Literature incanescens

Kuhl, 1820

Callithrix melanochir

Synonym: Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein).

Kuhl, H. (1820).  Beiträge zur Zoologie und vergleichenden Anatomie pp. 40-41.

Desmarest, 1820

Callithrix melanochir (Wied-Neuwied, 1820)

Distribution: Brazil.

Synonym: Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein).

Desmarest, A.G. (1820).  Mammalogie ou description des espèces de mammifères 1: 86-88.

Wied, 1826

Callithrix melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein); Callithrix melanochir (Kuhl, 1820; Schinz, 1821); Callithrix gigot (Spix, 1823).

Wied, M. Prince of (1826). Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte Brasilien 2:114.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1827

Pithecia melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein); Callithrix melanochir (Wied-Neuwied, 1820; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820).

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Has the size of a Callithrix personatus. Its pelage is ash-coloured; the posterior part of his back and loins, as well as the extremity of the tail, is brown-reddish. The hands are sooty coloured.

Remark: we placed this species first in the genus Callithrix, but recently M. Cuvier, after an examination of the teeth, has transferred the species in the genus Pithecia.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (1827). Sagoin. Dictionnaire Science Naturelle 47 : 44-45.

Cuvier and Griffith, 1827

Simia Callithrix Melanochir

Synonym: Callithrix melanochir (Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820); Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein).

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Fur ash-coloured., hinder part of the back, lions, and extremity of the tail a reddish brown, anterior hands sooty black.

Cuvier, G. and Griffith, E. (1827). The Animal Kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization 5: 34.

Lesson, 1829

Callithrix melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein, ?); Callithrix melanochir (Wied-Neuwied, 1820; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820); Pithecia (Cuvier, 1825).

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Is 35 thumbs long, including a tail of 21 thumbs. His hairs are long, luxurious and soft; the face and four extremities are black, its pelage appears to be ash-coloured, as it is a mix of black and dirty-white; the back is brown-reddish; the tail is whitish, often almost white and sometimes with a yellowish tinge.

Lesson, R.P. (1829). Sagouin. Dictionnaire classique d’histoire naturelle 15:55.

Lesson, 1838

Callithrix melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Wied, Kuhl, Desmarest, 1820); Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein);Pithecia (Cuvier, 1825).

Distribution: Brasil.

Description: Its hairs are long, luxurious and soft; the face and the four extremities are black, and its pelage appears to be ashy-grey, as it is a mix of black and dirty-white; the back is brown-reddish; the tail is whitish, often almost white, en sometimes with a yellow hue.

Lesson, R.P. (1838). Compléments de Buffon, 2e édition Pp. 280-281.

Lesson, 1840

Saguinus personatus

Variation C: Callithrix melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Wied-Neuwied, 1820; Desmarest, 1820; Kuhl, 1820; Lesson, 1829; Cuvier, 1829; Jardine, 1833); Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein); Saguinus melanochir (Lesson, 1827); Cebus gigot (Spix, 1823); Pithecia melanochir (Cuvier, 1825; Desmarest, 1827); Cebus melanochir (Fisher, 1829; Griffith, 1829).

Distribution: The forests that border the Mucuri, the Alcobaça and the Belmonte (Wied).

Description: Hairs long, luxurious and soft. Face and hands black; pelage greyish, fading into brownish on the back; tail whitish or washed with white and yellowish, extremities greyish.

Remark: its young is known as Cebus cinerascens.

Lesson, R.P. (1840). Species des mammifères bimanes et quadrumanes pp. 161-167.

Schinz, 1844

Callithrix melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Kuhl, 1820; Wied, 1826); Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein); Callithrix gigot (Spix, 1823); Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823); Callithrix cinerascens (Spix, 1823).

Schinz, H.K. (1844). Systematische verzeichniss aller bis jetz bekannte Säugethiere oder Synopsis Mammalium nach dem Cuvier’schen System 1: 80-83.

Lesson, 1848

Callithrix melanochir

Synonyms: M. Spix has described under several names (C. nigrifrons, cinerascens, etc.) the differences in sex and age.

Distribution: Sertam de Bahia and on the banks of the Alcobaca and Belmonte.

Description: greyish with the front and hands black.

Lesson, R.P. (1848). Etudes sur les Mammifères Primates. Revue Zoologique par la Societé Cuvierienne 11:232-233.

Boitard, 1848

Saguinus personatus

Synonyms: Saguinus personatus (Lesson, 1827); Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Cuvier, 1829); Simia personata (Humboldt, 1812); Cebus personatus (Blainville, 1839); Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823); Callithrix infulatus (Lichtenstein); Callithrix melanochir (Wied, 1820; Neuwied, 1821); Callithrix incanescens (Liechtenstein); Saguinus melanochir (Lesson, 1827); Cebus gigot (Spix, 1823); Pithecia melanochir (Cuvier, 1825); Cebus melanochir (Fischer, 1829); Cebus cinerascens (Spix, 1823); Callithrix donacophilus (D’Orbigny, 1847), etc. etc.

“This synonymy proves very well how badly know this animal is to the authors, and especially how much men like to create new species to connect their names to it and to throw difficulties in science. With the help of M. Lesson, we are trying to unravel the chaos”.

Remarks: If the hairs are soft, long, luxurious, greyish, fading into brown on the back; the hands and face black; the tail whitish or tinges with white and yellow, with the tip greyish, it is the Callithrix melanochir of Wied-Neuwied and Desmarest, the Callithrix incanescens of Lichtenstein, the Saguinus melanochir of Lesson or the Cebus gigo of Spix.

Boitard, P. (1848). Dictionnaire Universel d’Histoire Naturelle 11:290-292.

Burmeister, 1854

Callithrix melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Wied, 1826; Wagner, 1848); Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein).


Reichenbach, 1862

Callithrix melanochir

Synonym: Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein).


Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus personatus melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Wied-Neuwied, 1820); Callithrix incanescens (Kuhl, 1820); Callithrix gigot (Spix, 1823 – part).

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus personatus melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Wied-Neuwied, 1820); Callithrix canescens (Kuhl, 1820); Callithrix gigot (Spix, 1823).

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