Literature nigrifrons

Spix, 1823nigrifrons 9x13

Callithrix nigrifrons sp. nov.

Distribution: In the Minas Gerais province near the Onças river.

Description: This sagoin has some resemblance with the black headed and handed Sagoin, but the male and female, that I fortunately brought with me, are both the same and differ from the personatus by having only the front of the head black and the occiput light yellow; therefore there are no doubts that these are two different species. There are also other differences that separate both species, for instance that the hairs of the other species are unicoloured, while those of this species are a variation of red, black and white; this species has no red spot in the neck; and the hands and feet are not black at all, but speckled with red in the centre. The tail of the other species is pale red, and of this species shiny red, resembling that of a squirrel and towards the tip speckled dirty white and grey-white. The other species is black around the cheeks, this one grey-brown. The male differs from the female in that he is larger, and the black spot on his front is smaller. The back of the head is paler and while the hairs around the face are grey in the female, they are blacker in the male.

Spix, J.B. de (1823). Simiarum et vespertiliarum Brasilienses species novea; … pp. 21-22.

Temminck, 1827

Remarks: Callithrix personata and nigrifrons of M. de Spix should be united in one species.

Temminck, C.J. (1827). Monographies de mammalogie 1 :XV.

Fischer, 1829

Cebus personatus

Synonyms: Simia personata (Humboldt, 1812); Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Spix, 1823; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1819, 1820, 1827; Wied, 1820); Saguinus torquatus (Lesson, 1827); Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823).

Remark: According to Temminck, C. nigrifrons is the young  of personatus, and therefore a synonym.

Fischer, J.P. (1829). Synopsis mammalium Pp. 52-54.

Cuvier, 1829

Callithrix personata

Synonyms: Callithrix personata (Geoffroy); Callitrix nigrifrons (Geoffroy).

Description: grey-reddish, the head and hands black.

Cuvier, G. (1829). Le Règne Animal, nouvelle édition 1: 104.

Cuvier and Voigt, 1831

Simia (Callithrix) personata

Synonym: Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823).

Description: grey-yellow, with black head and hands and very long hair.

Cuvier, G. and Voigt, L.S. (1831). Das Thierreich geordnet nach seiner Organisation 1: 96-97.

Wagner, 1833

Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823).

Remarks: Temminck suggests that this species is nothing more than the young C. personatus, and it is indeed difficult to find differences between both species, except that the first has a black forehead, while the rest of the head is the same colour as the back, that also the reddish-yellow spot of the back of the head is lacking and that the fur is long. Because of these distinctions resembles the animal very much the C. melanochir, from which it differs only by the paler body colour and the brown-reddish tail. As the Prince von Neuwied indicated himself that the tail mostly yellow-reddish is, as our specimen, would I see it more as a variation of C. melanochir.

Wagner, J.A. (1833). Critische Revision des brasilian. Affenarten. Isis von Oken 10(2):994.

Wagner, 1840

Callithrix melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Wied, 1826; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820); Callithrix Gigot (Spix, 1823); Callithrix cinerascens = young (Spix, 1823); Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823).

Description: This species is closely related to C. personata, and has also a very rich coat. Spix made three species of this, from which it is easy to see that they belong together. I will first start with the description of the Prince von Wied. The colour of the hairs on the head, which are long and bushy, and therefore give the head a large appearance, is ash-grey at the base and whitish at the tips; there where the longer hairs of the skull start they are completely black. The hairs of the belly are blackish ashy-brown; on the rest of the body blackish and whitish annulated, giving the animal a ashy-grey appearance; on the upper back they have a yellow-reddish hue, on the lower back and the sites they become chestnut-brown, because the hairs are blackish-brown and yellow-red annulated. Chest, limbs and base of tail have a black and whitish mixture; the tail is normally completely yellow-reddish, in some individuals almost completely white, in others ashy-grey mixed with white or yellowish, the tip of the tail being more whitish. Face and hands black; inner sides of hind limbs brownish-black; the iris yellow-brown. The female differs little from the male, but their tail is mostly white. In our specimen the colour is dark-grey, only the crotch and tail are reddish; the nice chestnut-brown of the back is missing completely. Little different is the youngster, that was described by Spix as C. cinerascens; it is only smaller and has grey hands. We see in this species a large variation in colour, and we must also add the C. nigrifrons of Spix. Temminck regards this species as the youngster of C. personata, in which he is wrong, as already from the size we can conclude that it is an adult and large specimen. Through its more reddish hues, especially below the limbs (but not on the middle of the feet), the belly and the tail, it resembles more C. personata than our grey specimens of the Gigo; as we know that this species varies very much, we cannot be wrong to lump C. nigrifrons with this species, if we can show the specific features. These are for C. melanochir that the pelage on the head is denser, not coal black, but that its hairs are black and yellowish annulated, the black dominating on the forehead, forming a black band, that is C. nigrifrons only more striking is than in the grey Gigo. The red spot in the neck fails, which distinguishes the males of C. personata.

Measurements: (Prince of Neuwied): Body 350mm; tail 550mm. (our grey Gigo): Body 400mm; tail 500mm. (C. nigrifrons): Body 400mm.

Wagner, J.A. (1840). Schreber, die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach natur mit Beschreibungen. Suplementband, Erste Abtheilung: Die Affen und Flederthiere pp. 228-234.

