Literature amicta

Humboldt, 1812

Simia amicta

Synonym: Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812).

Distribution: probably Brazil.

Description: fusco-nigra, gula alba, palmis flavis, cauda corpore longiori.

Remarks: M. Geoffroy has proposed Simia amicta as a new species.

Humboldt, A. von (1812). Recueil d’Observations de Zoologie d’Anatomie Comparée 1 : 357.

Geoffroy St. Hilaire, 1812

Callithrix amictus, sp. nov.

Distribution: Brazil?

Description: Brown-blackish pelage; a white half-collar; hands yellow; tail a quarter longer than the body.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (1812). Tableau de Qaudrumanes. Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 19 : 114.

Desmarest, 1819

Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812)

Distribution: unknown, but thought to be Brazil.

Description: This monkey, of which an individual can be found in the collection of the Paris museum, is slightly larger than the squirrel monkey; its size approaches that of the C. personnatus. His whole body, including the forearms and legs, are black with a brown tinge. His tail, a fourth longer than the body, is covered with rather short hairs, which makes it look thin. There are a few brownish hairs on the cheeks. The below of the neck and the beginning of the throat have a nice white spot in the shape of a strawberry. His hands, from the wrist on, are dull yellow; his tail is completely black.

Desmarest, A.G. (1819). Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle 30: 31.

Kuhl, 1820

Callithrix amictus

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Blackish-brown, semi-collar white, hands greyish-ochraceous; tail same colour as body, ¼ longer than body.

Remark: C. lugens, C. amictus and C. torquatus may belong to the same species.

Kuhl, H. (1820). Beiträge zur Zoologie und vergleichenden Anatomie pp. 39.

Desmarest, 1820

Callithrix amictus

Synonym: Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812); Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812).

Distribution: Brazil?

Description: Pelage brown-blackish; a white half-collar; hands pale yellow; tail a fourth longer than body. His whole body, including the forearms and legs, are black with a brown tinge; hairs on the cheeks brown; the below of the neck and the beginning of the throat white; his hands, from the wrist on till the tips of the fingers, are dirty grey-yellowish; his tail is less bushy than that of the other species and completely black.

Remark: M. Kuhl thinks that personatus, lugens and amicta are one and the same species.

Desmarest, A.G. (1820).  Mammalogie ou description des espèces de mammifères 1: 87.

Schinz, 1821

Callithrix amictus

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Brown-black with white throat, yellow hands, tail longer than body.

Remark: Lugens, torquatus and amictus may all belong to one species?

Schinz, H.K. (1821). Das Thierreich, eingetheilt nach dem Bau der Thiere als Grundlage ihrer Naturgeschichte und der vergleichenden Anatomie von den Herrn Ritter von Cuvier 1: 133.

Griffith, 1821

Simia amicta

Description: Mentioned by Geoffroy. Blackish brown, with forehands yellow.

Griffith, E. (1821): General and particular description of the vertebrated animals. Order Quadrumana.  p. 91.

Spix, 1823spix amicta 9x13

Callithrix amicta (Humboldt, 1812)

Distribution: The forests around the Solimoes, near Peru.

Description: M. Humboldt, Geoffroy and Hoffmannsegg learned us about three species of Sagoins (Callithrix torquata, lugens, and amicta) that have more or less the same characters. Therefore M. Kuhl seems to be right when he assumes that there is only one species. As there is isn’t yet a plate of the White-collared Sagoin, I thought it would be useful to draw the individual that I will describe.
The animal has the occiput and the body dark brown, and the four limbs as well as the tail black or even dark brown. The front, the temples and around the face till the throat greyish towards black. The throat, the underside of the neck and the beginning of the chest form a white collar. The hands are yellow-orange, the feet black mixed with a few yellow hairs. The belly also has some dark brown hairs; the ears are large, very visible and covered with black hairs. Above the eyes and the rest of the face is naked, with a reddish hue. The cheeks, lips and chin have whitish hairs. The hairs of the feet are long and stiff; those on the back are soft and 2 thumbs long.
The female and youngsters have the tail less black, and the back is not red but more variated and browner.

Spix, J.B. de (1823). Simiarum et vespertiliarum Brasilienses species novea; … pp. 19-20.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1827

Callithrix amictus

Synonyms: Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812);Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812; Desmarest, 1820) .

Distribution: Unknown.

Description: Is almost twice the size of a squirrel monkey. His whole body, including the forearms and legs, are black with a brown tinge, except for that below the neck and on the beginning of the throat we can see white; and the hands, from the wrist on, are dirty grey-yellowish; hairs on the cheeks brown and his tail is completely black and somewhat bushy and a quarter longer than the body.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (1827). Sagoin. Dictionnaire Science Naturelle 47 :13.

Temminck, 1827

Remarks: The indications of Callithrix torquata, amicta and lugens of the authors must be united in one species.

Temminck, C.J. (1827). Monographies de mammalogie 1 :XV.

Lesson, 1827

Saguinus amictus

Synonyms: Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812); Saguinus amictus (Desmarest, 1820).

