Literature melanochir

Wied, 1820

Callithrix melanochir

Locality: near the Rio da Cachoeira/Rio Ilheós. Morro d’Arara.

Description: Face and four hands black; hairs mixed blackish and whitish and looks therefore grey. Back reddish-chestnut brown. Tail whitish, often almost white, sometimes yellowish.

Wied-Neuwied (1820). Reise nach Brasilien in den Jahren 1815 bis 1817. pp. 140, 256.

Kuhl, 1820

Callithrix melanochir

Synonym: Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein).

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Same size and stature as personatus. Greyish, lower back and base of tail red-brownish. Hands ashy-grey.

Kuhl, H. (1820).  Beiträge zur Zoologie und vergleichenden Anatomie pp. 40-41.

Desmarest, 1820

Callithrix melanochir

Distribution: Brazil.

Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Wied-Neuwied, 1820); Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein).

Description: Pelage ash-coloured; posterior part of back and loins, and the extremity of the tail brown-reddish; hands sooty-coloured.

Remark: we only know this species from the characteristic sentence of M. Kuhl that we translate here.

Desmarest, A.G. (1820).  Mammalogie ou description des espèces de mammifères 1: 88.

Schinz, 1821

Callithrix melanochir

Distribution: on the coast of Brazil.

Description: Long hairs, dense and soft, mixed blackish and whitish and therefore grey. Back chestnut-brown, tail whitish or almost white, but also yellowish. Face and hands black.

Measurements: Head and body 325mm; Tail 550mm.

Schinz, H.K. (1821). Das Thierreich, eingetheilt nach dem Bau der Thiere als Grundlage ihrer Naturgeschichte und der vergleichenden Anatomie von den Herrn Ritter von Cuvier 1: 133.

Wied-Neuwied, 1821

Callithrix melanochir

Distribution: Morro d’Arara

Description: Long hairs, luxurious and soft; face and four hands black; pelage mixed black and dirty-white, which give the animal an ash-grey appearance; back brown-reddish; tail whitish, often almost white, and sometimes with a yellow tinge.

Measurements: body 350mm; tail 547mm.

Wied-Neuwied (1821). Voyage au Brésil 2: 9-10.

Cuvier, 1825

Remark: The large red-backed saki (Cebus melanochir Neuwied) has the same dentition as the other sakis.

Cuvier, F. (1825). Des dents des mammifères considérées comme caractères zoologiques. pp. 22.

Wied, 1826

Callithrix melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein); Callithrix melanochir (Kuhl, 1820; Schinz, 1821); Callithrix Gigot (Spix, 1823).

Distribution: There where C. personatus stops to live, discovered we for the first time this species at Mucuri, in the area of Lagoa d’Arara and further to the north everywhere: Alcobaça, Belmonte, Rio Pardo, Ilhéos, Itahype and in Sertam of Bahia, as far as the forests with fruits go. My experiences show that the southern border of the species is on the eastern coast the S. Matthaeus river, till 18º30’S, but the northern border is unknown.

Description: Fur very long, dense, ashy-grey. Middle and lower back reddish chestnutbrown. Hands black. Tail white-yellowish.
Male: the head is small and round, the ears hidden in the fur. The tail is in proportion with the length of the body longer than that of the C. personatus. The forehead is like it has been shaved, with dense, 9mm long hairs, reaching the ears; from here the hairs become very long, under the throat and the ears at longest; on the neck and shoulders become the hairs even longer and denser, on the middle back they reach 5 cm. The hairs on the belly are short, thin and woolly; one can see the skin through it.
The face is black, or dark-grey. The hairs of the head are ashy-grey at the roots, whitish on the tips. There where the high hair of the skull starts are the hairs on the division completely black; under the belly is it dark blackish-grey-brown, on the complete body with many alternating blackish and whitish rings, so that these parts seem to be a mixed ashy-grey. The back is yellow-reddish on the shoulders, and becomes reddish-chestnut brown on the lower back and sides of the body, where the dark parts of the hairs are blackish-brown and the lighter parts yellow-reddish; this red-brown part of the back contains the longest hairs of the body, airy and woolly at the base. Breast, the short neck, arms and legs, anus and root of tail have a blackish and whitish mix. The four hands are black; the inner side of the legs is brownish-black, mixed with whitish hairs; tail in some individuals almost completely white, in others ashy-grey and strongly white, where the hairs have a white-yellowish root and tip, and the middle part black. The tip is often more whitish; others have the tail yellow-reddish.
The female differs little from the male, but I discovered that the animals with a whitish tail normally were females.