Lesson, 1840

Saguinus personatus

The young: (according to Cuvier, 1829)

Synonyms: Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823); Callithrix personata (Cuvier, 1829).

Description: blackish naked face; dense fur with long hairs, grey-reddish; front and hands black; occiput whitish; tail reddish ending with white.

Distribution: in the Rio de Janeiro Province, between the St. Matheus and Parahyba River.

Lesson, R.P. (1840). Species des mammifères bimanes et quadrumanes pp. 161-167.

Schinz, 1844

Callithrix personata

Synonyms: Simia personata (Humboldt, 1812; Schreber, 1840; Wied, 1822); Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823).

Distribution: Itapemiri, Spirito Santo and Rio Doce, Brazil.

Description: The head is small, from chest to the middle of the skull brownish-black. The four hands black. Inner side of the forearms and the four shinbones black-brown; back of the head and neck yellowish-white, all other parts pale grey-brownish with pale yellowish tip of the hairs. Belly grey-brown with reddish tips of the hairs. Tail reddish grey-brown on base and underside rusty-red. Anterior side of thigh pale yellowish grey-white. Hairs long and soft.

Measurements: head and body 340mm; tail 461mm.

Schinz, H.K. (1821). Das Thierreich, eingetheilt nach dem Bau der Thiere als Grundlage ihrer Naturgeschichte und der vergleichenden Anatomie von den Herrn Ritter von Cuvier.  Volume 1: 132-133.

Schinz, 1844

Callithrix melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Kuhl, 1820; Wied, 1826); Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein); Callithrix gigot (Spix, 1823); Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823); Callithrix cinerascens (Spix, 1823).

Distribution: Alcobaca, Belmonte, Riopardo, Ilheo, Itahype rivers and in Sertam de Bahia.

Description: The pelage is long and the hairs very slack. The forehead is like it has been shaved, covered with dense hairs of the same length. The face is blackish or dark grey. The hairs of the head have an ashy-grey base, a whitish tip and the forehead has a black band. The belly is dark blackish-grey-brown, but on the whole body annulated black and white and therefore ashy-grey. On the upper back are the tips of the hairs yellow-reddish, on the middle and lower back and the sides of the body reddish-chestnut-brown. The four hands are black; the tail is in some almost completely white, in others ashy-grey.

Measurements: head and body 350mm; tail 550mm.

Schinz, H.K. (1821). Das Thierreich, eingetheilt nach dem Bau der Thiere als Grundlage ihrer Naturgeschichte und der vergleichenden Anatomie von den Herrn Ritter von Cuvier. Volume 1: 132-133.

Lesson, 1848

Callithrix melanochir

Synonyms: M. Spix has described under several names (C. nigrifrons, cinerascens, etc.) the differences in sex and age.

Distribution: Sertam de Bahia and on the banks of the Alcobaca and Belmonte.

Description: greyish with the front and hands black.

Lesson, R.P. (1848). Etudes sur les Mammifères Primates. Revue Zoologique par la Societé Cuvierienne 11:232-233.

Boitard, 1848

Saguinus personatus

Synonyms: Saguinus personatus (Lesson, 1827); Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Cuvier, 1829); Simia personata (Humboldt, 1812); Cebus personatus (Blainville, 1839); Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823); Callithrix infulatus (Lichtenstein); Callithrix melanochir (Wied, Neuwied, 1820, 1821); Callithrix incanescens (Liechtenstein); Saguinus melanochir (Lesson, 1827); Cebus gigot (Spix, 1823); Pithecia melanochir (Cuvier, 1825); Cebus melanochir (Fischer, 1829); Cebus cinerascens (Spix, 1823); Callithrix donacophilus (D’Orbigny, 1847), etc. etc.

“This synonymy proves very well how badly know this animal is to the authors, and especially how much men like to create new species to connect their names to it and to throw difficulties in science. With the help of M. Lesson, we are trying to unravel the chaos”.

Description: the male of is species has generally the pelage ash-grey or reddish, the head and the four hands dark black, the under parts dirty-grey, and the tail reddish. Its total length is 35 thumbs and ten lines, including the tail which is 21 thumbs and 10 lines. The head of the female is brown.
When the animal is young, the face is blackish, naked; the fur is long, thick and grey-reddish; the hands and forehead black; the upper side of the head whitish, and the tail reddish, white at the tip. This is the Callithrix nigrifrons of Spix.

Boitard, P. (1848). Dictionnaire Universel d’Histoire Naturelle 11:290-292.

Wagner, 1848

Callithrix nigrifrons

Synonym: Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823)

Distribution: the animals of Natterer were collected at the Capitania of St. Paul and Rio de Janeiro, the specimens of Spix comes from Minas Gerais, on the “Onças” river.