Distribution: supposed to live in Brazil.

Description: Brown-blackish pelage; a white half-collar; hands pale yellow; tail a quarter longer than body.

Lesson, R. P. (1827). Manuel de mammalogie ou histoire naturelle de mammifères p. 57.

Cuvier and Griffith, 1827

Simia Callithrix amictus

Synonyms: Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812).

Distribution: Brazil?

Description: Fur blackish brown; with a white half collar; the hands of the anterior extremities dull pale yellow; tail one-fourth longer than the body.

Remarks: Dr. Kuhl considers lugens, amictus and personata to be varieties of the same species.

Cuvier, G. and Griffith, E. (1827). The Animal Kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization 5: 33-34.

Stark, 1828

Callithrix amictus

Synonym: Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812).

Distribution: South America.

Description: Fur blackish-brown; a half collar of white; hands of the anterior extremities of a pale yellow; tail longer by a fourth than the body.

Stark, J. (1828). Elements of natural history 1:55.

Geoffroy Sainte-Hilaire, 1829

Callithrix amictus

Description: Pelage brown-blackish; a half-collar white; hands white. The tail is longer than that of Callithrix lugens.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (1829). Cours de l’histoire naturelle des mammifères. Leçon 10 pp. 18.

Fischer, 1829

Cebus torquatus

Synonyms: Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1809); C. torquatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1810, 1820, 1827).

Description: Chestnut-brown; white hands.

Variation β: Callithrix lugens

Description: Throat and hands white, forehead purplish

Variation C: Callithrix amictus

Description: Blackish-brown; white collar; hands yellow

Fischer, J.P. (1829). Synopsis mammalium Pp. 52-54.

Lesson, 1829

Callithrix amictus

Synonyms: Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812; Desmarest, 1820).

Description: Is almost twice the size of a squirrel monkey. His pelage, on his body, the forearms and legs, is black mixed with brownish; hairs on the cheeks brown; under side of neck and upper side of the throat white; hands, from the wrist till the tips of the fingers, are dirty grey-yellowish; tail completely black and less bushy than that of the other species.

Lesson, R.P. (1829). Sagouin. Dictionnaire classique d’histoire naturelle 15:55.

Cuvier, 1829

Callithrix lugens

Synonym: Simia lugens (Humboldt).

Description: Blackish with a large white collar.

Remarks: Callithrix amicta (Geoffroy, Spix) and Callicebus torquata (Hoffmannsegg) are supposed to differ little from this species.

Cuvier, G. (1829). Le Règne Animal, nouvelle édition 1: 104

Cuvier and Voigt, 1831

Simia (Callithrix) lugens

Description: Blackish, with a large white halscollar.

Remarks: Callithrix amicta (Geoffroy, Spix) and Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg) are supposed to be little different.

Cuvier, G. and Voigt, L.S. (1831). Das Thierreich geordnet nach seiner Organisation 1: 96-97.

Jardine, 1833

Callithrix amictus

Distribution: Brazil.

Synonym: Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812).

Description: Brownish-black; throat white; anterior hands dusky yellow; tail a fourth longer than the body.

Jardine, W. (1833). The naturalist’s library  1: 223-224.

Wagner, 1833

Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812)

Remarks: That C. torquatus, lugens and amictus are only members of one and the same series of colour changes are, can also been seen on the specimens of our collection. This species proves again that colour gradations are not enough to erect new species.

Wagner, J.A. (1833). Critische Revision des brasilian. Affenarten. Isis von Oken 10(2):994.

Lesson, 1838

Callithrix amictus

Synonyms: Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix amictus (Desmarest, 1820).

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Its pelage is on the back, the forearms and the legs black mixed with brownish; the hairs of the cheeks are brown, the under side of the neck and upper side of the throat are white; the hands, from the wrist are grey dirty-yellowish; the tail, completely black, is less luxurious than that of the other titi monkeys.

Lesson, R.P. (1838). Compléments de Buffon, 2e édition Pp. 280-281.

Wagner, 1840

Callithrix torquata

Description: Black, hands white.

Synonyms: Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1809; Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820); Simia torquata (Humboldt, 1812).

Description: Blackish-brown, hands yellow

Synonyms: Callithrix amicta (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820; Spix, 1823); Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812).

Description: Chestnut-brown, hands white.

Synonyms: Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820); Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812).

Distribution: Solimoes, near Peru; Cassiquiare and Rio Guaviaré near San Fernando de Atabapo; mountains on right bank of the Orinoco, behind the mission of Santa Barbara.

Remarks: Kuhl already suspected that C. torquata, amicta, and lugens belonged to one species, and Temminck agreed with him. One can only find differences between darker and lighter hues, which are not constant. The colour is on the back shiny dark red-brown, more or less becoming black or very deep rusty-brown, the hairs being ringed brown-red and black. The colour on the under side is normally lighter, on the back of the head rusty-red, being at its darkest on the outer sides of the limbs, the underarms and feet being almost completely black. The forehead is shiny black, as are the hairs of the cheeks, which are partly reddish at the base. The tail is either completely black, or the hairs have a reddish base. On there throat there is a wide half-moon-shaped collar, which is in all our specimens of the same light-yellowish colouration, as are the hands. Humboldt reports the colour of the back as being completely black, and the throat and hands as white. Spix reports a reddish face, and the cheeks, lips and chin as woolly white; he also reports that in the females and the youngsters the tail is less black and the back more brown.