Wied, M. Prince of (1826). Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte Brasilien 2:114-121.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1827

Pithecia melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein); Callithrix melanochir (Wied-Neuwied, 1820; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820).

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Has the size of a Callithrix personatus. Its pelage is ash-coloured; the posterior part of his back and loins, as well as the extremity of the tail, is brown-reddish. The hands are sooty coloured.

Remark: we placed this species first in the genus Callithrix, but recently M. Cuvier, after an examination of the teeth, has transferred the species in the genus Pithecia.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (1827). Sagoin. Dictionnaire Science Naturelle 47 : 44-45.

Temminck, 1827

Remark: Callithrix cinerascens of Spix is nothing but the young of Callithrix melanochir of the Prince of Neuwied.

Temminck, C.J. (1827). Monographies de mammalogie 1 :XV.

Lesson, 1827

Saguinus melanochir

Synonym: Saguinus melanochir (Desmarest, 1820); (Kuhl, 1820).

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: This species that has been described for the first time by Kuhl, has been discovered by the prince Maximilian of Neuwied, and is figured in his book. Ash-grey pelage, posterior part of back and loins and the extremity of the tail brown-reddish; hands sooty.

Lesson, R. P. (1827). Manuel de mammalogie ou histoire naturelle de mammifères pp. 56-57.

Cuvier and Griffith, 1827

Simia Callithrix Melanochir

Synonym: Callithrix melanochir (Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820); Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein).

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Fur ash-coloured., hinder part of the back, lions, and extremity of the tail a reddish brown, anterior hands sooty black.

Cuvier, G. and Griffith, E. (1827). The Animal Kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization 5: 34.

Stark, 1828

Callithrix melanochir

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Fur ash-coloured; posterior part of back and extremity of the tail of a reddish brown; anterior hands fuliginous.

Stark, J. (1828). Elements of natural history 1:55.

Fischer, 1829

Cebus melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Wied-Neuwied, 1820); Pithecia melanochir (Desmarest, 1827); Saguinus melanochir (Lesson, 1827).

Remark: according to Temminck is Callithrix cinerascens (Spix, 1823) a junior synonym.

Fischer, J.P. (1829). Synopsis mammalium Pp. 53-54.

Lesson, 1829

Callithrix melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein, ?); Callithrix melanochir (Wied-Neuwied, 1820; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820); Pithecia (Cuvier, 1825).

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Is 35 thumbs long, including a tail of 21 thumbs. His hairs are long, luxurious and soft; the face and four extremities are black, its pelage appears to be ash-coloured, as it is a mix of black and dirty-white; the back is brown-reddish; the tail is whitish, often almost white and sometimes with a yellowish tinge.

Lesson, R.P. (1829). Sagouin. Dictionnaire classique d’histoire naturelle 15:55.

Cuvier, 1829

Callithrix melanochir

Synonym: C. cinerascens is according to Temminck its young. Callithrix gigo – this name is given by Wied to his melanochir, on a way that we can think that it is a generic name.

Cuvier, G. (1829). Le Règne Animal, nouvelle édition 1: 104.

Wied-Neuwied, 1831wied melanochir 9x13

Callithrix melanochir

Distribution: On the eastern coast, north of the Rio Doçe, at least until the Rio das Contas. Also in the forests of Sertong in Bahia.

Description: the four hands black; body long and softly haired, ashy-grey; back reddish-chestnut-brown; tail long and slack, whitish or yellowish-grey.

Wied-Neuwied, M. de (1822-31). Abbildungen zur naturgeschichte von Brasiliens/ Recueil d Planches coloriées d’Animaux du Brésil.

Cuvier and Voigt, 1831

Simia (Callithrix) melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix gigot (Spix).

Description: Skin, face and hands black, body with ash-grey hairs, back chestnut-brown.

Remarks: C. cinerescens (Spix) is according to Temminck its young.

Cuvier, G. and Voigt, L.S. (1831). Das Thierreich geordnet nach seiner Organisation 1: 96-97.

Jardine, 1833

Callithrix melanochir

Distribution: Brasil.

Description: grey lower part of the back; end of the tail reddish; anterior hands dull black.

Jardine, W. (1833). The naturalist’s library  1: 223-224.