Description: All 14 examined specimens agree in the following features: the species is considerable. The fur is exceptionally long and luxurious, even on and around the head, through which it immediately can be distinguished from the smaller head of C. personata. On the back and the sides are the hairs 75mm to 87mm long or even more. The under sides and the tail are also luxurious haired. There are few hairs on the face, but many on the cheeks. The naked skin is blackish.
The major colour is dirty pale brownish with a grey-yellowish or rusty hue. The hairs of the upper side are black brown and slightly pale brownish ringed, but the rings are not very conspicuous. On the arms this is more conspicuous; these show from the roots more black, and the hands are covered completely with black hairs. The legs become downwards more pale reddish, which also covers a part of the middle-foot, while the toes are shiny black. The forehead is covered with a thumb-wide shiny black band, which is in large contrast with the light grey-yellowish colour of the head. This dark band results of the hairs being almost completely black-brown, while the hairs behind the band are for the proximal half black and at the end mixed yellow and brown. Only on the backside of the band the hairs have some pale rings. The hairs near the ears and the cheeks are partly black-brown; the inner side of the ears is also covered with such hairs. The dark face is on the nose, chin and lips covered with dirty-white hairs. The underside of the body and the inner side of the thigh is rusty yellow-brown or rusty-yellow. The tail is either more rusty-red or rusty-yellow or pale rusty-brownish, the tip almost always being dirty yellowish.
Both sexes have the same colour.

Remarks: The under the names Callithrix nigrifrons, melanochir, gigot and cinerascens described species have caused many problems to the zoologists. I had included them before under one species, for which I chose the name melanochir (Wagner, 1840). Lesson (1840) went even further, as he also included C. infulata and donacophila, all under the name C. personata, which was a big mistake. Temminck concluded that C. nigrifrons was only the young of C. personata, but he was wrong, as I showed before. After examination of a large number of specimens I am convinced that Spix was right when he separated C. nigrifrons from C. gigot. I further think that the Gigo of Neuwied differs from the species of Spix, and that C. canescens is also a separated species.
While I had before of C. nigrifrons only the specimen of Spix, I now was able to examine 14 specimens. The study of these 14 specimens gave me certainty that C. nigrifrons should be separated from both C. melanochir as from C. gigot.

Wagner, J.A. (1848). Callithrix. Springaffe. Beitrage zur kenntniss der Säugthiere Amerikas  Abhandlungen des Königl. Akademie des Wissenschaften München 5: 446-457.

Burmeister, 1854

Callithrix nigrifrons

Synonym: Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823; Wagner, 1848).

Distribution: Near Rio de Janeiro and St. Paulo, also in Minas Gerais.

Description: Very luxurious pelage, brownish; black hands and a black band on the forehead.
The animal is light brown, with a grey-yellowish or reddish hue; the hairs of the upper side are black-brown and pale brownish coloured, although the rings are not that clear; the dark colour increases towards the roots of the hairs, and the hands are covered with hairs that are completely black. The legs are towards the middle-foot normally more rusty-red, the toes are shiny black. The forehead has a thumb-wide bright black-brownish band, which is sharply demarcated from the pale grey-yellow colour of the head; in the area of the ear and the cheeks are the hairs partly black-brown. White hairs on the chin and lips. The under side and the inner sides of the legs is rusty yellow-brown; the first half of the tail is red-brown-red, the other half red-yellowish or bright red-brownish; the tip almost always yellowish. Hands brown-black.

Remarks: I have not seen this monkey myself, and therefore used the description of Wagner. He assured that this species can be distinguished from both C. melanochir (Pr. Max.) and C. Gigot (Spix). Both these species live in another area.

Burmeister, H. (1854). Systematische Ubersicht des Thiere Brasiliens 1: 30-32.

Wagner, 1855

Callithrix nigrifrons

Synonym: Callithrix nigrifrons (Wagner, 1840, 1848).

Distribution: St. Paul; Rio de Janeiro; Minas Gerais, on the Onças River.

Description: very long pelage, even on the head. This makes its head very large and easy distinguishable from the small head of C. personata. On the back and the sides the hairs become 3 to 3.5 thumbs long or even more. The under side and tail also have long hairs. Only very few hairs on the face, the cheeks covered far inwards with long hairs. The naked skin is black.
The animal is dirty light-brown with grey-yellowish or reddish hues. The hairs of the upper side are ringed black and light pale-brownish, although the annulations are not very clear. The annulations are more conspicuous on the arms; the black on the hairs becomes more visible towards the hands, and the hands are completely covered with black hairs. The hind limbs become towards the feet more clear red, which is also covering the middle of the feet, while the toes are shiny black. The front of the head has a thumb-wide shiny black-brownish band that is very conspicuous on the grey-yellowish head. This dark band result of the hairs being almost completely black, while the hairs on the rest of the head have a black base but the proximal part is mixed yellowish and brown. The hairs near and in the ears and on the cheeks are also partly black-brown. There are dirty white hairs on the nose, the chin and the lips. The underside of the body and inner side of the legs is reddish yellow-brown or red-yellowish. The tail is more rusty red-brown or rusty yellowish. The tip is mostly dirty yellowish. Both species have the same colour.

Measurements: body and tail 875mm; tail 431mm.

Remarks: The under the names C. nigrifrons, melanochir, Gigot, and cinerascens proposed species have caused the zoologists much problems. I have united all of them before under the name C. melanochir. Lesson (1840) went even further, by not only including C. infulata and donacophila, but also including them all in the species C. personatus. This was clearly a mistake. Temminck assumed that C. nigrifrons was the young of C. personatus, which I have shown to be wrong. After examination of a large number of specimens I am convinced that Spix was right, when he separated C. nigrifrons from C. gigot. Further I am of the opinion that the Gigo of the Prince of Neuwied differs from the species of Spix, and that C. cinerascens is a different species.
While we had before only one specimen of C. nigrifrons, brought by Spix, I was able to study in Vienna 12 other specimens, and another specimen was donated before to the Munich Museum. From the examination of the 14 specimens I concluded that C. nigrifrons can be separated both from C. melanochir and C. Gigot.

