Literature personatus

Humboldt, 1812

Simia personata

Synonym: Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812).

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Ex cinereo fuscescens, capite et pedibus brunneo-nigris, cauda rufa.

Remarks: M. Geoffroy, new species.

Humboldt, A. von (1812). Recueil d’Observations de Zoologie d’Anatomie Comparée 1 : 357.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812

Callithrix personnatus, sp. nov.

Distribution: Brazil?

Description: Pelage greyish-rufus; the head and the four hands brown-blackish; the tail reddish.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (1812). Tableau de Quadrumanes. Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 19 : 113.

Desmarest, 1819

Callithrix personatus

Synonym: Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812); Nyctipithecus personatus (Museum label).

Distribution: Apparently Brazil.

Description: This new species, which is part of the collection of the Natural History Museum of Paris, where it is labelled under the name Nyctipithecus personatus, is one-fourth larger than a squirrel monkey. The pelage is composed of long hairs, generally grey-rufous. His face, the crown, his cheeks and the hairs behind the ears are dark brown; the hairs of the back, the arms and the thighs are grey, with white rings towards the tip, which gives a speckled appearance; those of the ventrum are uniform grey, slightly brownish; the wrist and hands, as well as the feet, with the exception of the heel, are absolutely the same brown as the head; the tail, slightly shorter than the body, is somewhat luxuriant and rufous-reddish.

Desmarest, A.G. (1819). Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle 30: 28-32.

Desmarest, 1820

Callithrix personatus

Synonym: Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Humboldt, 1812).

Distribution: Brazil, between 18’30° and 21°, on the borders of the rivers Itabapuana, Itapemimin, Espiritu-Santo, Rio-Doce till San-Matheus.

Description: Grey-reddish pelage; the head and the four hands blackish; tail reddish. The pelage is composed of long hairs, generally grey-rufous. Face, contour of the head, cheeks and behind the ears dark brown in the female and black in the male; the hairs of the back, the arms and the thighs are grey, with dirty-white rings towards the tip, which gives a speckled appearance; those of the ventrum are uniform grey, slightly brownish; the wrist and hands, as well as the feet, with the exception of the heel, are black in the male and in the female the same brown as the head; the tail, slightly shorter than the body, is somewhat luxuriant and rufous-reddish.

Remark: M. Kuhl thinks that this species, lugens and amicta are one and the same species.

Desmarest, A.G. (1820).  Mammalogie ou description des espèces de mammifères 1: 86-87.

Kuhl, 1820

Callithrix personatus

Synonym: Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812).

Distribution: between 18°½ and 21°½, Itabapuana, Itapemirim, Esperito Santo, Rio Doçe till the St. Mathaeus, Brazil.

Description: Ochraceous-greyish, long hairs, head, hands and feet black (in female brownish), tail reddish.

Kuhl, H. (1820).  Beiträge zur Zoologie und vergleichenden Anatomie pp. 40.

Schinz, 1821

Callithrix personatus

Description: grey-brown, head and feet brown-black, the tail rusty-red.

Schinz, H.K. (1821). Das Thierreich, eingetheilt nach dem Bau der Thiere als Grundlage ihrer Naturgeschichte und der vergleichenden Anatomie von den Herrn Ritter von Cuvier 1: 132.

Griffith, 1821

Simia personata

Description: Mentioned by Geoffroy. Dark ash colour; all the hands are of a black brown, and the tail is red.

Griffith, E. (1821): General and particular description of the vertebrated animals. Order Quadrumana.  p. 91.

Spix, 1823spix personatus 9x13

Callithrix personata

Distribution: The forests near the capital of Rio de Janeiro.

Description: The black faced and handed Sagoin is characterised by the black colour of the head, hands and feet. The tail is chestnut-red; the pelage is long, dark brown on the root and light brown on the surface of the back, and yellow-red on the back of the occiput and the neck, and the sides of the arms and the legs. The feet and the hands towards the forearms are completely black. The face is also black, meagre and covered with white hairs, especially on the lips and chin. The black hairs surround the head till the chin, where they are hanging on both sides. The fingers and hands are small; the thumb is short, as are the nails that are pointed, those of the big toes are somewhat flattened. The tail, which is red, is of the same length as the body. This description is of a male that I found in the forests near the capital of Rio de Janeiro.

Spix, J.B. de (1823). Simiarum et vespertiliarum Brasilienses species novea; … pp. 18-19.

Wied, 1826

Callithrix personatus

Synonyms: Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820); Simia personata (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix personata (Spix, 1823).

Distribution: Muribeca; banks of the Itabapuana and Itapemiri, Iritiba or Reritigba, Espirito Santos and in the north passing the Rio Doçe. As I found it also on the northern bank of this river, but at Mucuri did not found a trace of him, I think that he lives on the eastern coast, between the S. Mattheus and the Parahyba, therefore between 18º30’ and 21º30’ S, only Spix found it also at Rio de Janeiro.

Description: The Sauassu has for the first time been described by Prof. Geoffroy, who found it in the Lisbon Museum. The area in Brazil where this pretty species lives, is not well known, neither do we have a good description of a living animal. I will try to fill up this hiatus.
Adult male: The head is round and small, with large eyes, yellow-brown iris. Face covered with a naked, black skin. On the sides sparsely covered with black, on the nose with white short hairs and 16mm long bushy hairs. Tail longer than body, slack, thin, covered with hairs that are close together; hair on body long, on the back 75mm long, woolly; belly and inner sides of thighs sparsely haired.
The whole head from the breast is till the middle of the skull brownish-black; the four hands are black. Inner side of forearms and lower legs black-brown; back of the head and upper side of neck yellowish-white, the rest of the animal is pale grey-brownish, with lighter, very pale yellowish tips of the hairs; on the forearms the hairs are darker and have striking pale-yellowish tips. Belly grey-brown with reddish tips on hairs; front side of thighs pale yellowish-grey-white; tail reddish-grey-brown, the underside and on the root rust-red.
Female: These are normally paler of colour, or whitish-grey, while the males are more grey-brownish; the females are on their front sides more whitish coloured and they lack the white spot in the neck, which makes us believe that Prof. Geoffroy made the description of a female.
The forearms and legs are somewhat yellowish, especially there where the white-greyish hairs of this part border the black of the hands. The legs are on the inner side grey-brown, the forearms till the elbows black-brown.

There is little variation in this species. Some have the white spot in the neck more conspicuous, which lacks completely in the females; the tail of some is rust-red, or others –especially the females- reddish-yellow, in others is the upper side grey-brown and on the base and underside yellow-red or rust-red.
Young animals have whitish hairs mixed with the black on the toes.

Measurements: (male/female) head and body 310/345mm; tail 472/502mm.