Wagner, 1833

Callithrix gigot (Spix, 1823)

Remarks: The prince of Neuwied has shown already earlier that this species is identical to his Callithrix melanochir, and this conformity would be clearer if the plate of Spix would have had the correct colouration.

Wagner, J.A. (1833). Critische Revision des brasilian. Affenarten. Isis von Oken 10(2):994.

Lesson, 1838

Callithrix melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Wied, Kuhl, Desmarest, 1820); Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein); Pithecia (Cuvier, 1825).

Distribution: Brasil.

Description: Its hairs are long, luxurious and soft; the face and the four extremities are black, and its pelage appears to be ashy-grey, as it is a mix of black and dirty-white; the back is brown-reddish; the tail is whitish, often almost white, en sometimes with a yellow hue.

Lesson, R.P. (1838). Compléments de Buffon, 2e édition Pp. 280-281.

Wagner, 1840

Callithrix melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Wied, 1826; Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820); Callithrix Gigot (Spix, 1823); Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823); Callithrix cinerascens (Young) (Spix, 1823).

Distribution: Its distribution starts where that of C. personatus ends. The southern limit is according to Neuwied the St. Mattheus River, therefore 18’30º, without indicating its northern limt. Spix gives for his C. nigrifrons the Minas Geraes province, and for C. cinerascens the forests on the Putomayo or Ica on the border with Peru, extending its distribution far to the west.

Description: This species is closely related to C. personata, and has also a very rich coat. Spix made three species of this, from which it is easy to see that they belong together. I will first start with the description of the Prince von Wied. The colour of the hairs on the head, which are long and bushy, and therefore give the head a large appearance, is ash-grey at the base and whitish at the tips; there where the longer hairs of the skull start they are completely black. The hairs of the belly are blackish ashy-brown; on the rest of the body blackish and whitish annulated, giving the animal a ashy-grey appearance; on the upper back they have a yellow-reddish hue, on the lower back and the sites they become chestnut-brown, because the hairs are blackish-brown and yellow-red annulated. Chest, limbs and base of tail have a black and whitish mixture; the tail is normally completely yellow-reddish, in some individuals almost completely white, in others ashy-grey mixed with white or yellowish, the tip of the tail being more whitish. Face and hands black; inner sides of hind limbs brownish-black; the iris yellow-brown. The female differs little from the male, but their tail is mostly white. In our specimen the colour is dark-grey, only the crotch and tail are reddish; the nice chestnut-brown of the back is missing completely. Little different is the youngster, that was described by Spix as C. cinerascens; it is only smaller and has grey hands. We see in this species a large variation in colour, and we must also add the C. nigrifrons of Spix. Temminck regards this species as the youngster of C. personata, in which he is wrong, as already from the size we can conclude that it is an adult and large specimen. Through its more reddish hues, especially below the limbs (but not on the middle of the feet), the belly and the tail, it resembles more C. personata than our grey specimens of the Gigo; as we know that this species varies very much, we cannot be wrong to lump C. nigrifrons with this species, if we can show the specific features. These are for C. melanochir that the pelage on the head is denser, not coal black, but that its hairs are black and yellowish annulated, the black dominating on the forehead, forming a black band, that is C. nigrifrons only more striking is than in the grey Gigo. The red spot in the neck fails, which distinguishes the males of C. personata.

Measurements: (Prince of Neuwied): Body 350mm; tail 550mm. (our grey Gigo): Body 400mm; tail 500mm. (C. nigrifrons): Body 400mm.

Wagner, J.A. (1840). Schreber, die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach natur mit Beschreibungen.       Supplementband, Erste Abtheilung: Die Affen und Flederthiere pp. 228-234.

Lesson, 1840

Saguinus personatus

Variation C: Callithrix melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Wied-Neuwied, 1820; Desmarest, 1820; Kuhl, 1820; Lesson, 1829; Cuvier, 1829; Jardine, 1833); Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein); Saguinus melanochir (Lesson, 1827); Cebus gigot (Spix, 1823); Pithecia melanochir (Cuvier, 1825; Desmarest, 1827); Cebus melanochir (Fisher, 1829; Griffith, 1829).

Distribution: The forests that border the Mucuri, the Alcobaça and the Belmonte (Wied).

Description: Hairs long, luxurious and soft. Face and hands black; pelage greyish, fading into brownish on the back; tail whitish or washed with white and yellowish, extremities greyish.