Callithrix personatus can be distinguished from C. nigrifrons by the complete black and smaller head, and the males by the light spot in the neck.

Wagner, J. A. (1855). Schreber, die Saugethiere in Abbildungen nach natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband, Fünfte Abtheilung : Die Affen

Reichenbach, 1862

Callithrix nigrifrons

Distribution: Minas Gerais, in the forests near the Onças River (Spix).

Description: Mixed pale-brown and grey-yellow. Hairs of back black-brown and pale annulated. Hands black, legs rusty-coloured. Forehead with a thumb-wide black band, upper head yellowish-white, each dark hair brown-black but only at the backside with pale rings. Nose and lips covered with some white hairs. Tip of tail paler. Females: the black of the forehead, as the white of the forehead less conspicuous, back of head, cheeks and arms greyish, tip of tail whitish, middle of hand not reddish.

Measurements: head and body 425mm; tail 425mm.

Reichenbach, 1862. Die Vollständigiste Naturgeschichte der Affen.

Gray, 1866

Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823)

Description: Fur soft, with abundant, elongated, stiffer hairs. The hands and feet black.

Gray, J.E. (1866). Notice of some new species of Callithrix in the collection of the British Museum. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (3) 17: 57-58.

Gray, 1870

Callithrix nigrifrons

Synonym: Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix).

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Fur bristly, washed with black; forehead, ears, spot on each side of the neck, hands and feet, and inside of the forearm and leg black; chin blackish; back of crown and nape whitish grey; tail reddish, hairs red to the base.

Remarks: The colouring of Spix’s figure does not agree with the description; the distribution of the colours on the head of the figure agrees with the Museum specimens.

Gray, J.E. (1870). Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats in the collection of the British Museum pp. 54-57.

Schlegel, 1876

Callithrix nigrifrons

Synonym: Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823 – note that the colours on the plate are inexact and not matching the description; Wagner, 1848).

Distribution: Spix discovered this species in the Minas Gerais province. All individuals collected by Natterer came from the capitanias of St. Paul and Rio de Janeiro. We see that this species lives south of Callithrix personatus, both can be found on the Rio de Janeiro province, C. personata in the northern parts and C. nigrifrons in the southern parts.

Description: General tinge more or less pale brown, on the tail red, replaced by black on the four hands, the forehead or even on the cheeks and the throat.
This species is so close to Call. personata that, without being able to examen a large series of specimens and without having knowledge of it geographical distribution, we would be inclined to regard them as the same species. The hairs of the throat and sides of the head are grey-reddish, and their extremities are only have black on the cheeks, while all these hairs are black in C. personata. Another characteristic, observed in the two specimens of Spix and the 14 specimens of Natterer, is that the black frontal band is only 2.7cm wide. This characteristic can also be observed in one of our specimens; the other, younger and brought along by Natterer (who according to Wagner has never seen C. personata during his travels) has a frontal band that is as large as the former species. The hue of the fur is intermediate between that of the male and the female of Call. personata, but the hairs have distinctive traces of dark rings.

Remarks: the Leiden Museum has two specimens, one with a frontal band of 2.9cm obtained from the Berlin Museum, originating from the voyage of Freireiss; a second with a frontal band of 3.8cm was obtained from the Vienna Museum, originating from the Natterer voyage.

Schlegel, H. (1876). Les singes, Simia. Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Pays-Bas 12 :230-241.

Von Pelzen, 1883

Callithrix nigrifrons

Synonym: Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823; Wagner, 1848, 1855; Schlegel, 1876).

Distribution: Mattodentro and Irisanga.

Description: male, Mattodentro, forest, 15 December 1818. Iris light amber brown, almost hazelnut. Naked skin on face greyish-black, the upper parts of the eyelids brownish-white, only visible when the eyes are closed. Naked skin or ears grey-black with white-brown points. Naked skin of hands and feet brown-black. Scrotum dark brown-grey. Penis short.

Measurements: male: body 88.9cm; tail 43,8cm. Female: body 86,4cm.

Pelzen, A. von (1883). Brasilische Säugethiere pp. 19-20.

Jentink, 1892

Callithrix nigrifrons

Remarks: the Leiden museum has two individuals:
– an adult from Brazil. From the collections of M. Freireiss. Obtained from the Berlin Museum;
– an individual of mean age, from Brazil. From the collections of M. Natterer. Obtained from the Vienna Museum.

Jentink, F.A. (1892). Catalogue systématique des mammifères (singes, carnivores, ruminants, pachydermes, sirènes et cétacés). Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle des Pays Bas 11: 51-53.

Forbes, 1896

Callithrix nigrifrons

Synonyms: Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823; Gray, 1870; Schlegel, 1876).

Distribution: Upper Amazonia.

Description: Nearly allied to the Masked Titi (C. personata), but distinguished by the nearly white back of the head and nape of the neck, and by the hairs at the base of the tail being entirely red.

Forbes, H.O. (1896). A Handbook of the Primates pp. 159-165 + plate 14.