Wied, M. Prince of (1826). Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte Brasilien. 2:107-114.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1827

Callithrix personatus

Synonyms: Simia personata (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Desmarest, 1820).

Distribution: Brazil, between 18’30° and 21°, on the borders of the rivers Itabapuana, Itapemimin, Espiritu-Santo, Rio-Doce till San-Matheus.

Description: this species is larger than the squirrel monkey and nearly the same size of a capuchin, but its head is smaller.
The pelage is composed of long hairs, generally grey-rufous. Face, contour of the head, cheeks and behind the ears dark brown in the female and black in the male; the hairs of the back, the arms and the thighs are grey, with dirty-white rings towards the tip, which gives a speckled appearance; those of the ventrum are uniform grey, slightly brownish; the wrist and hands, as well as the feet, with the exception of the heels, are black in the male and brown in the female; the tail, slightly shorter than the body, is somewhat luxuriant and rufous-reddish.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (1827). Sagoin. Dictionnaire Science Naturelle 47 :12.

Temminck, 1827

Remark: Callithrix personata and nigrifrons of M. de Spix should be united in one species.

Temminck, C.J. (1827). Monographies de mammalogie 1 :XV.

Lesson, 1827

Saguinus personatus

Synonym: C. personatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Desmarest, 1820).

Distribution: Brazil, between 18 and 21º, on the borders of the rivers.

Description: Grey-reddish pelage, the head and the four hands blackish; tail reddish.

Lesson, R. P. (1827). Manuel de mammalogie ou histoire naturelle de mammifères p. 56.

Cuvier and Griffith, 1827

Simia Callithrix personata

Synonym: Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812).

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Pelage yellow grey; head and the four hands blackish; tail reddish.

Remarks: Dr. Kuhl considers lugens, amictus and personata to be varieties of the same species.

Cuvier, G. and Griffith, E. (1827). The Animal Kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization 5: 33.

Stark, 1828

Callithrix personatus

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Fur grey fawn-coloured; head and fore hands blackish; tail red.

Stark, J. (1828). Elements of natural history 1:55.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1829

Callithrix personatus

Description: Pelage ashy-reddish; the head and the four hands brown-blackish; the tail reddish.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (1829). Cours de l’histoire naturelle des mammifères. Leçon 10 pp. 18.

Fischer, 1829

Cebus personatus

Synonyms: Simia personata (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Spix, 1823; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1819, 1820, 1827; Wied, 1820); Saguinus torquatus (Lesson, 1827); Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823).

Remark: According to Temminck, C. nigrifrons is the young personatus, and therefore a synonym.

Fischer, J.P. (1829). Synopsis mammalium p. 52.

Lesson, 1829

Callithrix personatus

Synonym: Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Humboldt, 1812; Desmarest, 1820).

Distribution: Brazil, between 18° and 21°, on the borders of the large rivers.

Description: The masked Sagouin is about two feet and seven thumbs long; of this length, the tail is one foot and three thumbs. His pelage is grey-rufous; Face, occiput, cheeks and behind the ears dark brown in the female and intense black in the male; the hairs of the limbs and back have dirty-white rings towards the tip, which gives a speckled appearance; the under parts are dirty-grey; the tail is somewhat luxurious and rufous-reddish; the wrists and hands, as well as the feet, with the exception of the heels, are vivid black.

Remarks: This titi forms, according to Kuhl, one species together with lugens and amicta. It is a fact that these three animals have a large resemblance, although Spix separated them.

Lesson, R.P. (1829). Sagouin. Dictionnaire classique d’histoire naturelle 15:54.

Cuvier, 1829

Callithrix personata

Synonym: Callithrix personara (Geoffroy); Callithrix nigrifrons (Geoffroy).

Description: grey-reddish, the head and hands black.

Cuvier, G. (1829). Le Règne Animal, nouvelle édition 1: 104.

Cuvier and Voigt, 1831

Simia (Callithrix) personata

Synonym: Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823; Wied-Neuwied, 1831).

Description: grey-yellow, with black head and hands and very long hair.

Cuvier, G. and Voigt, L.S. (1831). Das Thierreich geordnet nach seiner Organisation 1: 96-97.

Jardine, 1833

Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812)

Distribution: Brasil, between 18º and 21º south.

Synonym: Simia personata (Humboldt, 1812);Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812).

Description: greyish yellow; head and the four hands black; tail reddish.

Jardine, W. (1833). The naturalist’s library  1: 224.

Wied-Neuwied, 1831wied personatus 9x13

Callithrix personatus

Distribution: between the rivers Parahyba and Doçe, in the forests of the Itapuana.

Description: hairs pale grey-brownish or grey-yellowish; head and the four hands black; tail red-brown; males with a whitish spot in the neck.

Remark: the animal on the plate is a male; the female is more whitish, or grey-yellowish.

Measurements: head and body 326mm; tail 510mm.

Wied-Neuwied, M. de (1822-31). Abbildungen zur naturgeschichte von Brasiliens/ Recueil de Planches coloriées d’Animaux du Brésil.

Wagner, 1833

Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812)

Remarks: The plate that Spix has produced, has in colour completely failed, as our preserved specimen only has a reddish tail, the body is pale yellow-brown, of which each hair has dark rings. Head, hands and feet are black; behind of the head reddish-yellow; outside of arms pale reddish.

Wagner, J.A. (1833). Critische Revision des brasilian. Affenarten. Isis von Oken 10(2):994.

Lesson, 1838

Callithrix personatus

Synonyms: Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Desmarest, 1820); Simia personata (Humboldt, 1812).

Distribution: Brasil, between 18º and 21º S, in the forests on the banks of rivers.

Description: this species forms, according to Kuhl, one species with those described as Callithrix amictus and lugens. It is evident that these three animals have a large resemblance, although Spix separates them. The fur of this species is grey-reddish; the face, the upper head, the cheeks, the area behind the ears are dark-brown in the female and intense black in the male. The hairs of the extremities and the back, ringed with dirty-white towards the tip, seem to be speckled; the under parts are dirty-grey; the tail is somewhat luxurious, reddish; the wrists, hands and the feet, with the exception of the heels, are vivid black.

Measurements: body: 88cm; tail: 37,5cm.

Lesson, R.P. (1838). Compléments de Buffon, 2e édition Pp. 280-281.

Wagner, 1840

Callicebus personata

Synonyms: Callithrix personata (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Spix, 1823); Simia personata (Humboldt, 1812).