Measurements: head and body 375mm; tail 450mm.

Wagner, J.A. (1840). Schreber, die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband, Erste Abtheilung: Die Affen und Flederthiere Pp. 228-234.

Lesson, 1840

Saguinus vidua

Synonyms: Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1819, 1820, 1827; Cuvier, 1829; Lesson, 1829); Saguinus lugens (Lesson, 1827); Cebus torquatus var. B (Fisher, 1829; Jardine, 1833); Simia (Callithrix) lugens (Griffith, 1827; Voigt, 1831).

Distribution: The forests near the Cassiquiaire and the Rio Guaviare, near San-Fernando de Atabapo; the mountains of the right bank of the Orinoco.

Description: Crown purple-black; naked face; with a white-bluish mask, square shaped, surrounded by grey above and white below; black hairs around the mouth; shiny black pelage, long and soft hairs; a white scarf on the throat; hands white; feet black.

Variation A:

Synonyms: Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812; Desmarest, 1819, 1820, 1827; Lesson, 1829; Geoffroy, 1829; Jardine, 1833); Saguinus amictus (Lesson, 1827); Cebus amictus (Spix, 1823); Cebus torquatus var. C (Fisher, 1829).

Description: Brown-blackish pelage; a white half-collar; hands light-yellowish; tail twice as long as that of a Saimiri; tail brownish.

Variation: Young?

Synonyms: Cebus torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1809; Fisher, 1829; Geoffroy, 1829); Callithrix torquatus (Geoffroy, 1812); Simia (callithrix) torquata (Humboldt, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest 1819, 1820, 1827); Saguinus torquatus (Lesson, 1827); Callithrix lugens (Cuvier, 1829; Lesson, 1829; Jardine, 1831).

Description: Chestnut-brown; yellow undersides; white half-collar.

Distribution: Para

Lesson, R.P. (1840). Species des mammifères bimanes et quadrumanes pp. 161-167.

Schinz, 1844

Callithrix lugens

Synonyms: Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1829??); Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1809); Simia torquata (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812); Saguinus Vidua (Lesson, 1827).

Distribution: In the mountains on the Cassiquiare, Guaviare and Orinoco (?) and on the Brazilian border with Peru, on the Solimoes.

Description: The colour of the upper side changes from chestnut-brown to black; the hairs are annulated brown-red and black; the undersides are paler, on the throat there is a white collar. The hands are white or yellowish, the feet deep black, as are the forearms. The tail is black and red on the underside.


Tschudi, 1844

Callithrix amictus

Synonyms: Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812); Simia amicata (Humboldt, 1812); Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812); C. torquatus (Temminck, 1827).

Distribution: Northern Peru, until 12º S.

Description: head completely black; crown and neck black-red; back black-brown; throat and upper part of chest yellowish-white; the hands are somewhat more yellowish, the feet black, as is the tail; Belly less intensive black-brown as the back.

Remarks: Humboldt described in 1812 this monkey as Simia amicta and Simia lugens. Temminck (1827) added also C. torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1809), which is according to us correct, as this species varies of al the monkeys probably the most; the by the travellers reported deviations in colours are mostly only indicative for age differences.

Tschudi,  J. J von (1844). Theriologie. Untersuchungen über die Fauna Peruana 45-47.

Lesson, 1848

Callithrix lugens and Callithrix torquata

Synonym: Callithrix amicta is only an age variation.

Distribution: Orinoco.

Description: is a charming animal with the upper side of the head black-purplish. The face is naked with a white-bluish square mask, bordered with grey on the upper side and white below. The pelage is black with a white tie.

Lesson, R.P. (1848). Etudes sur les Mammifères Primates. Revue Zoologique par la Societé Cuvierienne 11:232-233.

Boitard, 1848

Saguinus vidua and Saguinus lugens

Synonyms: Saguinus vidua (Lesson 1829),  or Saguinus lugens (Lesson, 1829), Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812); Cebus torquatus (Fischer, 1829). “Its synonymy is confusing”.

Distribution: in the forest around the Cassiquiaire, the Rio Guavarie and the right bank of the Orinico.

Description: He has a long and soft pelage, shiny black, with a beautiful white scarf around the throat; he has a black crown; his face is naked, with a black square in the form of a mask, white-bluish, grey above and white below; black hairs around the mouth; hands white, feet blackish.

Variation 1: The ruffed Sagouin

Synonyms: Simia amicta (Humboldt); Saguinus and Callithrix amictus (Lesson); Cebus amictus (Spix).