 Meerwarth, 1897

Callithrix nigrifrons

Distribution: North of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes.

Description: Under and upper side the same colour, never coppery; hands and feet black, tail covered with hairs of the same length. Colour predominantly brown, more or less pale, becoming reddish on the tail. Hands, front, face and throat also black. Black frontal stripe, sides of the head and throat grey-reddish.

Meerwarth, H. (1897-1898). Simios (macacos) do novo mundo. Boletin do Museo Paraense de Historia Natural y Etn. 2: 121-154.

Trouessart, 1898-1899

Callithrix nigrifrons

Synonym: nigrifrons (Spix, 1823; Wagner, 1855; Schlegel, 1876).

Distribution: Brasil, Minas Gerais, Region of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.

Trouessart, E.L. (1898-1899). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium 1: 44-46.

Trouessart, 1904-1905

Callicebus nigrifrons

Distribution: Southern Brazil, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro.

Trouessart, E.L. (1904-1905). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium. Quinquennale Suppl. Pp. 25-26.

Elliot, 1913

Callicebus nigrifrons

Synonym: Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823; Wagner, 1848, 1855; Reichenbach, 1862; Schlegel, 1876; Gray, 1870; von Pelzeln, 1883; Forbes, 1894).

Type locality: Province of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Type in Munich Museum.

Distribution: From Province of Minas Gerais to that of Rio de Janeiro, where the species meets with C. personatus.

Description: Forehead and stripe to ears black, but in some examples the stripe is wanting; throat greyish, not black. Face naked, black; forehead with a black stripe to ears; hands black; feet reddish brown, toes black; top of head and neck buff, hairs with a sub terminal black ring; hairs on upper parts of body pale orange ochraceous with a sub terminal black ring; forearms black, the pale orange rufous of base of hairs showing through; arms from shoulders to elbows like back; hinder parts and inner side of limbs buff; tail tawny, hairs blackish towards tips. (Ex. type Munich Museum).

Measurements: Total length, 960mm; tail, 455mm; foot, 100mm.

Remarks: The above description taken from Spix’s type will hardly answer for the figure on Spix’s plate, which does not represent the species, nor agree with his description. The various descriptions in Spix’s volume, should have the chief attention, and species be determined by them, for not a few of his figures are quite unlike the types, (making all allowance for the lapse of time and possible discoloration of the specimens), and would certainly mislead an investigator trying to determine his material. There is a certain amount of variation in colouring existing among examples of this species, and some do not have the black stripe on forehead to reach the ears, and the apical half of the tail is much lighter, being at times cream buff.

Elliot, D.G. (1913). A review of the primates 1: 234-257.

Vieira, 1944a

Callicebus nigrifrons

Synonyms: Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823; Gray, 1870; Pelzeln, 1883; Forbes, 1893; Ihering, 1893); Callicebus nigrifrons (Trouessart, 1904; Elliot, 1913).

Type locality: Rio das Onças, Minas Gerais.

Distribution: This “Saá” occurs in the south of Minas Gerais and in the north-eastern zone of the Sao Paulo state.

Description: adult male – upper side of head grey; forehead black, like the ears and the sides of the face; hairs on chin black; throat whitish; skin of face black, with whitish hairs round the lips; upper back dark grey, lower back light grey; chest, belly and interior of limbs whitish grey with some yellowish hairs; upper part of arms and legs dark grey; hands and feet black; tail very grey on the base, becoming ochreous towards the tip.

Measurements: head and body: 430/420mm; tail: 450/440mm.

Vieirra, C.C. (1944a). Os Simios do Estado de Sao Paulo. Papeis Avulsos do Departemento de Zoologia, Sao Paulo 4(1): 1-31.

Vieira, 1955

Callicebus nigrifrons

Synonym: Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823).

Distribution: Minas Gerais State (Mato Dentro: Iriçanga); Rio de Janeiro State (Itatiataia); Sao Paulo State (Itatiba; Monte Alegre; Socorro; Lins).

Vieira, C. da C. (1955). Lista remissiva dos mamiferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 8 (10): 375-379.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus nigrifrons

Synonyms: Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823); Cebus personatus (Fischer, 1829 – part, young); Saguinus personatus (Lesson, 1840 – part, young); Callicebus nigrifrons (Elliot, 1913).

Distribution: Eastern Brazil, in the Minas Gerais State and the part north of Sao Paulo.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus personatus nigrifrons (Spix, 1823)

Type locality: Province of Minas Gerais, type in Münich Museum.

Distribution: Ranges along a narrow tract parallel with the coast, but inland, contiguous with the range of brunello and the southern part of that of true personatus. Vieira (1944) records this titi as common in small bands to the north-east of Monte Alegre in Sao Paulo. He also refers to examples from Itatiba and the Municipality of Lins. It abounds in the forests along the upper reaches of the Rio Doce in Minas Gerais (Meerwarth, Vieira), and also occurs in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Itatiaia).

