Literature ignitus

Thomas, 1927

Callicebus torquatus ignitus

Type locality: Rio Tonantins, Upper Solimoes. Type in British Museum.

Description: Most closely allied to C. t. torquatus, with which it agrees in the rufous under surface and inner aspects of the thighs, but distinguished by the whole upper surface being deep rich rufous, without any superficial darkening of the hairs, this rufous carried down on to the tail of which only the terminal hairs are a little darker at their tips; the outer side of the legs from the middle of the tibia downwards black instead of rufous, and the feet wholly black without any suggestion of red on the metatarsals. The yellow on the hands less in extent than usual, only taking in the digits and not the metacarpals, while in torquatus it includes the whole hand. White collar, as in torquatus, comparatively inconspicuous.

Measurements: head and body 320mm; tail 380mm.

Remarks: No doubt near true C. torquatus of the Lower Solimoes, but recognizable by the more brilliantly rufous general colour, the red tail, and the blackened lower limbs.

Thomas, O. (1927). On further monkeys of the Callicebus torquatus group. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9) 20: 287.

Cruz-Lima, 1945

Callicebus torquatus ignitus

Synonym: Callicebus torquatus ignitus (Thomas, 1927).

Description: Allied to the typical torquatus, with which it agrees in having the under parts and inner surface of the thighs rufous, but being distributed from it in having the dorsal surface totally rich and intense rufous, without any superficial darkening of the hairs, this colour extending down to the tail, of which only the terminal hairs are somewhat darker on the tips; outer surface of legs from the middle of the tibia downwards black instead of rufous, and the feet entirely black without a trace of red on the metatarsals. Yellow of hands with lesser extension than commonly, only reaching the fingers. White collar less conspicuous.

Measurements: (immature type) head and body 320mm.

Remarks: Although it is a very near ally of torquatus torquatus, it is indistinguishable by its more brilliant rufous colouring, but its red tail and by its blackish lower limbs.

Cruz-Lima, E. da (1945). Mammals of Amazonia Vol. 1. General introduction and primates pp. 175-198.

Vieira, 1955

Callicebus torquatus ignitus

Synonym: Callicebus torquatus ignitus (Thomas, 1927).

Distribution: Known only from its type locality.

Vieira, C. da C. (1955). Lista remissiva dos mamiferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 8 (10): 375-379.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus torquatus lucifer (Thomas, 1914)

Synonyms: Callicebus torquatus lucifer (Thomas, 1927), Callicebus torquatus ignitus (Thomas 1927).

Remarks: Having the abdomen reddish instead of blackish appears for us not sufficient to separate, not even sub specifically, ignitus from lucifer, as both forms were obtained in the same zone. It is interesting to note that Thomas, in the same work in which he described ignitus about a young specimen from the Rio Tonantins, only a few lines before, he considered as lucifer another specimen from the same locality. It seems to us more logical that the colour of the abdomen is subject to individual variation, than that two geographical forms live at the same locality.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus torquatus ignitus (Thomas, 1927)

Type locality: Rio Tonantins, Brazil. Type in British Museum.

Distribution: Replaces typical torquatus on the Upper Solimoes.

Description: Closely allied to typical torquatus, which it replaces on the Upper Solimoes, but differing in the more brilliantly rufous general colour, the red tail and blackened hind-limbs.
Agreeing with torquatus in the rufous general tinge including the under parts and medial aspect of the thighs, but the superficial darkening of the hairs lacking. Rufosity continued on the tail, of which the terminal hairs alone are darker than the rest at their tips. Lateral side of hind-limb from middle of tibia onwards black instead of rufous, whit no suggestion of red on metatarsal region. Extent of yellow on hands less than in true torquatus, affecting the digits only, not the metacarpal region. White collar comparatively inconspicuous.

Measurements: (of type) head and body 320mm; tail 380mm.

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Herhskovitz, 1963

Callicebus torquatus torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1807)

Synonyms: Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix amictus (E. Geoffroy, 1812); Callithrix amicta (Spix, 1823); Callithrix amictus (Tschudi, 1844); Callicebus torquatus (Ihering, 1904); Callicebus torquatus (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus lucifer (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus torquatus lucifer (Thomas, 1927); Callicebus torquatus purinus (Thomas, 1927); Callicebus torquatus regulus (Thomas, 1927); Callicebus torquatus ignitus (Thomas, 1927); Callicebus torquatus torquatus (Thomas, 1927); Callicebus torquatus (Cruz Lima, 1945); Callicebus torquatus lucifer (Cabrera, 1958); Callicebus torquatus amictus (Cabrera, 1958).

Variation within the species: The northernmost race, Callicebus torquatus lugens (Humboldt) is darkest, with body or trunk deep blackish brown, throat patch or gular ruff well developed and sharply defined white or creamy. The westernmost race, medemi, is less black, browner, with gular ruff extending from ear to ear in some specimens to obsolete or absent in others, face more thinly haired, hands entirely black in some, with a more or less concealed admixture of golden hairs in others. Southward, between the Rios Putumayo and Caqueta, medemi grades into reddish, or reddish brown populations of torquatus. Here the yellow becomes dominant on the fingers (cf. ignitus Thomas) before extending over the metacarpals. In some populations (Codajáz, c.f. Lönnberg 1939) the throat patch tends to blend or become confused wit the surrounding reddish of the under surface.
Individuals or populations of torquatus from the north bank of the Solimoes with uniformly reddish trunks such as the type of ignitus Thomas from the Rio Tonantins, mingle with somberly coloured ones with dark under parts such as those Thomas (1927) described and recorded as lucifer.
Apparent absence of features for consistently distinguishing the populations of one side of the Solimoes from those of the other is remarkable. Cabrera (1958) rejected colour as a subspecific character but nevertheless recognized a northern Amazonian race (lucifer) and a southern race (amictus).
The possibility that Callicebus torquatus torquatus is dichromatic in some parts of its range is suggested in the above discussion. The only evidence, however, is the reference by Thomas (1927) of the occurrence of reddish (ignitus, type an immature) and blackish form (lucifer) representatives of torquatus in the same locality on the Rio Tonantins and the somewhat obscure note by Cruz Lima (1945) that a male and female from Fonteboa, type locality of regulus, represent the reddish and dark phase, respectively. Nothing is known of seasonal and age variation in colour and pelage and no differences are apparent between the sexes. Nevertheless, whether considered individually or collectively, all populations of subspecies torquatus, as recognized here, can be distinguished from medemi and lugens by their more reddish colour and by their contrastingly whitish or yellow hands or fingers, respectively.


Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus torquatus lucifer

Synonyms: Callicebus lucifer (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus torquatus ignitus (Thomas, 1927).

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus torquatus torquatus

Synonyms: Callithrix torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Simia amicta (E. Geoffroy, 1812); Callicebus torquatus ignitus (Thomas, 1927).

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