Description: His pelage is brown-blackish with a white half-collar; hands light-yellowish; tail brownish. He is twice as large as a Saimiri.

Variation 2: The collared Sagouin

Synonyms: Simia torquata (Humboldt); Callithrix torquatus (Geoffroyi); Callithrix lugens (Lesson, Cuvier); Cebus torquatus (Fischer).

Description: His pelage is chestnut-brown above, yellow below, with a white half-collar.

Distribution: Pará.

Remarks: Is probably only the juvenile of the species mentioned before.

Boitard, P. (1848). Dictionnaire Universel d’Histoire Naturelle 11:290-292.

Wagner, 1848

Callithrix torquata

Synonyms: Callithrix torquata, amicta and lugens.

Distribution: The species has a large range in the north-western part of South-America. Tschudi indicates that it lives from 12°S in Peru to the north. Spix has found the on the Solimoes on the Peruvian border, and Natterer at S. Gabriel at the left bank of the Negro River. Humboldt found them even further to the north, in the forests of the Cassiquiare and Guaviaré Rivers near S. Fernando de Atabapo, and the mountains on the right bank of the Orinico behind the mission of S. Barbara. Therefore its range must be between 12°S and 5°N, but restricted to the western half.

Description: from a female Natterer has noted that the iris hazel-brown is, the face and the ears black, the upper eyelids dirty white, the upper back dark chestnut-brown, which becomes on the lower back black-brown; the upperside of the forehands is brownish-yellow and the tail is black.

Wagner, J.A. (1848). Callithrix. Springaffe. Beitrage zur kenntniss der Säugthiere Amerikas Abhandlungen des Königl. Akademie des Wissenschaften München 5: 446-457.

I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1851

Callithrix amictus

Synonym: Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812).

Confounded by some authors with C. torquatus of Hoffmannsegg (1807), but that one has the under parts reddish while these are black in C. amictus, like the upper parts.

Remarks: The Paris Museum has three specimens:
– the type of the species, collected in Portugal by Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire in 1808;
– an individual acquired in 1849;
– an individual acquired in 1843. This specimen resembles very much the others, but has less white on the throat.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I. (1851).  Catalogue méthodique de la collection des mammifères. Part 1   Mammifères, Introduction et catalogues des primates pp. 39-41.

Wagner, 1855

Callithrix amicta

Synonyms: Callithrix amicta (Wagner, 1840; Tschudi, 1844; I. Geoffroy, 1851); C. lugens (Humboldt, 1812).

Distribution: north-western Brazil and Peru.

Remarks: With I. Geoffroy I agree that C. torquata, from which we both have not seen a specimen, should be separated from C. amicta, because of the different distribution and colours.

Wagner, J. A. (1855). Schreber, die Saugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband, Fünfte Abtheilung : Die Affen. 

Dahlbom, 1857

Callithrix amictus

Synonym: Callithrix amictus (E. Geoffroy; I. Geoffroy).

Description: Body black, hands grey-white, under the throat is a white, bow-shaped mark with three branches that looks like a W. The branches go to each ear and the middle branch to the chin. Lips and face under the eyes are grey with some black hairs, fore hands can be yellow as mud, grey-yellow or white.

Measurements: body 420mm; tail 470mm.

Dahlbom. A.G. (1856-1857). Zoologiska Studier, afhandlande Djurrikets naturliga familjer 1: 151-153.

Reichenbach, 1862amicta 9x13

Synonym: Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812).

Distribution: Brazil, in the forests near Olivença on the Solimoes.

Description: Face dirty flesh-coloured dark brown, forehead black, limbs black, throat white, hands orange-yellow; hairs of back fluffy, sooty-brown, middle and tip chestnut-red an variegated black. Hairs of head shorter and directed backwards, chestnut-red, upright on back of the head; forehead, temples, cheeks and limbs black, belly and tail brown-black. Females from forehead to skull black, back and hips more brown, the white collar smaller.

Measurements: head and body 463mm; tail 488mm.

Reichenbach, 1862. Die Vollständigiste Naturgeschichte der Affen.

Gray, 1866

Callithrix amicta (Geoffroy)

Description: Fur soft, with abundant, elongated, stiffer hairs. The hands white, the feet black.

Gray, J.E. (1866). Notice of some new species of Callithrix in the collection of the British Museum. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (3) 17: 57-58.

Gray, 1870

Callithrix amictus

Synonyms: Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812); C. amicta (Spix, 1823); Saguinus viduus, var. (Lesson, 1840)

Description: Black, reddish-washed; hairs black at the base; chest with a pure white spot; hands white; feet black; forehead and tail black; hairs of tail black to the base.

Gray, J.E. (1870). Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats in the collection of the British Museum pp. 54-57.

Schlegel, 1876

Callithrix torquata

Synonyms: Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1809); Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1811); Callithrix torquatus (Geoffroy, 1812); Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812); Callithrix lugens (Geoffroy, 1812); Callithrix amicta (Spix, 1823).