Description: male: Face, ears and band across forehead black; rest of crown and neck buff, the hairs with subterminal black annulations; back pale orange-ochraceous, the hairs with black subterminal rings; forearms and hands black, but on forearms pale orange-rufous bases of hairs show through the black; upper arms like back; under parts and medial aspects of limbs buff; tail tawny, with individual hairs becoming blackish near tip.
The above description (based on Elliot) agrees with Spix’s original account, but not with his plate. In this case, as in others, Spix’s figures do not agree with his text, though they conform to the type specimens (where these exist) provided due allowance is made for their antiquity and consequent fading.
Female: differing from male, according to Vieira, in the more uniformly dusky ochraceous tail.
Juvenile: Colours much paler above and below (Vieira).

Measurements: head and body 505mm; tail 455mm; foot 100mm.

Skull: dimensions in publication.

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Kinzey, 1982

Callicebus personatus nigrifrons

Distribution: states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and south-western Minas Gerais as far north as the Rio Paranaiba (see map).

Description: superficially similar to C. p. melanochir and strikingly different from C. p. personatus in the general grizzled brown colouration on dorsum and upper segments of the limbs, the lack of a sharp demarcation between the black of the head, hands and feet and the grizzled brown of the neck, forearm and leg. It differs from C. p. melanochir in the more reddish-buff colour of the tail and the broad (rather than narrow) black band on the forehead.

Kinzey, W.G. (1982). Distribution of primates and forest refuges. Biological Diversification in the Tropics  pp. 455-482.

Kraft, 1983

Callicebus nigrifrons

Synonym: Callithrix nigrifrons

Remark: Type specimen present in Munich collection.

Kraft, R. (1983). Die von JB Spix beschriebenen neotropischen Primaten und Chiropteren Verzeichnis der in der Zoologischen Staatssammlung München. Spixiana Supplement . 9:429-441.

Hershkovitz, 1988

Callicebus personatus nigrifrons

Member of the moloch group. The systematic postion of the largest species, C. personatus, known only from skins and skulls, is uncertain. It may represent a distinct group.

Remarks: In nigrifrons the already completely eumelanized forehead and sideburns, and progressing eumelanization of the forepart of the crown, contrast with the dominantly pheomelanin posterior portion of crown and nape. The difference is emphasized by cresting of bright coronal hair against the raised nuchal hairs.

Hershkovitz, P. (1988) Origin, Speciation, and Distribution of South American Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus (Family Cebidae, Platyrrhini), by Philip Hershkovitz . Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 140 (1): 240-272.

Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus personatus nigrifrons

Member of the moloch group. The systematic postion of the largest species, C. personatus, known only from skins and skulls, is uncertain.

Synonyms: Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823 – plate) ; Pithecia melanops (Vigors, 1829, Gray, 1870); Callithryx [sic] chloroenemis (Lund, 1840 – nomen nudum); Callithrix chloroenemis [sic] (Lund, 1842 – nomen nudum); Callithrix crinicaudus (Lund, 1841); Jacchus grandis (Lund, 1841); Callicebus personatus brunello (Thomas, 1913).

Type locality: “Habitat in provincia Minas Geraes adflumen das Onqas sylvas maritimas inter et Campos agrestes intermedium.” At the time of the Spix and Martius expedition (1817-1820), the Capitania de Minas Geraes, according to Arrowsmith (1811), included a piece of modern Rio de Janeiro, all Espirito Santo, and the south-eastern panhandle of Bahia. In the likelihood that Spix was uncertain about the state boundaries, the Rio Oncas, Municipio Campos, in Rio de Janeiro (not Minas Gerais), meets all requirements of the stated type locality of Callicebus nigrifrons, and is so emended. Lectotype in Zoologische Staatssammlung, München

Distribution: South-eastern Brazil, in the states of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo from the Rio Tietê north, and southern Minas Gerais between the Rios Parana-Paraiba, the headwaters of the Rio Sao Francisco, and the Rio Jequitinhonha (upper Rio Doce). Contact between nigrifrons and personatus in Minas Gerais is unknown.

Description: Forehead, crown halfway or quite to plane of ears blackish or buffy, the hairs mostly to entirely blackish or buffy; forehead, crown, throat dominantly brownish (eumelanin) agouti or entirely brownish, the pheomelanin subterminal band of hairs narrow or absent. Forehead, crown blackish to about halfway plane of ears, remainder of crown grading into coarsely banded buffy or orange of nape; throat pale like chest.

Measurements: See table in publication.

Comparisons: Distinguished from Callicebus personatus melanochir and C. p. barbarabrownae by the blackish forehead, anterior portion of crown blackish with thin mixture of buffy-banded hairs; from personatus by blackish front of crown grading into agouti of nape without line of demarcation, throat pale like chest.

Specimens examined: Total 44, all from Brazil. Minas Gerais – Barretos, 3; Passos, 1; Patas, 1; Rio Doce, right bank; Sao Jaoa Baptista do Gloria, 1; Tapera, 1; Uberlandia, 2; Locality unknown, 3. Rio de Janeiro – Itatiaia, 7. Sao Paulo: Boa Esperanza do Sul, Itaquere, 2; Franca, 1; Itatiba, 2; Lins, Rio Tiete, 2; Maciceira, 1; Matodentro, 1; Monte Alegre, 3; Piquete, 1 (holotype of brunello); Visconde de Soutelo, 1; Locality unknown, 5. State unknown – 3.

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Hirsch, 1994

Callicebus personatus nigrifrons

Locality: Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais, Brazil (21°42’S, 43°53’W).


