Literature duida

Allen, 1914

Callicebus lugens duida subsp. nov.

Type locality: base of Mount Duida (altitude 700 feet), Venezuela

Description: Similar to typical lugens, but hands yellow instead of white, white throat patch more or less strongly tinged with yellow, and back, especially anteriorly, with the black more or less suffused basally with brown, often giving a rufous brown tone to the surface.

Measurements: (Type and 3 paratypes), total length, 765 (748-780)mm; head and body, 345 (338-350)mm; hind foot, 90 (85-95)mm.

Skull: (Type and paratypes) total length, 64.4 (64-66); occipitonasal length, 59 (58-60); zygomatic breadth, 43.7 (42-46); orbital breadth, 38.5 (37.5-39.3); postorbital breadth, 33.2 (31-33); breadth of braincase, 36.4 (35-38); length of nasals, 11.2 (10-12); maxillary toothrow, 15.2 (15-16).

Remarks: Represented by 6 specimens, 5 adults and 1 quarter-grown young, all from the type locality. In several of the adults the throat is yellowish white. In the young one it is clear white; the hands also are paler than in the adults, and the extreme tips of many of the hairs on the back are bright red. The dorsal pelage in the adults has a more or less rufous tone basally, which in strong light imparts a faint rufous tinge to the surface, from the nape to the middle of the back, more noticeable in some specimens than in others. In a dull light they all appear black. The type locality of Callicebus lugens (Humboldt) is “les forêts qui avoisinet le Cassiquiare et le Rio Guaviare, près de San Fernando de Atabapo.” The mission of San Fernando, where Humboldt spent considerable time, may be taken therefore as the type locality. This mission is about 150 miles west of Duida on the Orinoco River. The type locality of E. Geoffroy’s Callithrix amictus is unknown (“le Brésil?”). It was secured, with much other South American material, by E. Geoffroy on his visit to Lisbon in 1808, and hence probably came from Brazil, then a Portuguese colony. The type was still extant in the Paris Museum in 1851, according to I. Geoffroy’s ‘Catalogue méthodique de la Collection des Mammiferes,’ etc., of the Museum d’Histoire Naturelle of Paris, where it is thus recorded (p. 40): “♂ Type de l’espece. Du voyage de M. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire en Portugal en 1808.” It is thus not likely to have come from the Upper Orinoco region of Venezuela. Yet the Duida specimens seem to agree well with the description of the type of C. amictus; but there may be a yellow-handed black Callicebus in some part of Brazil, for which the name should be reserved. It is therefore thought best to give a provisional name to the Duida form. It is also possible that lugens may not always have white hands, a point to be yet decided. At present very few specimens of the lugens-amictus group have reached museums.

Allen, J.A. (1914). New South American Monkeys. Bulletin of the AMNH 33:647-648.

Allen, 1916

Callicebus lugens duida

Distribution: Rio Cunucunumá (near Rio Orinoco).

One of the first sounds that reached our ears after we had left the Rio Orinoco and were paddling slowly against the strong current of the Rio Cunucunuma, was a loud chorus of frantic, anguished little oh’s coming from the tree-tops. The canoemen said the sound was produced by a ” monito negro, ” and I was eager for a glimpse of the creatures; but it was not until some weeks later that I saw a troop of half a dozen moving rapidly through the trees. They travelled at a good rate of speed and made long leaps from the top of one tree into the branches of another. At frequent intervals during the early morning and late afternoon, they gave voice to their feelings in a series of fifteen to twenty oh’s uttered in a high pitch, at first long drawn and plaintive, but ending short and jerky so that they sounded almost as if they were uttering one long wail while they covered the mouth with the hands and withdrew them alternately in rapid succession. The cry was very penetrating, all the individuals of a troop seemed to participate, and occasionally it could be heard at midday, but I do not recall that we ever heard it after sundown. This species seemed to be very abundant. I saw them daily in pairs and in small troops of five or six. One pair which I collected had a onethird grown young which the male was carrying. At first the young was shy and frightened but did not attempt to bite. It ate greedily of rice, raisins, sugar, and wild fruits, preferring a small red berry of insipid taste (a species of fig) which grew abundantly on tall trees and upon which the adults feed regularly. After a few days it played about the tent cheerfully and could be picked up and carried about. Sometimes it assumed a most serious expression and uttered a few feeble little oh’s in imitation of its wild brethren. A slight shot-wound, which a thorough examination had failed to reveal, became infected after about ten days and the little animal died. It was quite cheerful to the end and ate heartily a few hours before it died. At about four in the afternoon these marmosets could be found in the trees near the river, but I could never find them actually drinking, although once I saw two low down in the branches. When a troop was disturbed they made off in a body. If surprised suddenly with a shot, they scattered in all directions and sat in the tree-tops, concealed, some little distance away and uttered short whining grunts, evidently to prevent the individuals of the troop from straying too far and becoming permanently separated. The first time I heard this sound I mistook it for the low grunt of a herd of suspicious peccaries.