Von Pelzen, 1883

Callithrix torquata

Synonyms: Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1806; Wagner, 1848 (part); Schlegel, 1876); Callithrix amicta (Humboldt, 1812; Wagner, 1855).

Pelzen, A. von (1883). Brasilische Säugethiere pp. 19-20.

Forbes, 1896

Callithrix amicta

Synonyms: Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix amicta (Spix, 1823); Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812; Gray, 1870); Callithrix torquata (Schlegel, 1876 –part).

Distribution: Guiana.

Description: General colour is black, washed with rufous; the forehead is black; the chest has a pure white spot; the hands are white, but the feet black; the tail has the hairs entirely black throughout.

Forbes, H.O. (1896). A Handbook of the Primates pp. 159-165 + plate 14.

Meerwarth, 1897

Callithrix torquata

Synonym: Callithrix amicta.

Distribution: Pará; Amazonas, upper Rio Negro, Orinoco.

Description: Under and upper side the same colour, never coppery; hands and feet black, tail covered with hairs of the same length. Colour predominantly black, becoming red-brown on the back, the neck and the occiput; on the chest a large white or white-yellow line; hands white-yellowish.

Meerwarth, H. (1897-1898). Simios (macacos) do novo mundo. Boletin do Museo Paraense de            Historia Natural y Etn. 2: 121-154.

Trouessart, 1898-1899

Callithrix torquata

Synonyms: torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1807; Schlegel, 1876; Pelzeln, 1883); lugens (Humboldt, 1811; Geoffroy, 1812); vidua (Lesson, 1840).

Distribution: Brazil, Amazonia, Para, Rio Cassiquiare, Rio Guaviare, Orinoco; Upper Rio Negro, Sao Gabriel, Marabitanos; Northern Peru.

a) amicta (Humboldt, 1811; Spix, 1833).

Trouessart, E.L. (1898-1899). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium 1: 44-46.

Trouessart, 1904-1905

Callicebus torquata

Distribution: Northern Brazil, Amazonia, from Pará till Northern Peru.

a. – amicta

Distribution: Amazonia.

Trouessart, E.L. (1904-1905). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium Quinquennale.  Suppl. Pp. 25-26.

Elliot, 1913

Callicebus amictus

Synonyms: Callithrix amictus (Geoffroy, 1812,1828; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820; Wagner, 1840, 1855; I. Geoffroy, 1851; Dahlbom, 1856; Reichenbach, 1862; Gray, 1870; Forbes, 1984); Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812, 1815); Callithrix amicta (Spix, 1823; Lesson, 1840; Forbes, 1894); Callithrix torquatus (Schlegel, 1876 – part).

Type locality: Forest of Olivença near Solimoes River, Brazil.

Distribution: Upper Amazon region, Brazil.

Description: Similar to C. torquatus, but differs in having under parts black instead of red. Face bare; white hairs on cheeks and on under lip; head, whiskers and throat, arms, legs, feet, tail and under parts of body black; upper part of chest extending upward to ears in a half collar, and hands white.

Measurements: Total length, 863mm; tail, 482mm; foot, 76.2mm.

Remarks: Measurements from specimen in Paris Museum procured from Frank of Amsterdam in 1849. It is marked “type” on the label, but of course it is not E. Geoffroy’s type. This species has frequently been considered the same as C. torquatus, but the black under parts of the body will always cause it to be easily distinguished from its relative. It appears to be rare in collections.

  • “Espèce inédite,” E. Geoffroy. This author and Humboldt must have seen each other’s MSS. as each sites the other’s article on the monkeys although they were published some years apart.
Elliot, D.G. (1913). A review of the primates 1: 234-257.

Allen, 1914

Callicebus lugens duida subsp. nov.

Remarks: The type locality of E. Geoffroy’s Callithrix amictus is unknown (“le Brésil?”). It was secured, with much other South American material, by E. Geoffroy on his visit to Lisbon in 1808, and hence probably came from Brazil, then a Portuguese colony. The type was still extant in the Paris Museum in 1851, according to I. Geoffroy’s ‘Catalogue méthodique de la Collection des Mammiferes,’ etc., of the Museum d’Histoire Naturelle of Paris, where it is thus recorded (p. 40): “♂ Type de l’espece. Du voyage de M. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire en Portugal en 1808.” It is thus not likely to have come from the Upper Orinoco region of Venezuela. Yet the Duida specimens seem to agree well with the description of the type of C. amictus; but there may be a yellow-handed black Callicebus in some part of Brazil, for which the name should be reserved. It is therefore thought best to give a provisional name to the Duida form. It is also possible that lugens may not always have white hands, a point to be yet decided. At present very few specimens of the lugensamictus group have reached museums.

Allen, J.A. (1914). New South American Monkeys. Bulletin of the AMNH 33:647-648.