Remark: its young is known as Cebus cinerascens.

Lesson, R.P. (1840). Species des mammifères bimanes et quadrumanes pp. 161-167.

Schinz, 1844

Callithrix melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Kuhl, 1820; Wied, 1826); Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein); Callithrix gigot (Spix, 1823); Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823); Callithrix cinerascens (Spix, 1823).

Distribution: Alcobaca, Belmonte, Riopardo, Ilheo, Itahype rivers and in Sertam de Bahia.

Description: The pelage is long and the hairs very slack. The forehead is like it has been shaved, covered with dense hairs of the same length. The face is blackish or dark grey. The hairs of the head have an ashy-grey base, a whitish tip and the forehead has a black band. The belly is dark blackish-grey-brown, but on the whole body annulated black and white and therefore ashy-grey. On the upper back are the tips of the hairs yellow-reddish, on the middle and lower back and the sides of the body reddish-chestnut-brown. The four hands are black; the tail is in some almost completely white, in others ashy-grey.

Measurements: head and body 350mm; tail 550mm.

Schinz, H.K. (1844). Systematische verzeichniss aller bis jetz bekannte Säugethiere oder Synopsis Mammalium nach dem Cuvier’schen System 1: 80-83.

Lesson, 1848

Callithrix melanochir

Synonyms: M. Spix has described under several names (C. nigrifrons, cinerascens, etc.) the differences in sex and age.

Distribution: Sertam de Bahia and on the banks of the Alcobaca and Belmonte.

Description: greyish with the front and hands black.

Lesson, R.P. (1848). Etudes sur les Mammifères Primates. Revue Zoologique par la Societé Cuvierienne 11:232-233.

Boitard, 1848

Saguinus personatus

Synonyms: Saguinus personatus (Lesson, 1827); Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Cuvier, 1829); Simia personata (Humboldt, 1812); Cebus personatus (Blainville, 1839); Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823); Callithrix infulatus (Lichtenstein); Callithrix melanochir (Wied, 1820; Neuwied, 1821); Callithrix incanescens (Liechtenstein); Saguinus melanochir (Lesson, 1827); Cebus gigot (Spix, 1823); Pithecia melanochir (Cuvier, 1825); Cebus melanochir (Fischer, 1829); Cebus cinerascens (Spix, 1823); Callithrix donacophilus (D’Orbigny, 1847), etc. etc.

“This synonymy proves very well how badly know this animal is to the authors, and especially how much men like to create new species to connect their names to it and to throw difficulties in science. With the help of M. Lesson, we are trying to unravel the chaos”.

Remarks: If the hairs are soft, long, luxurious, greyish, fading into brown on the back; the hands and face black; the tail whitish or tinges with white and yellow, with the tip greyish, it is the Callithrix melanochir of Wied-Neuwied and Desmarest, the Callithrix incanescens of Lichtenstein, the Saguinus melanochir of Lesson or the Cebus gigo of Spix.

Boitard, P. (1848). Dictionnaire Universel d’Histoire Naturelle 11:290-292.

 Wagner, 1848

Callithrix melanochir

Synonym: Callithrix melanochir (Neuwied, 1826).

Distribution: eastern coast of Brazil, from the St. Mattheus river under 18º30 S northwards.

Remarks: The Prince of Neuwied declared his Gigo (C. melanochir) identical with the C. gigot of Spix, but the difference of the colour of the lower back is constant and large, and therefore both species should not be joined. In all specimens of Spix’s Gigot that I have seen, is the red-brown colouration which the Gigo of Neuwied shows non-existent. I cannot claim if there are other differences, as I do not know specimens of C. melanochir. Until further information this should be seen as an independent species.

The under the names Callithrix nigrifrons, melanochir, gigot and cinerascens described species have caused many problems to the zoologists. I had included them before under one species, for which I chose the name melanochir (Wagner, 1840). Lesson (1840) went even further, as he also included C. infulata and donacophila, all under the name C. personata, which was a big mistake. Temminck concluded that C. nigrifrons was only the young of C. personata, but he was wrong, as I showed before. After examination of a large number of specimens I am convinced that Spix was right when he separated C. nigrifrons from C. gigot. I further think that the Gigo of Neuwied differs from the species of Spix, and that C. canescens (Callicebus.nl: typo of Wagner, he means to say cinerascens)is also a separated species.
While I had before of C. nigrifrons only the specimen of Spix, I now was able to examine 14 specimens. The study of these 14 specimens gave me certainty that C. nigrifrons should be separated from both C. melanochir as from C. gigot.