Distribution: Between the St. Matthaeus and Parahnba, between 18°½ and 21°½; Spix received a specimen from the forests near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Description: One of the larger species of this genus with a very luxurious coat, the hairs on the back being up to 75mm long. The coat on the under side is thinner. The head is small, covered on the head with short but on the sides with longer hairs. The colour of the old males, of which one is in our collection, is on the back, the sides and the limbs pale rusty brownish-yellow, the tips of the hairs being light yellow. The wrist and ankle are rusty coloured. The tail of our specimen is uniform brownish-rusty-red; in other it is, according to Prince Maximilian, reddish-yellow; in other is the upper side grey-brown and on the base and under side yellow or rusty-brown. Head and four hands dark black, as are the inner sides of the forearms. On the neck a reddish-yellow (according to the prince of Neuwied yellowish-white) spot, separating the dark colour of the head from that of the back. The face is blackish, iris yellow-brown. The females are, according to the Prince of Neuwied, normally lighter of colour, and they lack the spot on the neck. In very young animals the black hairs of the toes are mixed with white.

Measurements: Body 300-325mm; tail 475-500mm.

Wagner, J.A. (1840). Schreber, die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband, Erste Abtheilung: Die Affen und Flederthiere Pp. 228-234.

Lesson, 1840

Saguinus personatus

Synonyms: Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1819, 1820, 1827; Wied, 1820; Cuvier, 1829; Lesson, 1829); Simia personata (Humboldt, 1812); Saguinus personatus (Lesson, 1827); Cebus personata (Spix, 1823; Fischer, 1829);

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Male: pelage ash-coloured or grey-reddish; head and four hands dark black; under parts dirty-grey; tail reddish. Female: brown head.

The young: (according to Cuvier, 1829)

Synonyms: Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823); Callithrix personata (Cuvier, 1829).

Description: blackish naked face; dense fur with long hairs, grey-reddish; front and hands black; occiput whitish; tail reddish ending with white.

Distribution: in the Rio de Janeiro Province, between the St. Matheus and Parahyba River.

Variation A: Callithrix infulatus
( later identified as a night monkey!)

Description: pelage grey on the upper parts, red-yellowish on the under parts; a large white spot contoured by black above the eyes; tail yellow-reddish terminating in black.

Variation B: Callithrix donacophilus

Synonyms: Callithrix donacophilus (D’Orbigny, 1836; Lesson, 1838).

Description: Pelage speckled grey and washed with reddish on the back, formed by thick and long hairs; face bluish, naked; side-whiskers dense; front whitish, forehead greyish; extremities whitish; naked parts of the hands brownish.

Variation C: Callithrix melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Wied-Neuwied, 1820; Desmarest, 1820; Kuhl, 1820; Lesson, 1829; Cuvier, 1829; Jardine, 1833); Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein); Saguinus melanochir (Lesson, 1827); Cebus gigot (Spix, 1823); Pithecia melanochir (Cuvier, 1825; Desmarest, 1827); Cebus melanochir (Fisher, 1829; Griffith, 1829).

Distribution: The forests that border the Mucuri, the Alcobaça and the Belmonte (Wied).

Description: Hairs long, luxurious and soft. Face and hands black; pelage greyish, fading into brownish on the back; tail whitish or washed with white and yellowish, extremities greyish.

Young of Variation C

Synonyms: Cebus cinerascens (Spix, 1823); Saguinus melanochir (Cuvier, 1829 – young); Cebus melanochir (Fischer, 1829 – young).

Description: very dense fur; face and hands naked; back and occiput brown, blakcish; tail blackish; front, hands and under side brown-greyish.

Lesson, R.P. (1840). Species des mammifères bimanes et quadrumanes pp. 161-167.

Schinz, 1844

Callithrix personata

Synonyms: Simia personata (Humboldt, 1812; Schreber, 1840; Wied, 1822); Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823).

Distribution: Itapemiri, Spirito Santo and Rio Doce, Brazil.

Description: The head is small, from chest to the middle of the skull brownish-black. The four hands black. Inner side of the forearms and the four shinbones black-brown; back of the head and neck yellowish-white, all other parts pale grey-brownish with pale yellowish tip of the hairs. Belly grey-brown with reddish tips of the hairs. Tail reddish grey-brown on base and underside rusty-red. Anterior side of thigh pale yellowish grey-white. Hairs long and soft.

Measurements: head and body 340mm; tail 461mm.

Schinz, H.K. (1844). Systematische verzeichniss aller bis jetz bekannte Säugethiere oder Synopsis Mammalium nach dem Cuvier’schen System 1: 80-83.

Tschudi, 1844

Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812)

Synonyms: Simia personata (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823).

Distribution: Southern Peru, 12º and 14º S.

Description: head deep brown or black, depending on age or sex; back grey-brown; belly dirty-grey; the four hands black; the tail reddish-brown.

Remarks: for the first time as Simia personata described by Humboldt (1812). Prince of Neuwied delivered later a precise description and a good plate. C. nigrifrons (Spix) is according to us, judging on the plate and the description, only an old individual of this species, as we have seen several times this variation in monkeys, that surely only were C. personatus.

Tschudi,  J. J von (1844). Theriologie. Untersuchungen über die Fauna Peruana 45-47.

Lesson, 1848

Callithrix personatus

Distribution: banks of the Aliperimi, Spiritu-Santo and Rio Doce.

Description: greyish-ochre, with the head and hands black.

Lesson, R.P. (1848). Etudes sur les Mammifères Primates. Revue Zoologique par la Societé Cuvierienne 11:232-233.

Boitard, 1848

Saguinus personatus

Synonyms: Saguinus personatus (Lesson, 1827); Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Cuvier, 1829); Simia personata (Humboldt, 1812); Cebus personatus (Blainville, 1839); Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823); Callithrix infulatus (Lichtenstein); Callithrix melanochir (Wied-Neuwied, 1820, 1821); Callithrix incanescens (Liechtenstein); Saguinus melanochir (Lesson, 1827); Cebus gigot (Spix, 1823); Pithecia melanochir (Cuvier, 1825); Cebus melanochir (Fischer, 1829); Cebus cinerascens (Spix, 1823); Callithrix donacophilus (D’Orbigny, 1847), etc. etc.

“This synonymy proves very well how badly know this animal is to the authors, and especially how much men like to create new species to connect their names to it and to throw difficulties in science. With the help of M. Lesson, we are trying to unravel the chaos”.