Elliot, 1914

Remarks: In the “Annals and Magazine of natural History” of March 1914, Mr. Oldfield Thomas states that C. lugens E. Geoffroy and C. amictus E. Geoffroy and Simia lugens Humboldt, together with Saguinus vidua Lesson are all black bellied species, and are one and the same, but presents no proofs to sustain the position he takes. In determining a species we are generally obliged to rely upon the description given by its author or on his type if existing, and lacking the latter, upon some specimen coming from the type locality if that is known. But should none such specimens be available, and the original description be so brief and unsatisfactory as to make it impossible to decide what the animal really looks like, it is then placed among the undeterminable forms.
In the ‘Annals du Museum,’ Vol. XIX, 1812, p. 114, E. Geoffroy describes these two monkeys as follows:
“3. Veuve. Callithrix lugens (Humboldt). “Pelage noirâtre; gorge et mains antérieures blanches: queue à peine plus longue que le corps.”
This species was described by Humboldt as given below.
“4. C. à fraise. Callithrix amictus. “Pelage brun-noirâtre; un demi-collier blanc; mains de devant jaunes: queue plus longue d’un quart que le corps.”
It will at once be noticed that in both descriptions the colour of the arms, legs, feet, tail and under parts of the body are not given, and in no other of his publications does E. Geoffroy give any further information of these species. He undoubtedly believed he had two distinct animals before him, and he diagnosed them so as to emphasize their distinctness. However his lugens is taken from Humboldt and is blackish, has only a white throat, hands white, and tail nearly as long as the body; while amictus is blackish brown, a white half collar, yellow hands, and a tail longer than the body. If lugens had a white collar it is inconceivable that neither Humboldt nor E. Geoffroy should not have mentioned it. I could not find the type of lugens in the Paris Museum, nor any specimens bearing that name, and I have no recollection of seeing one in any collection. It differs from amictus in being without a white collar, having white hands, a tail that is shorter and without the brown hue of the pelage.
The Simia lugens Humboldt is described in the Synoptical List as follows: ” Simia lugens, atra facie albo-maculata, gula nivea, manibus anterioribus albis, posterioribus nigris”. It will here be also noticed no mention is made of the colour of the under parts, but earlier in the volume is a more detailed description; he gives this as ” Corpus, cauda, crura et brachia nigra,” and in the French description he states ” elle a le poil doux, lustre, d’un beau noir et un peu relevé. Ce pelage est d’une teinte uniforme sur le corps entier de l’exception de la face du col et des mains de devant.” Here we have an entirely black monkey with a snowy throat and hands white, an animal not represented in any collection at the present time.
Humboldt probably did not know C. amictus for he gives only a brief Latin description in his Synoptical List evidently founded on the French one of E. Geoffroy, and makes no mention of the species elsewhere in the volume. C. amictus is a very rare animal in collections. I do not think that I have seen half a dozen examples in the Museums of England and the Continent. It was generally considered by the earlier writers, who probably had never seen a specimen at that time, as C. torquatus, and it may be said that if an example of amictus has lost the hair on the under side of the body it is not easy to distinguish one from the other. There was one adult specimen in the British Museum, but not in good condition, and it was not until I saw the alleged type in the Paris Museum that I was satisfied that C. torquatus and C. amictus were distinct. E. Geoffroy states that amictus has “mains de devant jaunes,” but all the specimens that I saw had white hands. Certainly the hands of the so-called type in the Paris Museum were white, and I do not remember seeing any examples with yellow hands as given by E. Geoffroy. If, therefore, this should affect its specific standing, then the animal now recognized as amictus would have to take a new name, and we would be obliged to wait for the appearance of a yellow-handed amictus. Mr. Thomas has brought forward a problem incapable of any satisfactory solution. There are no specimens extant to prove what exactly were the species the two authors described. We have been obliged to drop many from our lists as indeterminable and C. lugens E. Geoffroy and S. lugens Humboldt had better go with them. It may have been an error to place lugens among the synonyms of C. torquatus. It would have been a greater’ error to state that it was the same as amictus (there being no proof whatever to sustain the assertion), and make that name a synonym of lugens.
It is easy for one to assume anything that occurs to him, but an assumption without facts to support it, is, to say the least, a most unstable foundation upon which to establish a species. Towards the close of his remarks Mr. Thomas assumes that his new species Callicebus lucifer, the chief character of which is a “chestnut rufous tail,” is probably the same as Spix’s amictus, in spite of the fact that Spix’s figure shows a black tail, and in his Latin description be writes “caudae sublonge brunneo-nigris,” and in the French one “la queue d’un noir luisant.” It may be well to state that Lesson’s description of his vidua is not an original one, but merely founded upon that of Humboldt’s lugens, and therefore whatever Humboldt’s species is (at present unknown), the vidua Lesson would be its synonym.

Elliot, D.G. (1914). The status of Callithrix lugens (Humboldt) and Callithrix amictus (E. Geoffroy). Bulletin of AMNH 33: 599-601.

Thomas, 1914

Callicebus lucifer, sp. n.

Type locality: Yahuas, North of Loreto, about 2º40’S – 70º30’W, alt. 500m.

Distribution: Eastern Peruvian Amazonas.