Wagner, J.A. (1848). Callithrix. Springaffe. Beitrage zur kenntniss der Säugthiere Amerikas  Abhandlungen des Königl. Akademie des Wissenschaften München 5: 446-457.

I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1851

Callithrix melanochir

Synonym: C. melanochir (Wied, 1823).

Remarks: The Paris Museum has three specimens:
– one of the types of the species, from Brazil, from where it was brought by the prince of Wied;
– an individual from Brazil, interior of the Bahia province. Acquired in 1847. Back much less red than the first individual;
– acquired in 1849. Said to come from Côte-Ferme (?). Maybe a different species; the tail is vivid red.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I. (1851).  Catalogue méthodique de la collection des mammifères. Part 1 Mammifères, Introduction et catalogues des primates pp. 39-41.

Burmeister, 1854

Callithrix melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Wied, 1826; Wagner, 1848); Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein).

Distribution: in the area around the St. Mathaus river and more to the north on the Arara lake.

Description: around the face white-grey; forehead to almost the skull black. Rest of the body grey in different hues, all hairs annulated with dark and pale rings. The back and especially the lower back rusty-red; arms and legs lighter grey, hands black; tail yellowish or whitish.

Burmeister, H. (1854). Systematische Ubersicht des Thiere Brasiliens 1: 30-32.

Wagner, 1855

Callithrix melanochir

Synonym: Callithrix melanochir (Neuwied, 1826; Wagner, 1840, 1848).

Distribution: Coast of Brazil.

Remarks: differs from personata and nigrifrons by the colour of the lower back, possibly only a variety.

The under the names C. nigrifrons, melanochir, Gigot, and cinerascens proposed species have caused the zoologists much problems. I have united all of them before under the name C. melanochir. Lesson (1840) went even further, by not only including C. infulata and donacophila, but also including them all in the species C. personatus. This was clearly a mistake. Temminck assumed that C. nigrifrons was the young of C. personatus, which I have shown to be wrong. After examination of a large number of specimens I am convinced that Spix was right, when he separated C. nigrifronsfrom C. gigot. Further I am of the opinion that the Gigo of the Prince of Neuwied differs from the species of Spix, and that C. cinerascens is a different species.
While we had before only one specimen of C. nigrifrons, brought by Spix, I was able to study in Vienna 12 other specimens, and another specimen was donated before to the Munich Museum. From the examination of the 14 specimens I concluded that C. nigrifrons can be separated both from C. melanochir and C. Gigot.

Wagner, J. A. (1855). Schreber, die Saugethiere in Abbildungen nach natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband, Fünfte Abtheilung : Die Affen

Dahlbom, 1857

Callithrix melanochir

Synonym: C. melanochir (Wied, Geoffroy)

Description: Hands black; the hair is fine, soft and somewhat woolly with redder colour, which is mixed brown-yellow, black and grey. The back is sometimes rust-red. The tail is either grey; grey and black; mixed black, grey and rust-red; or totally rust-red. The head, throat and inside of the limbs are black and grey or black and mud-yellow mixed shades.

Measurements: body 400-450mm; tail 530mm.

Dahlbom. A.G. (1856-1857). Zoologiska Studier, afhandlande Djurrikets naturliga familjer 1: 151-153.

Reichenbach, 1862melanochir 9x13

Callithrix melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Wied); Callithrix incanescens (Lichtenstein).

Distribution: east-coast of Brazil, north of Rio Doçe, at least till the Rio des Contas. Also in the forests of Sertong in Bahia. Also recorded at the Rio St. Matthaeus and Lagoa d’Arara (Burmeister).

Description: Face black, nose and mouth grey. White-grey ring around face, forehead till skull black, back brown-red, rest of body including tail ashy-grey, hands black.

Measurements: head and body 350mm; tail 550mm.

Reichenbach, 1862. Die Vollständigiste Naturgeschichte der Affen.

Gray, 1870

Callithrix melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Wied-Neuwied, 1821). Type in Paris museum.

Distribution: Brazil, Bahia.

Description: Crown, throat, and inside of the limbs black and grey and black and testaceous mixed.

Variation 1: Fur less red.
Variation 2: Tail bright red (I. Geoffroy).

Gray, J.E. (1870). Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats in the collection of the British Museum pp. 54-57.