Description: the male of is species has generally the pelage ash-grey or reddish, the head and the four hands dark black, the under parts dirty-grey, and the tail reddish. Its total length is 35 thumbs and ten lines, including the tail which is 21 thumbs and 10 lines. The head of the female is brown.
When the animal is young, the face is blackish, naked; the fur is long, thick and grey-reddish; the hands and forehead black; the upper side of the head whitish, and the tail reddish, white at the tip. This is the Callithrix nigrifrons of Spix.
Sometimes the animal has grey upper parts, with red-yellowish under parts, and a large white spot surrounded by black above the eyes; its tail is yellow-reddish with a black extremity. In that case, it is the Saguinus infulatus of Fischer or the Callithrix infulatus of Lichtenstein.
We also find them with a grey speckled fur, washed with reddish on the back, the hairs being long and thick, the face naked, bluish, with thick whiskers. The forehead is whitish, the upper side of the head greyish, the extremities whitish, and the naked parts of the hands brown. This is the Callithrix donacophilus of d’Orbigny.
If the hairs are soft, long, luxurious, greyish, fading into brown on the back; the hands and face black; the tail whitish or tinges with white and yellow, with the tip greyish, it is the Callithrix melanochir of Wied-Neuwied and Desmarest, the Callithrix incanescens of Lichtenstein, the Saguinus melanochir of Lesson or the Cebus gigo of Spix.
The youngster of this variety has the face and the hands naked; the back and the upper side of the head vary of blackish; the forehead, the hands and the upper side of the body are ash-brown, and the tail blackish. This is the Cebus cinerascens of Spix. He can be found, like the preceding animal, in the forests of Brasil on the borders of the Mucuri, Alcobaca and Belmonte rivers.

Boitard, P. (1848). Dictionnaire Universel d’Histoire Naturelle 11:290-292.

Wagner, 1848

Callithrix personata

Synonyms: Callithrix personata (Spix, 1823; Neuwied, 1826; Wagner, 1840).

Distribution: east coast of Brazil, between the St. Matthaeus River and the forests near Rio de Janeiro.

Description: The species belonging to the first group of Callithrix (with brown, long hair and large size) show a large resemblance, but one can distinguish the C. personata from its closely related C. nigrifrons by the completely black and small head, and the males have a pale spot in the neck.

Remarks: I doubt if this species lives in Peru, as Tschudi states; a closely related species might live there.

Wagner, J.A. (1848). Callithrix. Springaffe. Beitrage zur kenntniss der Säugthiere Amerikas Abhandlungen des Königl. Akademie des Wissenschaften München 5: 446-457.

I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1851

Callithrix personatus

Synonym: C. personatus (Geoffroy, 1812).

Remarks: The Paris Museum has two specimens:
– an individual from Brazil, brought and donated in 1820 by M. de Langsdorff, Russian Consul in Brazil;
– an individual from Brazil, from the mouth of the Rio Doce, from M. Auguste de Saint-Hillaire, 1822.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I. (1851).  Catalogue méthodique de la collection des mammifères. Part 1     Mammifères, Introduction et catalogues des primates pp. 39-41.

Wallace, 1852

Callithrix personatus

Distribution: Upper Amazon.

Wallace, A.R. (1852). On the monkeys of the Amazon. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of  London pp. 107-110.

Burmeister, 1854

Callithrix personata

Synonym: Callithrix personata (Wied, 1821; Spix, 1823; Wagner, 1840).

Distribution: Coastal forests and nearby mountains of the Rio de Janeiro province.

Description: This small monkey has the graceful stature of the Hapale species, the same small head, the relatively large eyes and the slack tail, but differs in having a longer fur, the nails flat and the number of 6 molars. When this monkey is young, he has a brown colour, but the terminal half of the reasonable long hairs of the back and the tail has a pale yellow hue, through which the animal has lighter shades, especially on the tail. Face, throat and head black. Back of the head, chest, belly and insides of the upper leg are bright yellowish-brown; on the hands one can find some whitish hairs, especially on the fingers. When the animals become older, the hairs grows longer and the colour paler. The males become red-brown, especially on the back, the sides of the body and the outsides of the limbs; the head stays black-brown, just like the hands and the inner sides of the arms. The back of the head is paler, almost white; the tail has a yellow-red tinge on the upper side, below it is pale grey. The female is less reddish, but paler yellowish, even white-grey on the lightest body parts, especially the chest and belly. She hasn’t got the pale back of the head and the tail is reddish;

Remarks: I have not seen this monkey myself, and therefore used the description of Wagner. He assured that this species can be distinguished from both C. melanochir (Wied) and C. Gigot (Spix). Both these species live in another area.

Burmeister, H. (1854). Systematische Ubersicht des Thiere Brasiliens 1: 30-32.

Wagner, 1855

Callithrix personatus

Synonyms: Callithrix personata (Spix, 1823; Neuwied, 1826; Wagner, 1840, 1848; Tschudi, 1844); Simia personata (Humboldt, 1812).

Distribution: Along the eastern coast of Brazil, from the forest near Rio de Janeiro till the Rio St. Matthaeus. According to Tschudi also in Peru, if this is not another species.

Remark: Can be distinguished from C. nigrifrons by the complete black and smaller head, and the males by the light spot in the neck.

Wagner, J. A. (1855). Schreber, die Saugethiere in Abbildungen nach natur mit Beschreibungen.  Supplementband, Fünfte Abtheilung : Die Affen. 

Dahlbom, 1857

Callithrix personatus

Synonym: C. personatus (E. Geoffroy).

Description: Hair is coarse, almost shaggy, almost one colour. Body grey-yellow or grey-brown; head, ears, the sides of the throat, the throat and all hands black, tail rust-red or yellow-red.

Measurements: body 400mm; tail 500-550mm.

Dahlbom. A.G. (1856-1857). Zoologiska Studier, afhandlande Djurrikets naturliga familjer 1: 151-153.

Reichenbach, 1862personatus 9x13

Callithrix personata

Synonyms: Callithrix personata (Geoffroy, 1812); Simia personata (Humboldt, 1812).

Distribution: eastern coast of Brazil. Banks of Itabapuana and Itapemirim, Iritiba in Esperito Santo and over the Rio Doçe (Neuwied); Rio de Janeiro Province (Spix).

Description: Face naked, black, the sides sparsely covered with black hairs and the nose with white hairs. Head black, skull brown, as the rest of the long-haired pelage. Males darker, females paler. Hands black. Hairs on back till 75mm long. Young animals paler, old males pale red-brown. Females more pale yellowish, sometimes white-grey.

Measurements: head and body 300mm; tail 450mm.

Reichenbach, 1862. Die Vollständigiste Naturgeschichte der Affen.

Gray, 1866

Callithrix personata (Geoffroy)

Description: Fur soft, with abundant, elongated, stiffer hairs. The hands and feet black.

Gray, J.E. (1866). Notice of some new species of Callithrix in the collection of the British Museum. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (3) 17: 57-58.

Gray, 1870

Callithrix personatus

Synonyms: Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812); Pithecia melanops (Vigors, 1829); C. brunnea (Natterer, Wagner, 1842).