Description: Like C. lugens Humb. (syn. Amictus, Geoff.), but the tail chestnut-rufous instead of black. Belly black, not red as in C. torquatus.

Remarks: By some accident the synonymies of the yellow-handed titis have got confused in prof. Elliot’s recent great work on the primates. He calls the red-bellied species C. torquatus, putting C. lugens and Saguinus vidua among its synonyms, while the black-bellied one he terms amictus. But a study of the original descriptions of these four animals shows that while torquatus is red-bellied, lugens, amictus, and vidua are all black-bellied and are clearly synonymous with each other, lugens being the earliest name. Its type-locality is the Upper Orinico, not Olivença, Solimoes, as stated, the latter locality being taken from Spix, whose specimen was probably C. lucifer.
Specimens of this group are very rare in collections, and the British Museum only contains six, two of each species, as follows:
C. torquatus – Adult; Rio Negro; bought in 1842; collector unknown. Head and forelimbs: Ega, Amazon; H.W. Bates
C. lugens – Young specimen from Maipures, Orinico, practically a topotype of the species; coll. G.K. Cherrie.  Adult specimen; “Guiana” (no doubt incorrect); Sir R. Schomburgk.
C. lucifer – Type and paratype from Yahuas, as above.

Thomas, O. (1914). On various South-American Mammals. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8) 13:345.

Thomas, 1927

Remarks: Owing to the brevity of the description, the loss of the type, and the absence of an exact locality, it is quite impossible to identify Geoffroy’s C. amictus, but it has previously been considered as a synonym of C. lugens, and may well be left in that position. C. vidua, Lesson, is certainly also a synonym of the same species.

Thomas, O. (1927). In the titi monkeys of the Callicebus torquatus group. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9) 19: 509-510.

Rode, 1938

Callithrix amictus

Specimen 98 – Holotype.

Locality: South-America

Remarks: Donated by Hoffmannsegg and taken by E. Geoffroy from Lisbon in 1808. Adult specimen in poor condition. Skull in skin.

Rode, P. (1938). Catalogue des Types de Mammifères du muséum national d’histoire naturelle – 1, Ordre des Primates pp. 34-36.

Cruz-Lima, 1945

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Synonyms: Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812), Simia lugens (Humboldt, 1812) and Saguinus vidua (Lesson, 1840).

Remarks: Elliott includes in this monograph Callithrix lugens and Saguinus vidua in the synonymy of C. torquatus, thus following Forbes, when in accordance with the original descriptions the first two are synonyms of C. amictus, as Thomas was able to show (Thomas, 1914). Elliot, in replying to Thomas, (Elliot, 1914), explains his stand, alleging that the deficiency of the original descriptions prevents the identification of the rare specimens of these species which exist in the museums, and says that if he was mistaken in including C. lugens among the synonyms of C. torquatus he would be committing a greater error in including it in the synonymy of C. amictus without further proofs to back this point of view, and considers that no satisfactory solution is possible. His defence does not seem logical. The principal distinction between the forms under consideration – torquatus and amictus – is in the colouring of the under parts, which are vivid chestnut in the former and in the latter blackish like the rest of the body. E. Geoffroy’s very brief descriptions (Geoffroy, 1812) of lugens and amictus do not mention the colour of the under parts, nor is it mentioned for lugens in Humboldt’s Synoptic list (Humboldt, 1812); it is Elliot himself who cites the latter more detailed descriptions given in the same volume in which lugens is described as having “corpus, cauda, crura et brachia nigra” and in the same description in French: “elle a le poil douce, lustre, d’un beau noir et un peu relevé: ce pelage est d’une teinte uniforme sur le corpse entire, à l’exception de la face, du col et des mains de devant”. This alone is sufficient to prevent the identification of C. lugens with C. torquatus; and the differences cited by E. Geoffroy between lugens and amictus, i.e. that the former has a white throat and white hands and a tail only slightly longer than the body, do not justify a specific separation. As we had the occasion to observe, the length of the tail in relation to the body varies from individual to individual in the same species, and in the related species C. torquatus the development of the collar and the whitening of the hands are a result of age, for the young commonly have much less developed collar and hands less pure white, slightly yellowish. For this reason we believe Thomas was right. Schlegel, on the other hand, before Forbes and Elliot, has also confused these ill-fated species, and Trouessart considers torquatus, lugens, and viduus synonymous, and amictus a subspecies. Thomas later (Thomas, 1927) altered his point of view to a certain extent, considering lugens (=amictus =viduus), as well as lucifer, a subspecies of torquatus.

Cruz-Lima, E. da (1945). Mammals of Amazonia Vol. 1. General introduction and primates pp. 175-198.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus torquatus amictus (Geoffroy, 1812)

Synonyms: Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812), Callithrix amicta (Spix, 1823), Saguinus amictus (Lesson, 1827), Cebus torquatus (Fischer, 1829), Callicebus amictus (Elliot, 1913), Callicebus torquatus purinus (Thomas, 1927), Callicebus torquatus regulus (Thomas, 1927).

Distribution: Amazonas of Brazil, south of the Solimoes.

