (65º32’- 3º08’); Río Cunucunuma (66º01’- 3º10’); Río Puruname at 40km of the mouth of the Rio Orinoco, dept. Atabapo (65º15’- 3º19’).

Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Member of the torquatus Group.

Synonyms: Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1811), Saguinus vidua (Lesson, 1840), Simia amicta (Lesson, 1840), Cebus torquatus (Lesson, 1842), Callicebus lugens duida (Allen, 1914).

Type locality: Near San Fernando de Atabapo, at the confluence of the Rios Orinoco and Guaviare, Amazonas, Venezuela. No type in existence, name based on captive animal observed by A. Humboldt during his travels on the upper Rio Orinoco.

Distribution: Eastern Colombia, southern Venezuela, and bordering parts of north-western Brazil; in Colombia between the Rio Tomo in the north, Rio Caguan-Caqueta in the south, in the departments of Vichada, Meta east of the Rio Ariari, Guainia, Guaviare, Vaupes, and Caqueta east of the Rio Caguan; in Venezuela, the states of Amazonas south of the Rio Ventuari and Bolivar between the Rios Caura and Caroni; in Brazil, Amazonas north of the Rio Japura-Solimoes and Roraima west of the Rio Branco and south of the Rio Uraricoera.

Description: Hands whitish, buffy orange to rufous with or without mixture of blackish hairs; tail blackish or with mixture of reddish; under parts except throat blackish, reddish brown, or reddish; chest and belly brown or blackish; hairs surrounding ears uniformly blackish.

Comparisons: Most nearly completely blackish of all subspecies; distinguished from Callicebus t. torquatus, C. t. purinus, and C. t. regulus by blackish chest and belly; from C. t. lucifer by little or no contrast between blackish crown and reddish brown or blackish nape, hairs of dorsum uniformly coloured or faintly banded; and from C. t. medemi by golden or yellowish orange hands.

Specimens examined: Total 96. Brazil- Amazonas: Cachoeira do Quartel; Marabitanas; Monte Curicuriari; Rio Alegria; Rio Araca; Rio Casiquiare; Rio Maturaca; Rio Ocama; Rio Tootobi; Rio Uapes; San Carlos; Tahuapunta; Taraqua, Rio Uapes; Roraima: Lago da Cobra; Rio Mucajai. Colombia – Guaviare: Cano Grande; Laguna de Espejo; La Maria; Vichada: Maipures, Rio Orinoco. Venezuela – Amazonas: Belem; Boca Mavaca; Capibara; Isla Cudamaco; Mt. Duida (including holotype of duida); Tamatama.

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Defler, 1994

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Localities: South (right) bank of Guayabero river (Hernandez-C., personal communication) (2º18’N, 73º45’W).

Defler, T.R. (1994). Callicebus torquatus is not a white-sand specialist. American Journal of  Primatology 33:149-154.

Kobayashi, 1995

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Based on cranial measurements, the genus can be divided in five groups:

  • the donacophilus group (including modestus, olallae, d. donacophilus and d. pallescens)
  • the cupreus group (including caligatus, c. cupreus, c. discolor and c. ornatus)
  • the moloch group (including brunneus, h. hoffmannsi, h. baptista, moloch and cinerascens)
  • the personatus group (including p. personatus, p. nigrifrons, p. melanochir)
  • the torquatus group (including t. lucifer, t. lugens, t. medemi, t. regulus, t. purinus and t. torquatus).

The group position of C. dubius remains uncertain; C. oenanthe and C. barbarabrownae were not examined.

Kobayashi, S. (1995). A phylogenetic study of Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: 1. Phyletic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36(1): 101-120.

Voss and Emmons, 1996

Callicebus torquatus

Localities: The Rio Cunucunuma, a black-water tributary of the upper Orinoco; Village of Culebra (= “Belen”. 3°39’N, 65°46’W) at 150 m elevation on the left bank of the Rio Cunucunuma. The nearby village of Acanaña (about 13 km SSW of Culebra). Specimens in MARNR and USNM.

Anonymous, 1995

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Distribution: to the north of C. t. torquatus and Upper Rio Negro, west of the Rio Branco.

Palacios et al., 1997

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Locality: Estacion Biologica Caparu (1°05.55’S, 69°30.8′ W), Northwest Amazon of eastern Colombia, lowland (200-m) non-floodable primary forest.