 Schlegel, 1876

Callithrix melanochir

Synonym: Callithrix melanochir (Wied, 1820, 1831).

Distribution: The Prince of Wied observed this monkey along the coast of Brasil from the Rio St. Matheus till Sertam de Bahia. Therefore this species lives north of C. personata.

Description: General tinge formed by black hairs with pale grey rings, black on the hands and forehead. Back strongly washed with a rusty hue. Hairs of the ears the same colour as the body. Hairs of the tail terminating in grey-white towards reddish. Hairs between the ears sometimes black, without light tips.

Remarks: The Leiden Museum has one specimen from Rio Belmonte, originating from the voyage of Wied: some of the hairs between the eyes are without a white tip; a second animal is from the east coast of Brazil; a third animal is also from Rio Belmonte, originating from the voyage of Wied.

It is important to recall that the Prince, citing as synonym of this monkey the Call. gigot of Spix, might have confounded both species. Therefore one shoudl not consider all individuals killed northwards from Ilhéos to belong to Call. gitot.

Schlegel, H. (1876). Les singes, Simia. Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Pays-Bas 12 :230-241.

 Jentink, 1892

Callithrix melanochir

Remarks: the Leiden museum has three individuals:
– an adult, one of the types, from Rio Belmonte, Brazil. From the collections of the Prince from Wied;
– an adult female from Brazil;
– an individual of mean age, one of the types of the species, from Rio Belmonte. From the Prince of Wied.

Jentink, F.A. (1892). Catalogue systématique des mammifères (singes, carnivores, ruminants, pachydermes, sirènes et cétacés). Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle des Pays Bas 11: 51-53.

Goeldi, 1893

Callithrix melanochir

Distribution: from the Doce River till the back lands of Bahia.

Description: The Guigó (C. melanochir), however, has an ashy colour, with the back chestnut brown, a very beautiful animal.

Goeldi, E.A. (1893). Os mammiferos do Brazil. Rio de Janeiro.

 Forbes, 1896

Callithrix melanochir

Synonym: Callithrix melanochir (Neuwied, 1826, 1831; Gray, 1870; Schlegel, 1876).

Distribution: Bahia, east coast of Brazil.

Description: General colour red, but the crown of the head, the throat, and inner side of the limbs, mixed black and grey; the hands and feet black.

Forbes, H.O. (1896). A Handbook of the Primates pp. 159-165.

Meerwarth, 1897

Callithrix melanochir

Distribution: On the coast till the Rio S. Matthaeus and Bahia.

Description: Under and upper side the same colour, never coppery; hands and feet black, tail covered with hairs of the same length. Colour predominantly black-grey, speckled, hands and feet pure black as is the front of the head. Back washed with red, ears and front the same colour as the rest of the body. Tail with yellow-white tip.

Meerwarth, H. (1897-1898). Simios (macacos) do novo mundo. Boletin do Museo Paraense de Historia Natural y Etn. 2: 121-154.

 Trouessart, 1898-1899

Callithrix melanochir

Synonym: melanochir (Wied, 1826; Schlegel, 1876).

Distribution: East Brazil, from Rio Sao Matthaeus till Sertam de Bahia, Rio Belmonte.

Trouessart, E.L. (1898-1899). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium 1: 44-46.

Trouessart, 1904-1905

Callicebus melanochir

Distribution: East Brazil, Bahia.

Trouessart, E.L. (1904-1905). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium. Quinquennale Suppl. Pp. 25-26.

 Elliot, 1913

Callithrix melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Kuhl, 1820; Desmarest, 1820; Wied, 1820, 1828; Wagner, 1840, 1855; I. Geoffroy, 1851; Dahlbom, 1856; Reichenbach, 1862; Gray, 1870; Schlegel, 1876; Forbes, 1894).

Type locality: Bahia.

Distribution: East coast of Brazil, from the Rio St. Mattheus Sertem to de Bahia.

Description: Male: Entire back from shoulders to tail, and flanks ferruginous; head, neck, shoulders and outer side of limbs iron grey, lightest on top of head and nape; inner side of limbs and under parts, blackish grey; tail brownish grey; more brown than grey at base; hands reddish brown; feet black. Female: forehead reddish; top of head yellowish grey; upper parts sooty grey tinged with reddish; outer side of limbs and under parts yellowish brown; hands and feet blackish brown; tail reddish brown. These specimens are in the Paris Museum. The male was obtained from the Prince of Wied, and must be a co-type from Brazil, the female was purchased from Parzudaki, no locality.