Remarks: The short original diagnosis of amictus, and even more the description of Spix, agrees very well with the form of torquatus that lives south of the Solimoes and that Thomas has described since under the names purinus and regulus, as the under parts were reddish or blackish, which appears to be an individual character.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus torquatus lugens (Humboldt, 1812)

Synonyms: Simia (Callithrix) lugens (Humboldt, 1812); S. (C.) amicta (Humboldt, 1812); Saguinus vidua (Lesson, 1840); Callicebus lugens duida (Allen, 1914).

Type locality: Forests bordering Rio Cassiquiare and Rio Guaviare, near San Fernando de Atabapo., Upper Rio Orinoco, Venezuela. Type locality of amicta, forest of Sao Paulo de Olivença, near Rio Solimoes, Brazil. Type locality of duida, base of Mount Duida (700ft asl.), Venezuela. Type in Paris Museum. Type of duida in American Museum.

Remarks: For a discussion on the status of lugens and amicta, see Elliot (1914).

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Herhskovitz, 1963

Callicebus torquatus torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1807)

Synonyms: Callithrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Simia amicta (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix amictus (E. Geoffroy, 1812); Callithrix amicta (Spix, 1823); Callithrix amictus (Tschudi, 1844); Callicebus torquatus (Ihering, 1904); Callicebus torquatus (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus lucifer (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus torquatus lucifer (Thomas, 1927); Callicebus torquatus purinus (Thomas, 1927); Callicebus torquatus regulus (Thomas, 1927); Callicebus torquatus ignitus (Thomas, 1927); Callicebus torquatus torquatus (Thomas, 1927); Callicebus torquatus (Cruz Lima, 1945); Callicebus torquatus lucifer (Cabrera, 1958); Callicebus torquatus amictus (Cabrera, 1958).

Remarks: Some authors have regarded Callicebus amictus (E. Geoffroy) as a separate species or as a subspecies of C. torquatus. Others have treated amictus as identical with torquatus sensu stricto or lumped it with lugens. Elliot (1914) persuaded himself to dismiss it as unidentifiable. The type of amictus was brought from the Lisbon Museum to Paris in 1808, by E. Geoffroy. According to Rode (1938) the Lisbon Museum had received the specimen from Count von Hoffmannsegg. This is improbable. Hoffmannsegg could not have been aware of the existence of the Lisbon specimen for he emphatically declared that nothing like the type and only specimen of his C. torquatus had ever reached Europe before. Because of confusion regarding the status of amictus, Spix (1823) redescribed a skin identified as such and determined the type locality as Sao Paulo de Olivença, upper Rio Solimoes, near the Peruvian border. Carbrera (1958) followed Spix and adopted amictus as the name for the upper Amazonian race of Callicebus torquatus. Two specimens at hand from the Rio Nanay, a small tributary of the Marañon at the westernmost point of the range in Peru, agree with the original description of amictus and with the individual figured by Spix and seem to confirm the distinctness of this form. However, some evidence, albeit meagre, points to the existence of blackish brown amictus and reddish brown torquatus phenotype with intermediates all along the Solimoes and Marañon.

Variation: Apparent absence of features for consistently distinguishing the populations of one side of the Solimoes from those of the other is remarkable. Cabrera (1958) rejected colour as a subspecific character but nevertheless recognized a northern Amazonian race (lucifer) and a southern race (amictus).
The possibility that Callicebus torquatus torquatus is dichromatic in some parts of its range is suggested in the above discussion. The only evidence, however, is the reference by Thomas (1927) of the occurrence of reddish (ignitus, type an immature) and blackish form (lucifer) representatives of torquatus in the same locality on the Rio Tonantins and the somewhat obscure note by Cruz Lima (1945) that a male and female from Fonteboa, type locality of regulus, represent the reddish and dark phase, respectively. Nothing is known of seasonal and age variation in colour and pelage and no differences are apparent between the sexes. Nevertheless, whether considered individually or collectively, all populations of subspecies torquatus, as recognized here, can be distinguished from medemi and lugens by their more reddish colour and by their contrastingly whitish or yellow hands or fingers, respectively.


Kraft, 1983

Callicebus torquatus amictus

Synonym: Callithrix amicta

Remark: no type specimen available in the Munich collection.

Kraft, R. (1983). Die von JB Spix beschriebenen neotropischen Primaten und Chiropteren Verzeichnis der in der Zoologischen Staatssammlung München. Spixiana Supplement . 9:429-441.

Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus torquatus torquatus

Synonyms: Callitrix torquata (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Callithrix amictus (E. Geoffroy, 1812).

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus torquatus torquatus

Synonyms: Callithrix torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1807); Simia amicta (E. Geoffroy, 1812); Callicebus torquatus ignitus (Thomas, 1927).

Remarks: Almost certainly there are several species among what Hershkovitz (1990) designated as subspecies. I have little experience with this group and so leave them as subspecies of the one species, except for the strikingly distinct black-handed medemi.

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