Palacios, E.; Rodriguez, A.; Defler, T.R. (1997). Diet of a Group of Callicebus torquatus lugens (Humboldt, 1812) during the Annual Resource Bottleneck in Amazonian Colombia. International Journal of Primatology, 18(4): 503-522.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Synonyms: Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1811); Saguinus vidua (Lesson, 1840); Callicebus lugens duida (Allen, 1914).

Distribution: North of the Rio Jurúa (except where C. t. torquatus is found), into Colombia and Venezuela. According to Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976) this occurs throughout the Amazonian region of Colombia, except south of the Rio Caquetá where C. medemi occurs; and in Venezuela north to the middle Orinoco.

Remarks: Almost certainly there are several species among what Hershkovitz (1990) designated as subspecies. I have little experience with this group and so leave them as subspecies of the one species, except for the strikingly distinct black-handed medemi.

Van Roosmalen et al., 2002

Callicebus lugens

Type locality: In the vicinity of San Fernando de Atabapo, at the confluence of the Rios Orinoco and Guaviare, Amazonas state, Venezuela. There is no type specimen; the name was based on a captive animal observed by A. Humboldt in 1811 during his journey on the upper Río Orinoco, Amazonas state, Venezuela.

Distribution: Eastern Colombia, departments of Vichada, Meta east of the Río Ariari, Guainiá, Guaviare, Vaupés, and Caquetá east of the Río Caguán, between the Río Tomo in the north and Río Caguán-Caquetá in the south; southern Venezuela, state of Amazonas south of the Río Ventuari, and state of Bolívar between the Ríos Caura, Caroni, and Orinoco; and bordering parts of north-western Brazil, Amazonas state north of the Rios Uaupés-Negro, and the state of Roraima west of the Rio Branco, north as far as the foothills of Mount Roraima (personal observations by M.G.M. van Roosmalen).

Description: Feet, tail, head, sideburns, and under parts except throat entirely blackish, hairs of back and sides of body blackish intermixed with dark chestnut, the hairs uniformly coloured or faintly banded, hands and throat contrasted white. Most blackish of the C. torquatus Group, distinguished from C. torquatus, C. purinus, and C. regulus by blackish chest and belly, and white hands combined with black feet; from C. lucifer by lack of contrast between blackish crown and reddish brown or blackish nape, hairs of back uniformly coloured or faintly banded, and white instead of orange hands; from C. medemi by white instead of blackish hands.

van Roosmalen, G.M.; van Roosmalen, T. and  Mittermeier, R.A. (2002). A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10(Suppl.): 1-52.

Barnett et al., 2002

Calllicebus torquatus lugens

Locality: The Jaú National Park is some 220 km north of Manaus in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, bordered on the north by the Rio Uniní and to the south by the Rio Carabinani (see map).

Bonvicino et al., 2003

Callicebus lugens

Locality: Left bank of the Rio Negro: Iagarapé Jauari (00º45’50’’N, 63º26’40’’W), left bank of the Rio Aracá; Igarapé Japomeri (00 º20’51’’N, 64º0028’’W), left bank of the Rio Padauari; Lago do Cobra, right bank of Rio Mucajaí, Roraima State, Brazil) (see map).

Description: The pelage of C. lugens is characterised by an overall dark-brown dorsal coloration. The forehead, forearms, feet and tail are blackish. The crown is brown reddish, the throat collar is yellowish, the chest and belly are light brown and the hands are yellowish.

Karyotype: 2n=16 (4 bi-armed, 1 metacentric and 3 acrocentric pairs).

Remarks: Morphometric comparisons allowed us to identify 4 significantly different cranial variables between Callicebus lugens, C. torquatus and C. purinus, in agreement with the proposition that these taxa are valid species. Skull and skins will be deposited in the mammal collection of Museu Nacional (MN), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Bonvicino, C.R., Penna-Firme, V., Nascimiento, F.F. do, Lemos, B., Stanyon, R, and Seuánez, H.N.(2003). The lowest diploid number (2n-16) yet found in any primate: Callicebus lugens. Folia Primatologica 74: 141-149.

Defler, 2004

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Distribution: Callicebus torquatus is found throughout lowland Colombian Amazonia up to about 500m of altitude in Putumayo and probably about the same in Caquetá. The species has been observed on the left bank of the Guayabero River, where it was collected in 1959 by Hernandez-Camacho, In La Macarena National Park, and recently it was observed north of the Guayabero above La Cordillera de loss Picassos National park. The species is known in the Vichada salve between the Vichada and Guaviare Rivers, reaching the middle Tomo River, where it probably extends to the upper Tomo, although this needs to be confirmed.
It is not found on the lower Tomo River or lower Tuparro River, nor is it found on the north bank of the lower Vichada River, contrary to the distribution map of Hershkovitz (1990). This error is due to the collection of a specimen by the English ornithologist Cherrie in about 1904 from Maipures, which evidently was a captive animal obtained in the existing village of Maipures on the left bank.