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: The fur grey, black-grizzled; hairs long, blackish, with narrow grey rings; chest and beneath blackish ashy; forehead, cheeks, whiskers, hands, feet, and lower part of the legs black; tail blackish ashy, hair near the base reddish, of the lower half of the en done-coloured grey.

Variation 1: Like former, with dark fur and black hands and ears, but tail much redder at the base, with the hairs red chestnut nearly to the tip.
Variation 2: Ashy grey; eyebrows punctuated with black; hair on the basal half of the tail redder; ears blackish.

Remarks: Spix represents a species of a yellowish colour, with a black head, under this name; perhaps the plate is badly coloured.

Gray, J.E. (1870). Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats in the collection of the British Museum pp. 54-57.

Schlegel, 1876

Callithrix personata

Synonyms: Callithrix personata (Geoffroy, 1812 – plate of female; Spix, 1823 – plate of adult male; Wied, 1831 – plate of old male).

Distribution: Spix killed this monkey near Rio de Janeiro, the prince M. de Wied more to the north, up to the banks of the St. Matheus River, it has not been observed near the eastern coast of Brasil only on a parallel area of 5 degrees. The traveller Aug. de St. Hilaire has also observed it in this region, on the banks of the Rio Doce. According to Tschudi it also lives in Peru, on the 14th degree.

Description: General tinge more or less pale brown, on the tail red, replaced by black on the four hands, the forehead or even on the cheeks and the throat. Larger than the other species of this genus. Forehead until or between the two ears, sides of the head and throat a more or less dark black. Occiput white dirty-yellowish. Tail red-brownish.
The adult male is pale brown-reddish, much lighter on the extremities becoming dark red-brown on the tail; the black of the head is very dark and extends towards the occiput.
The adult female has a colour that is towards white-yellowish, and on the tail red; the black of the forehead extends only towards the line between the ears.

Remarks: The Leiden Museum has one individual resembling the animal depicted by Wied, from Rio de Janeiro. This animal has a wide frontal band of 5.4 cm; a female with a frontal band of 4.5cm came from the banks of the Rio Espirito Santo, collected on the voyage of Wied and a second female with a frontal band of 4.1 cm from the same voyage, but collected at the banks of the Rio Doce.

Schlegel, H. (1876). Les singes, Simia. Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Pays-Bas 12 :230-241.

Jentink, 1892

Callithrix personata

Remarks: the Leiden museum has three individuals:
– a very old male from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Obtained in 1864;
– an adult female, from the banks of the Esperito-Santo, Brazil. From the collections of the Prince of Wied;
– an adult female, from the banks of the Rio Doce, Brazil. Obtained from the Prince of Wied.

Jentink, F.A. (1892). Catalogue systématique des mammifères (singes, carnivores, ruminants, pachydermes, sirènes et cétacés). Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle des Pays Bas 11: 51-53.

Goeldi, 1893

Callithrix personatus

Distribution: the coastal forest between the Parahyba and Doce Rivers.

Description: The Sahui-guaçu (C. personatus) has a dark-grey pelage, and the neck of the male is whitish; the head and hands are black.

Goeldi, E.A. (1893). Os mammiferos do Brazil. Rio de Janeiro.

Winge, 1895

Callithrix personata

Synonyms: Jacchus grandis (Lund, 1842); Callithrix chloroenemis (Lund, 1842).

Locality: Extant at Lagoa Santa. Remnants found in Lapa da Serra das Abelhas (upper end of a femur).

Remarks: The dug up femur, which is of a very old monkey, corresponds so clearly with a present day Callithrix personata, that there can hardly be any species difference. It is negligible larger than the fresh femur with which it has been compared, the Trochanter minor is slightly more rounded, the crest at the base of the Vastus internus is a little sharper, and the crest in the ligament around the Collum femoris is also a little sharper. Compared with Nictipithecus, Pithecia, Mycetes, Hapale, Cebus, Ateles, etc. there is a good difference.

Lund’s latest list of monkeys from Lagoa Santa (A look at Brazil’s Animals, 4th essay, 1842, p. 64) is as follows (attached names are names that Lund has previously used in his thesis):

Jacchus grandis has been established from an upper end of a femur, which undoubtedly belong to Callithrix personata. The reason that Lund has found similarities with Hapale (Jacchus) greater than similarities with Callithrix are probably that the Callithrix-femur, as can be seen that Lund has used for comparison, incidentally by skeletonizing has been damaged and consequently the crest in the ligament around the Collum femoris has almost completely been scraped off. Callithrix chloroenemis (Lund) is C. personata (Geoffroy). In the outer it coincides well with pictures and descriptions from Spix, Wied and Schlegel. Callithrix primævus has been described from a dug up ulna, which hardly differs any from the Ulna of Mycetes seniculus.

About Callithrix personata Lund writes: “The strength of its voice, the development of the tracheal head and the resulting changes in cranial build are the same as in howler monkeys” and Weldon has found the thyroid cartilage from a young female rather large and partially ossified. (At the Zoological Museum there is not a single larynx or hyoid bone from Callithrix). A powerful voice seems to be common in all Cebids, and larynx and hyoid bone from other species than Mycetes are also somewhat adapted here to.

Winge, H. (1895). Jordfundne og nulevende aber (Primates) fra Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes, Brasilien : med udsigt over pungdyrenes slægtskab.

Forbes, 1896

Callithrix personata

Synonyms: Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Spix, 1823; Gray, 1870); Callithrix brunnea (Wagner, 1842); Pithecia melanops (Vigors, 1829); Callithrix personata (Schlegel, 1876).

Distribution: Upper Amazon. Of all the species of this genus, this ranges furthest to the south – to 14º S. lat.

Description: Size larger than that of the other titis. Style of fur the same as in C. cinerascens, but longer, and the long stiff hairs more bristly; general colour black, mottled with grey rings on the hairs; back grizzled grey; entire head, hands, feet, and lower part of limbs, black; chest, under side of the body, and tail dark ashy-grey, the latter washed at the base, sometimes extensively, with rufous, and grey towards the tip below. The female has the body strongly washed with whitish-yellow, and the tail with rufous; forehead between the ears, black.

Forbes, H.O. (1896). A Handbook of the Primates pp. 159-165 + plate 14.

Meerwarth, 1897

Callithrix personata

Distribution: On the coast from the Rio de Janeiro till the Rio S. Matthaeus, Brazil; Peru.

Description: Under and upper side the same colour, never coppery; hands and feet black, tail covered with hairs of the same length. Colour predominantly brown, more or less pale, becoming reddish on the tail. Hands, front, face and throat also black. Head close to the occiput, sides of the head and throat black. Occiput dirty white-yellowish. Tail brown-red.