Allen, J.A. (1916). Mammals collected on the Roosevelt Brazilian expedition, with field notes by Leo E. Miller. Bulletin of the AMNH 35: 609-610.

Tate, 1939

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Synonyms: Simia (Callithrix) lugens (Humboldt, 1812); Callicebus lugens duida (Allen, 1914).

Distribution: the torquatus group, the only division of Callicebus that shows any relationship with the Guiana area, reaches that region merely along its western and south-western and south-western margin. The “viudita” was unknown to the Indians at Mt. Auyan-tepui.

Description: The colour pattern of the skins in monkeys of this group is distinguishable by the buffy-white of the hands and the white pectoral patch. The dorsal colour in the northwest of the range (lugens of upper Orinoco) is black, tail black or reddish black, without pale tip. The representative in north Peru is reddish black, and specimens from Teffe appear dull dark reddish. Torquatus (Hoffmannsegg), from ‘o Certao, inner Pará”, was an ally of lugens, but with a chestnut suffusion over the upper parts and proximal portion of limbs and tail. The under parts were coloured russet.

Remarks: lugens was placed by Elliot in the synonymy of torquatus (Hoffmannsegg). It is better recognized as a geographical race of the latter. We now have extensive series of true lugens from the Cassiquiare, whose range Humboldt gave as the Cassiquiare and Guiviare, as well as a number of specimens of duida from Duida. The colour of hands, feet and throat patch, and the dorsal brownish clouding appear to be variables of insufficient value for the differentiation of duida as a race. I have no evidence of the occurrence of lugens in the Caura valley east of the Parima Mountains.

 Tate, G.H.H. (1939). The mammals of the Guiana region. Bulletin of AMNH 76: 219-220.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Synonyms: Callithrix lugens (Geoffroyi, 1812), Saguinus lugens (Lesson, 1827), Cebus torquatus (Fischer, 1829), Saguinus vidua (Lesson, 1840), Callicebus lugens (Thomas, 1914), Callicebus lugens duida (Allen, 1914), Callicebus torquatus lugens (Thomas, 1927).

Distribution: Southern Venezuela, Amazonas, and the contiguous part of Colombia.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Synonyms: Simia (Callithrix) lugens (Humboldt, 1812); S. (C.) amicta (Humboldt, 1812); Saguinus vidua (Lesson, 1840); Callicebus lugens duida (Allen, 1914).

Type locality: Forests bordering Rio Cassiquiare and Rio Guaviare, near San Fernando de Atabapo., Upper Rio Orinoco, Venezuela. Type locality of amicta, forest of Sao Paulo de Olivença, near Rio Solimoes, Brazil. Type locality of duida, base of Mount Duida (700ft asl.), Venezuela. Type in Paris Museum. Type of duida in American Museum.

Remarks: For a discussion on the status of lugens and amicta, see Elliot (1914).

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Hershkovitz, 1963

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Synonyms: Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix torquata (Temminck, 1827); Saguinus viduata (1840); Callicebus lugens (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus lugens duida (Allen, 1914); Callicebus torquatus (Tate 1939).

Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Synonyms: Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1811), Saguinus vidua (Lesson, 1840), Simia amicta (Lesson, 1840), Cebus torquatus (Lesson, 1842), Callicebus lugens duida (Allen, 1914).


Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Synonyms: Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1811); Saguinus vidua (Lesson, 1840); Callicebus lugens duida (Allen, 1914).

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