Description: The species pelage is uniformly reddish brown or blackish brown, the tail is blackish mixed with some reddish hairs; hands and feet whitish or dark brown. This pelage contrasts in all of the subspecies with a band of white hair which extends upwards from the chest and follows the neck, prolonging itself to the ears. This extension to the ears is weak in Callicebus torquatus torquatus, a subspecies not confirmed for Colombia and different from the other subspecies which have white extending to the base of the ears.
Lugens: the pelage is generally blackish mixed with dark brownish and some reddish brown hairs on the back and the flanks. Hands are white or yellowish.

Defler, T.R. (2004). Primates of Colombia.

Palaciosa and Peres, 2005

Callicebus torquatus

Localities: 6 km upstream from the mouth of the Caño Pintadillo (1º02′ S, 69º39′ W), a clear-water creek flowing from the Serranía de Taraira to the Río Apaporis, a second-order black-water tributary of the Rio Caquetá.; Caparú Biological Station (1º05´ S, 69º31´ W) in the Indigenous Conservation Area of the Yaigojé-Apaporis Reserve and on the northern margin of Taraira Lake, an oxbow of the Rio Apaporis.

Palaciosa, E. and Peres, C.A. (2005). Primate Population Densities in Three Nutrient-Poor Amazonian Terra Firme Forests of South-Eastern Colombia. Folia Primatologica 76:135–145.

Casado et al., 2007

Callicebus lugens

Localities: Eight C. lugens were captured along tributaries of Rio Negro, in Barcelos municipality, Amazonas State. Four animals were captured along the left (or north) bank: and 4 other along the right (or south) bank of this river, some 190 km apart (Figure 1). Along the left bank of Rio Negro, 3 females were collected at Sítio da Mamae, Igarapé Japomeri (left bank of Rio Padauari), some 80 km apart from the site where a fourth female specimen was captured, at Três Barracas, Igarapé Jauari (left bank of Rio Aracá). Along the right bank of Rio Negro, 3 animals were collected at Igarapé do Bainaiá, and a fourth specimen some 20 km apart, at Road Barcelos-Caurés, both near the city of Barcelos (see map).

Distribution: Here, we report, for the first time, the distribution of C. lugens south of the Rio Negro, in Barcelos municipality (Amazonas State, Brazil), indicating that this river is not the southern boundary of the distribution of this species as previously proposed. Specimens from the north and south banks showed the same diploid number (2n = 16, FNa = 22; 4 bi-, 1 meta- and 3 acrocentric pairs), while phylogenetic reconstructions based on maximum parsimony, distance, and maximum likelihood analyses grouped all specimens in a strongly supported clade comprising 2 separate lineages, in coincidence with their geographic distribution along riverbanks. Median-joining analysis showed a similar separation, with 22 transitions between the 2 groups, whereas time of divergence estimates indicated that the splitting of the C. lugens lineages occurred some 2.2 million years before present. Conservation strategies should take into consideration that this species might be sympatric with Callicebus torquatus at the south bank of Rio Negro.

Casado, F; Bonvicino, C.R. and  Seuánez, H.N. (2007). Phylogeographic Analyses of Callicebus lugens (Platyrrhini, Primates). Journal of Heredity 98(1): 88–92.

Auricchio, 2010

Callicebus lugens

Localities: AM Ig. Iá Pq. Nac. Pico da Neblina (00°17’N 66°25’W); AM, Barcelos, Rio Aracá Ig Jauari (00°10’S 63°05’W); AM Ig. Japomeri, Rio Padauiri (00°00’S 64°00’W); RR Lago da Cobra dir. Rio Mucajaí (01°40’N 60°55’W); AM São Gabriel da Cacheira (00°07’S 67°04’W); AM Rio Tootobi af.dir. rio Demini (01°40’N 63°34’W); AM Rio Mucajaí (02°45’N 62°00’W); PA 54 km S 150 km W de Altamira Gleba 61 lote (02 03°12’N 52°13’W).

Auricchio, P. (2010). A morphological analysis of some species of Callicebus. Neotropical Primates 17(2): 47-58.

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