Meerwarth, H. (1897-1898). Simios (macacos) do novo mundo. Boletin do Museo Paraense de Historia Natural y Etn. 2: 121-154.

Trouessart, 1898-1899

Callithrix personata

Synonym: personata (Geoffroy, 1812; Spix, 1823; Wied, 1826; Gray, 1970); melanops (Vigors, 1829); p. fossilis (Winge, 1895); p. grandis (Jacchus) (Lund, 1842; Winge, 1895); chlorocnemis (Lund, 1842; Winge, 1895); antiqua (Lund, 1842).

Distribution: Upper Amazonia, from Rio Sao Matthaeus and Rio Doce till the region of Rio Janeiro.

a) – brunnea (Wagner, 1842, 1855; Pelzeln, 1883; Reichenbach, 1896).

Distribution: Rio Mamoré, Cascada de Baneira.

Trouessart, E.L. (1898-1899). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium 1: 44-46.

Trouessart, 1904-1905

Callicebus personata

Synonyms: personata (Geoffroy, 1812); †fossilis (Winge, 1895); †grandis (Lund, 1842; Winge, 1895); †chlorocnemis (Lund, 1842); †antiqua (Lund, 1842).

Distribution: Brazil, from Upper Amazonia Rio Janeiro.

a) brunnea

Distribution: Rio Mamoré.

Trouessart, E.L. (1904-1905). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium. Quinquennale Suppl. Pp. 25-26.

Elliot, 1913

Callicebus personatus

Synonyms: Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820; Spix 1823; Wagner, 1840, 1855; Tschudi, 1844, I. Geoffroy, 1851; Wallace, 1852; Dahlbom, 1856; Reichenbach, 1862; Mivart, 1865; Gray, 1870; Schlegel, 1876); Simia personatus (Humboldt, 1811); Pithecia melanops (Vigors, 1829); Cebus personatus (Blainville, 1841; Lesson, 1842); Saguinus personatus (Lesson, 1840).

Type locality: “le Bresil.” Type unknown.

Distribution: Region of the Upper Amazon, south to latitude 14°.

Description: Head to behind ears, and throat black. Male: Face naked, black; head to behind ears, throat, hands and feet black ; nape yellowish white; back pale reddish brown becoming a bright hazel on the rump; limbs cream buff tinged with grey; chest orange rufous, passing into blackish brown on abdomen; tail burnt sienna red. Female: Head and throat black like the male; nape, upper part of back and arms yellowish white; middle of back russet grading into a reddish brown on rump; flanks and legs greyish white; centre of abdomen pale ochraceous rufous, sides greyish white.
The males vary greatly in colouring even in the same locality, and some have the upper part of back and arms whitish yellow like the nape, or a dark brownish grey, with lower back and rump dark greyish brown, or reddish brown with the under parts uniform dark greyish brown.
The female is therefore much paler than the male, with a reddish brown back.

Skull: occipito-nasal length, 70; Hensel, 55; zygomatic width, 49; intertemporal width, 35; palatal length, 23.5; breadth of braincase, 37; median length of nasals, 11; length of upper molar series, 18; length of mandible, 52; length of lower molar series, 20.

Elliot, D.G. (1913). A review of the primates 1: 234-257.

Cabrera and Ypes, 1940

Callicebus personatus

Distribution: the forests bordering the rivers in eastern Brazil, from Rio de Janeiro towards Bahia.

Description: This is the most striking of all titi monkeys. On the back, the colour is ash-coloured, drawing sometimes towards red; the head is black, but the neck and the shoulders are white-yellowish. The hands and feet are also black; the tail is light brownish from the base and ash-grey on the tip. The females are somewhat different, generally paler.

Measurements: This is one of the largest titi monkeys, body more than 400mm.

Cabrera and Ypes (1940). Mamiferos Sud Americanos. Compana Argentina de Editores, Buenos Aires pp. 85-88.

Vieira, 1955

Callicebus personatus personatus

Synonym: Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812).

Distribution: Esperito Santo State (Colatina; Sussui, Rio Doce); north of Minas Gerais (Teofilo Otoni); Rio de Janeiro State.

Vieira, C. da C. (1955). Lista remissiva dos mamiferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 8 (10): 375-379.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus personatus personatus

Synonyms: Simia personata (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812); Saguinus personatus (Lesson, 1840); Pithecia melanops (Vigors, 1828); Cebus personatus (Fischer, 1829); Callicebus personatus (Elliot, 1913).

Distribution: Eastern Brazil, in the Espirito Santos State.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus personatus personatus

Synonym: personnatus (Geoffroy, 1812) lapsus calami

Type locality: Brazil, restricted by Thomas (1913) to Espirito Santo. Type originally in the Paris museum, now apparently lost.

Distribution: State of Espirito Santo, especially in the forests bordering Rios Itabapoana, Doce and others. Northern limit the Rio Sao Matheus which separates true personatus from melanochir. Vieira (1955) extends the range to the northern Minas Gerais (Teofilo Otoni) and the State of Rio de Janeiro.

Description: male: A relatively large titi. General colour of upper parts black with narrow grey annulations on individual hairs, giving grizzled appearance, especially on the back. Entire head, hands, feet and distal parts of limbs black; under parts from chest onwards, also tail, dark ashy-grey, the tail with some rufous wash at base, paler grey towards tip ventrally.
Female: body pelage washed with whitish-yellow, tail more rufous; forehead between airs black (Forbes).

Measurements: head and body 420/300mm; tail 550/410mm; foot 112/95mm.

Skull: dimensions in publication.

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Kinzey, 1982

Callicebus personatus personatus

Distribution: Espirito Santo and Minas Gerais, as far west as Theophilo Ottoni and Rio Suaçui (see map).

Description: pale-to-bright orange colouration with rufous forearms and legs sharply demarcated from the black hands and feet. Similarly the wide black band on the forehead and crown is sharply demarcated from the orange and the upper neck and back. The tail is red to buff.

Kinzey, W.G. (1982). Distribution of primates and forest refuges. Biological Diversification in the Tropics  pp. 455-482.

Kinzey and Becker, 1983

Callicebus personatus

Locality: Sooretama Biological Reserve, Espirito Santo, Brazil (19º00’S, 40º10’W); Mogi Guaçu, S.P. (22º18’S); Fazenda Barreiro Rico in Sao Paulo.

Kinzey, W.G. and Becker, M. (1983). Activity Pattern of the Masked Titi Monkey, Callicebus personatus. Primates 24(3): 337-343.

Hershkovitz, 1988

Callicebus personatus personatus

Member of the moloch group. The systematic postion of the largest species, C. personatus, known only from skins and skulls, is uncertain. It may represent a distinct group.