Antonietto et al., 1994

Callicebus personatus nigrifrons

Locality: north border of the district of Sao Francisco Xavier, municipality of Sao Jose dos Camps, Sao Paulo State (23º12’S, 45º52’W).


Kobayashi, 1995

Callicebus personatus nigrifrons

Based on cranial measurements, the genus can be divided in five groups:

  • the donacophilus group (including modestus, olallae, d. donacophilus and d. pallescens)
  • the cupreus group (including caligatus, c. cupreus, c. discolor and c. ornatus)
  • the moloch group (including brunneus, h. hoffmannsi, h. baptista, moloch and cinerascens)
  • the personatus group (including p. personatus, p. nigrifrons, p. melanochir)
  • the torquatus group (including t. lucifer, t. lugens, t. medemi, t. regulus, t. purinus and t. torquatus).

The group position of C. dubius remains uncertain; C. oenanthe and C. barbarabrownae were not examined.

Kobayashi, S. (1995). A phylogenetic study of Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: 1. Phyletic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36(1): 101-120.

Kobayashi and Langguth, 1999

Callicebus nigrifrons

Specimens examined: Bairro dos Alves, Monte Alegre, São Paulo; Fazenda Itaquerê, Boa Esperança do Sul, São Paulo; Fazenda Tapera, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais; Franca, São Paulo; Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro; Itatiba; ltuéta, Rio Doce, Minas Gerais; Lins, Rio Tietê, São Paulo; Macieiras, Serra do Itatiaya, São Paulo; Mato Grosso, Barretos, São Paulo; Patos, Minas Gerais; Rio Doce (right bank), Minas Gerais; São João da Glória, Passos, Minas Gerais; São Paulo, São Paulo; Uberlândia, Minas Gerais; UHE Nova Ponte, Nova Ponte, Minas Gerais; Visconde de Soutelo, São Paulo.


De Vasconcelos and Hirsch, 2000

Callicebus personatus nigrifrons

Localities: Reserva Particular do Patrimonio Natural do Caraça (20°05’S, 43°28W); Fazenda Bocaina, municipality of Santa Barbara (19°58’S, 42°57’W).


Martins and Setz, 2000

Callicebus personatus nigrifrons

Locality: Mata da Olaria, Fazenda Lagoa, a privately-owned farm in Monte Belo, Minas Gerais, Brazil (21°23’S, 46°15’W, c. 820 m above sea level).

Martins, M.M. and Setz, E.Z.F. (2000). Diet of Buffy Tufted-Eared Marmosets (Callithrix aurita) in a Forest Fragment in Southeastern Brazil. International Journal of Primatology 21(3): 467-467.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus personatus nigrifrons

Synonyms: Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823); Pithecia melanops (Vigors, 1829); Callithryx chlorocnemius (Lund, 1840); Callithrix crinicaudatus (Lund, 1841); Jacchus grandis (Lund, 1841); Callicebus personatus brunello (Thomas, 1913).

Distribution: Probably between Rio Tiete and Rio Sao Fransisco and upper Rio Jequitinhonha .

Description: (after Hershkovitz, 1990). Forehead blackish, as is crown to about halfway back; rest of crown grading into the multibanded buffy or orange of the nape; throat is pale like chest.


Roosmalen et al., 2002

Callicebus nigrifrons

Type locality: Interpreted by Hershkovitz (1990) to be the Rio Onças, municipality of Campos, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The lectotype is an adult, sex unknown, mounted skin only, no. 88, Zoologische Staatssammlung, München, Germany, collected 1817 by the Spix and Martius expedition.

Distribution: South-eastern Brazil, in the states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo north from the Rio Tietê, east of the Rio Paraná but restricted to the right bank of the Rio Paranaíba in western Minas Gerais. It occurs on both sides of the uppermost reaches of the Rio São Francisco, extending to the east as far as the Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Espinhaço in Minas Gerais, where it meets the range of C. personatus. As in all of the Atlantic forest titi monkeys, although widespread, the extreme fragmentation and urbanization of the forests within its range means that today populations are isolated and generally very small, and in many places they are locally or regionally extirpated even where forests patches remain.

Description: Forehead and crown blackish to about halfway plane of ears, rest of crown grading into coarsely banded brownish agouti or orange-brown of nape; throat pale brownish agouti like chest; cheiridia and ears black; tail orange. Distinguished from C. melanochir and C. barbarabrownae by blackish forehead, and anterior portion of crown blackish thinly mixed with buff-banded hairs; from C. personatus by blackish front of crown grading into agouti of nape without line of demarcation, and throat pale brownish agouti like chest; from C. coimbrai by pale brownish agouti sideburns, throat, and chest.

van Roosmalen, G.M.; van Roosmalen, T. and  Mittermeier, R.A. (2002). A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10(Suppl.): 1-52.

Romanini de Oliveira et al., 2003

Callicebus nigrifrons

Distribution: Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil (20°45’S e 42°51’W).


Martins, 2003

Callicebus nigrifrons

Locality: Barreiro Rico, a privately-owned cattle ranch in the Atlantic Forest, near the confluence of the Rios Piracicaba and Tietê (22°41’S, 48°06’W), in the eastern part of the Central Plateau (c. 450-586 m altitude) of the state of São Paulo, south-eastern Brazil.