Remarks: The Atlantic forest C. personatus is isolated from the Amazonian C. moloch group, and from other congeners by the extensive and for titis inhospitable cerrado of Brazil. I know of no evidence that the cerrado, a dominantly scrub forest country, was anything esle throughout the Quaternary. Nevertheless, connecting links of gallery forests must have provided prototypical C. cinerascens avenues for spread from Amazonian to Atlantic forest where it would become C. personatus. Once linkage between critical gallery forests became disconnected, presumably during the last glacial, cerrado titi disappeared.

Extreme contrast and display is attained by C. p. personatus, with its entirely blackish head, and blackish lower segments of limbs sharply demarcated from the brightly pigmented remainder of body.

Hershkovitz, P. (1988) Origin, Speciation, and Distribution of South American Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus (Family Cebidae, Platyrrhini), by Philip Hershkovitz . Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 140 (1): 240-272.

Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus personatus personatus

Member of the moloch group. The systematic postion of the largest species, C. personatus, known only from skins and skulls, is uncertain.

Synonyms: Simia personata (Geoffroy, 1812); Callithrix personnatus (Geoffroy, 1812b)

Type locality: “Bresil?” According to Wied-Neuwied (1826, p. 1 12), who redescribed the taxon, the habitat is the east coast of Brazil between the Rio Sao Mateus and Rio Paraiba, or between 18°30’S and 2 1°30’S. Specific localities where Wied-Neuwied collected or observed individuals are along the Rios Itabapoana, Itapemirim, Iritiba, Reriutaba, and Espirito Santo, north to the Rio Doce. Desmarest (1820, p. 86) presented essentially the same descriptive and geographic data, without citation but obviously from Wied-Neuwied’s manuscript. The same information was repeated by Desmarest in 1827 (p. 12), this time mistakenly crediting Humboldt for the geographic data. Thomas (1913, p. 569) compounded the confusion by attributing Wied-Neuwied’s findings to Auguste St. Hilaire and citing Desmarest. Without bibliographic reference, for the geographic data. Thomas’s (1913, p. 569) mention of Espirito Santo as habitat is not a restriction of type locality in the strict sense, and in any case, is vague. The type locality, therefore, is here restricted to the lower Rio Doce, Espirito Santo, Brazil. Holotype originally in the Ajuda Museum, Lisbon, seized by the French in 1808 during the Napoleonic invasion and deposited in the Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris; missing since at least 1820.

Distribution: South-eastern Brazil, in Espirito Santo from southern to northern boundaries and possibly a short distance beyond into north-western Minas Gerais at least as far as Teofilo Otoni.

Description: Forehead, crown halfway or quite to plane of ears blackish or buffy, the hairs mostly to entirely blackish or buffy. Forehead, crown, throat dominantly brownish (eumelanin) agouti or entirely brownish, the pheomelanin subterminal band of hairs narrow or absent. Forehead, crown blackish to plane of ears, remainder sharply defined buffy or orange, like nape; throat blackish.

Measurements: See table in publication.

Comparisons: Distinguished from Callicebus p. nigrifrons, C. p. melanochir, and C. p. barbarabrownae by blackish forehead, crown to level of ears, cheeks, ear tufts, and throat, the hairs unbanded; back of crown sharply contrasted orange.

Specimens examined: Total 57, all from Brazil. Espirito Santo – Colatina, 9; Engenheiro Reeve, 4; Estrada Linhares-Sao Mateus, 1; Fazenda Correga da Barbada, 1; Fazenda Dez de Agosto, 1; Fazenda Sao Jose, 2; Fazenda Tapera, Juiz de Foro, 1; Juparana, 1; Linhares, 2; Rio Doce, 7; Rio Suacui, Rio Doce, 2; Santa Ana, Lagoa Juparana, 1; Santa Teresa, 2; Sao Domingos, 2; Sao Mateus, 1; Sooretama, 11; Locality unknown, “Parana River,” 1; Locality unknown, 4; Minas Gerais – Teofilo Otoni, 4.

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Pinto et al., 1993

Callicebus personatus personatus

Locality: Reserva Biologica Augusto Ruschi.

Kobayashi, 1995

Callicebus personatus personatus

Based on cranial measurements, the genus can be divided in five groups:

  • the donacophilus group (including modestus, olallae, d. donacophilus and d. pallescens)
  • the cupreus group (including caligatus, c. cupreus, c. discolor and c. ornatus)
  • the moloch group (including brunneus, h. hoffmannsi, h. baptista, moloch and cinerascens)
  • the personatus group (including p. personatus, p. nigrifrons, p. melanochir)
  • the torquatus group (including t. lucifer, t. lugens, t. medemi, t. regulus, t. purinus and t. torquatus).

The group position of C. dubius remains uncertain; C. oenanthe and C. barbarabrownae were not examined.

Kobayashi, S. (1995). A phylogenetic study of Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: 1. Phyletic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36(1): 101-120.

De Oliveira and Manzatti, 1996

Callicebus personatus

Sao Sebastiao do Ribeirao Grande Ranch, municipality of Pindamonhangaba (22°45’S, 45°28’W).

Cosenza and Melo, 1998

Callicebus personatus

Locality: Serra do Brigadeiro State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil (appr. between 42°22’S-42°32’ and 20°34’-20°53’.

Kobayashi and Langguth, 1999

Callicebus personatus

Specimens examined: Baixo Rio Suaçuí, Minas Gerais; Colatina, Espírito Santo; Estrada Linhares-São Mateus, Espírito Santo; Fazenda Afluente Branco do Sul, Espírito Santo; Fazenda Dez de Agosto, Espírito Santo; Fazenda Monte Verde, 24 km SE of Venda Nova, Espírito Santo; Fazenda São José, Espírito Santo; Lagoa Japurá, Espírito Santo; Rio Doce, Espírito Santo; Sooretama, Espírito Santo; São Domingos, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais; TeófiloOtoni, Minas Gerais.

Chiarello et al., 2001

Callicebus personatus personatus

Localities: six Atlantic Forest reserves and fragments in the north of Espírito Santo in south-eastern Brazil (18º12’–19º48’S; 39º50’–40º15’W; see map). Sooretama Biological Reserve; Linhares Forest Reserve; Rio Preto National Forest; Córrego do Veado Biological Reserve; M7/317; Putiri.

Remarks: Regarding the masked titi monkey, the study sites are within the range of one subspecies (Callicebus personatus personatus), which occurs on both banks of Rio Doce (Kinzey, 1982; Rylands et al., 1996). Kinzey (1982) stated that the Bahian subspecies, Callicebus personatus melanochir, occurs as far south as Rio Itaunas in Espírito Santo, including, therefore, one of our surveyed sites (CGBR). Unfortunately, we neither saw nor heard masked titis in Córrego Grande Biological Reserve; therefore, we could not ascertain which form occurs there.

Chiarello, A.G. and de Melo, F.R. (2001). Primate Population Densities and Sizes in Atlantic Forest Remnants of Northern Espírito Santo, Brazil. International Journal of Primatology 22(3): 379-396.

Price and Piedade, 2001

Callicebus personatus

Locality: Linhares Forest Reserve, Espírito Santo, Brazil.

Price, E.C. and Piedade, H.M. (2001). Diet of Northern Masked Titi Monkeys (Callicebus personatus). Folia Primatologica 72: 335–338.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus personatus personatus

Synonym: Simia personata (Geoffroy, 1812).

Distribution: Probably the whole of Espirito Santo Province.

Description: (after Hershkovitz, 1990). Forehead blackish, as is crown as far as the level of the ears, then sharply buffy or orange like the nape; throat blackish.

Roosmalen et al., 2002

Callicebus personatus

Type locality: Restricted by Hershkovitz (1990) to the lower Rio Doce, Espírito Santo, Brazil. The holotype was a mounted adult, sex unknown, originally in the Ajuda Museum, Lisbon, Portugal, but seized by the French in 1808 during the Napoleonic invasion and transferred to the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France, from where it disappeared around 1820.

Distribution: In the Atlantic forest of south-eastern Brazil, in the state of Espírito Santo, south from the region of the lower Rio Itaúnas (Kinzey, 1982; Oliver and Santos, 1991). The Rio Mucurí, to the north of the Rio Itaúnas was marked as the limit by Hershkovitz (1990), but Oliver and Santos (1991) reported that C. melanochir may occur south of the lower Itaúnas as far as Barra Nova (18º54’S, 39º47’W). Oliver and Santos (1991) indicated that the region of the Rios Itaúnas and Mucurí may be a zone of intergradation between the personatus (to the south) and melanochir (to the north). C. personatus occurs further inland into north-western Minas Gerais, east at least as far as Teófilo Otoni (Kinzey, 1982; Hershkovitz, 1990) and the east (right) bank of the Rio Jequitinhonha (Rylands et al. 1988). South of the Rios Mucurí/Itaúnas, they occur throughout the state of Espírito Santo and in the north of Rio de Janeiro (M. C. M. Kierulff in Rylands, 1988), although now extremely scarce (Oliver and Santos, 1991). C. personatus extends west along the Rio Doce valley into Minas Gerais as far as the Serra da Mantiqueira (Serra do Brigadeiro) (Cosenza, 1993), and at least as far south as Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. It remains unclear if C. personatus, or another species, occurs northwest of the Rio Jequitinhonha. Hershkovitz (in litt. to A. B. Rylands, January 1988) listed Buenópolis, near the Serra do Cabral (17º54’S, 44º11’W), north-western Minas Gerais, as a locality for C. personatus, but it was not included as a locality in his publication in 1990.

Description: Throat, sideburns, forehead and crown blackish to plane of ears, rest of body sharply defined uniformly buffy to orange like nape except blackish hands, lower arms and feet. Two colour variations, body and tail uniformly buffy or orange. Distinguished from C. nigrifrons, C. melanochir, and C. barbarabrownae by blackish forehead, crown to line of ears, cheeks, ear tufts, and throat, the hairs not banded; and back of crown sharply contrasting orange; from C. coimbrai by black instead of buffy cheeks, sideburns, chest, back of head, and nape.

van Roosmalen, G.M.; van Roosmalen, T. and  Mittermeier, R.A. (2002). A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10(Suppl.): 1-52.

Rodrigues et al., 2004

Callicebus personatus

The karyotype of C. personatus has 2n=44 chromosomes, 13 biarmed and 8 acrocentric autosomic pairs. The X chromosome is a submetacentric similar to the human X.

The comparison between C. personatus 2n=44 and C. nigrifrons 2n=42 revealed a high karyotypic similarity and permitted the identification of all chromosomes and their counterparts in each karyotype.
Our results support personatus as a valid group and the specific status for C. personatus and C. nigrifrons as suggested by others.

Rodrigues, L.G.R.; Barrosi, R.M.S.; Pissinati, A.; Pieczarka, J.C. and Nagamachi, C.Y. (2004). A new karyotype of an endangered primate species (Callicebus personatus) from the Brazilian Atlantic forests. Hereditas 140: 87-91.

Martins, 2005

Callicebus personatus

Locality: Fazenda Barreiro Rico, a privately-owned cattle ranch located near the confluence of the Piracicaba and Tiete rivers (22°41’S, 48°06’W), in the eastern range of the central Plateau (altitude 450–586 m) of Sao Paulo state, Brazil.

Alves and Andriolo, 2005

Callicebus personatus

Locality: Araras Biological Reserve, located in the Petrópolis and Miguel Pereira districts (species reported but not registered).

Alves, L.C.P.S. and Andriolo, A. (2005). Camera traps used on mastofaunal survey of Araras Biological Reserve. Revista Brasileira de Zoociencias 7(2): 231-246.

Passamani, 2008

Callicebus personatus

Localities: Parque Estadual do Forno Grande (20°31’18’-20°31’20’’ and 41°05’45’’-41°08’05’’); Fazenda Forno Grande (20°30’58’’, 41°05’04’’).

Passamani, M. (2008) Density and group size of primates in an Atlantic Hill forest of southwest Espirito Santo, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Zoociencias 10(1): 29-34.

Pinto and Grelle, 2009

Callicebus personatus

Distribution: States of Minas Gerais and Espirito Santo.

Pinto, M.P. and Grelle, C.E.V. (2009). Reserve selection and persistence: complementing the existing Atlantic Forest reserve system. Biodiversity Conservation 18: 957–968.

Auricchio, 2010

Callicebus personatus

Localities: MG Teófilo Otoni 1(7°52’S 41°28’W); MG Baixo R. Suaçui (18°47’S 41°45’W); ES Colatina (19°32’S 40°37’W); ES Rio Doce (19°30’S 40°30’W); ES Sooretama (19°00’S 40°00’W); MG, Passos, Foz do Brejo, São João da Glória (20°42’S 46°37’W); ES, São Domingos, Mata 10 de Agosto, Faz 10 de Agosto (19°08’S 40°38’W); ES, Lagoa Juparaua, Sant´anna (19°22’S 40°07’W); ES, Estrada Linhares, São
Matheus km 54 (19°15’S 40°05’W); ES, Rio São José, Braço do Sul (19°05’S 40°40’W); MG, Ituete, Rio Poço (19°25’S 41°18’W).

Auricchio, P. (2010). A morphological analysis of some species of Callicebus. Neotropical Primates 17(2): 47-58.

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