Cunha, 2004

Callicebus nigrifrons

Locality: Serra Dos Orgaos National Park

Remarks: species does occur here, but was not observed.


Steiner São Bernardo and Galetti, 2004

Callicebus nigrifrons

Locality: Mata São José (47°28’W, 22°22’S), between Rio Claro and Araras (São Paulo State, south-eastern Brazil).


Dumas et al., 2005

Callicebus personatus nigrifons

2n=42 (data in table).


Loretto and Rajão, 2005

Callicebus nigrifrons

Locality: Itatiaia National Park, at Trilha dos Três Picos (22°25’S – 22°26’S and 44°35’S – 44°36’S), and Trilha Maromba-Lamego (22°25’S- 22°26’S and 44°33’W- 44°37’W).


Melo, et al., 2005

Callicebus nigrifrons

Localities: Fazenda Esmeralda (20°04’16”S, 42°44’22”W); Fazenda Esmeralda (20°03’21.0”S, 42°44’10.0”W) and Fazenda Esmeralda de Cima (20°07’03.0”S, 42°44’11.0”W).


Martins, 2005

Callicebus personatus nigrifrons

Locality: Barreiro Rico, a privately-owned cattle ranch in the Atlantic Forest, near the confluence of the Rios Piracicaba and Tietê (22°41’S, 48°06’W), in the eastern part of the Central Plateau (c. 450-586 m altitude) of the state of São Paulo, south-eastern Brazil.

Martins, M.M. (2005). Density of primates in four semi-deciduous forest fragments of Sao Paulo,   Brazil. Biodiversity and Conservation 14:2321–2329.

Trevelin et al., 2007

Callicebus nigrifrons

Locality: Cantareira State Park, State of São Paulo, south-eastern Brazil (23°23’42”S, 46°35’27”W).


Caselli and Setz, 2007

Callicebus nigrifrons

Locality: Serra do Japi, São Paulo State.


Cäsar and Young, 2008

Callicebus nigrifrons

Locality: Private Nature Reserve of Serra do Caraça, Minas Gerais, Brazil (20°05S; 43°29W).

Cäsar, C. and Young, R.J. (2008). A case of adoption in a wild group of black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons). Primates 49: 146–148. 

Oliveira et al., 2008

Callicebus nigrifrons

Locality: The Parque Estadual Serra do Brigadeiro, Mantiqueira range (Serra da Mantiqueira) in the Forest zone (Zona da Mata) of Minas Gerais (42°40’-40°20’W, 20°33’-21°00’S).


Pinto and Grelle, 2009

Callicebus nigrifrons

Distribution: States of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo.

Pinto, M.P. and Grelle, C.E.V. (2009). Reserve selection and persistence: complementing the existing Atlantic Forest reserve system. Biodiversity Conservation 18: 957–968.

Auricchio, 2010

Callicebus nigrifrons

Localities: RJ Itatiaia (22°31’S 44°32’W); SP Serra da Cantareira (23°32’S 46°37’W); SP Itatiba (23°00’S 46°50’W); RJ, Itatiaia, Chevap – Funil (22°30’S 44°34′ W).

Auricchio, P. (2010). A morphological analysis of some species of Callicebus. Neotropical Primates 17(2): 47-58.

Fontes Nogueira et al., 2010

Callicebus nigrifrons

Localities: Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca (21°42’32,3″S, 43°53’45,3″w; 1100-1782 m.a.s.l.); Mata do Patuá (21°42’26,4″S, 43°51’39,4″W); Mata dos Luna (21°38’42,5″S, 43°52’45,1″W).

Fontes Nogueira, D.; Silva Ferraz, D. da; Fialho Oliveira, A.; Pedreira Tabacow, F.; Machado de Souza Amâncio, S.; Rodrigues de Melo, F. (2010). Occorrência de Primatas No Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca e Entorno, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Neotropical Primates 17(2): 67-70.

Barbosa Caselli and Freire Setz, 2011

Callicebus nigrifrons

Locality: Serra do Japi Municipal Ecological Reserve (23°11’S, 46°52’W) in Jundiaí, southwest
Brazil.

Barbosa Caselli, C. and Freire Setz, E.Z. (2011). Feeding ecology and activity pattern of black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons) in a semideciduous tropical forest of southern Brazil Primates 52:351–359.

Pereira dos Santos et al., 2010

Callicebus nigrifrons

Locality: the private nature reserve RPPN Santuário do Caraca, which is located 120 km east of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil in the municipal district of Catas Altas (20°05’52”S – 043°29’16”W).

Pereira dos Santos, G.; Galvao, C. and Young, R.J. (2010). The diet of wild black-fronted titi monkeys Callicebus nigrifrons during a bamboo masting year. Primates 53:265–272.

Souza Mendes et al., 2014

Callicebus nigrifrons

Locality: in and around the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Mata do Sossego, municipality of Simonésia, eastern Minas Gerais, souteastern Brasil (20º06’S – 41º59’W).

Souza Mendes, C.L. de; Oliveira dos Santos, B. de; Pereira de Laia, W. amd Alves de Souza, L. (2014). Diversidade de mamíferos de médio e grande porte da reserva particular do patrimônio natural da Mata do Sossego e seu entorno, Minas Gerais. Revista Brasileira de Zoociências 16: 27 – 41.

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