Skull: occipito-nasal length, 63; zygomatic width, 40; intertemporal width, 32; palatal length, 20; breadth of braincase, 35; median length of nasals, 11; length of upper molar series, 17; length of mandible, 43; length of lower molar series, 18.5. (Ex. British Museum specimen).

Remarks: This species has been usually attributed to the Prince of Wied, and Kuhl himself attaches the Prince’s name to the one he gives the species. But the ‘Beiträge’ in which the Prince’s description is found, was published six years after Kuhl’s work appeared, and even if he took a MS. name given by the Prince to the species, it would stand as Kuhl’s who first described it in 1820.

Elliot, D.G. (1913). A review of the primates 1: 234-257.

Rode, 1938

Callithrix melanochir

Synonym: Callithrix melanochir (Kuhl, 1820).

Specimen 99 – Paratype.

Locality: Brazil.

Remarks: Received in exchange from Prince Maximilian de Wied. “one of the type specimens of the species (I. Geoffroy)”. Skull in anatomy department. Adult, in good condition.

Rode, P. (1938). Catalogue des Types de Mammifères du muséum national d’histoire naturelle – 1      Ordre des Primates pp. 34-36.

Cabrera and Ypes, 1940

Callicebus melanochir

Distribution: eastern Brazil, from the Rio Doce till the “sertao” de Bahia.

Description: Has a colour very different from the other species mentioned. Its pelage is greyish, much darker on the under parts, and becoming vivid brownish-reddish on the lower back and sides. The hands and feet are blackish.

Cabrera and Ypes (1940). Mamiferos Sud Americanos. Compana Argentina de Editores, Buenos Aires pp. 85-88.

Vieira, 1955

Callicebus melanochir

Synonym: Callithrix melanochir (Kuhl, 1820).

Distribution: Bahia (Rio Belmonte); Espirito Santo (Rio Sao Matheus); Minas Gerais (Rio Doce).

Vieira, C. da C. (1955). Lista remissiva dos mamiferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 8 (10): 375-379.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Kuhl, 1820); Callithrix gigot (Spix, 1823); Saguinus melanochir (Lesson, 1827); Cebus melanochir (Fischer, 1829); Saguinus personatus variation C (Lesson, 1840); Callithrix gigo (Gray, 1870), Callicebus melanochir (Elliot, 1913); Callicebus gigot (Elliot, 1913).

Distribution: East Brazil, from the Bahia State to the Rio de Janeiro.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus personatus melanochir (Kuhl, 1820)

Type locality: Eastern Brazil (?Bahia). Paratype in Paris Museum (fide Elliot, and Rode) received in exchange from Prince Maximilian.

Distribution: The most northern race of personatus. Range extending over the coastal tract of northern Espirito Santo (Rio Sao Matheus) and northern Bahia (Rio Belmonte). Limited south by Rio Sao Matheus, which separates melanochir from true personatus; extending northwards to beyond Bahia de Todos os Santos.

Description: male: An erythristic race of personatus. Crown and throat black. Back (from shoulders to tail) and flanks ferruginous. Neck, shoulders, lateral aspects of limbs iron-grey; medial aspects of limbs and under parts blackish-grey; tail brownish-grey, more brown than grey basally; hands reddish-brown; feet black.
Female: Forehead more reddish; crown yellowish-grey; upper parts sooty grey with reddish tinge; hands and feet blackish-brown; tail reddish-brown.

Skull: dimensions in publication.

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Kinzey, 1982

Callicebus personatus melanochir

Distribution: Bahia, as far south as the Rio Itanuas (see map).

Description: dark-brown to steel-grey (the greyish from previously having been referred to as Callicebus gigot) with dark reddish-brown tail, a narrow black band between the forehead and the crown, and a gradual transition between the black hands and feet and the grey-to-brown forearms and legs.

Kinzey, W.G. (1982). Distribution of primates and forest refuges. Biological Diversification in the Tropics  pp. 455-482.

Kraft, 1983

Callicebus melanochir or Callicebus gigot

Synonym: Callithrix gigot

Remark: Type specimen present in Munich collection.

Kraft, R. (1983). Die von JB Spix beschriebenen neotropischen Primaten und Chiropteren Verzeichnis der in der Zoologischen Staatssammlung München. Spixiana Supplement . 9:429-441.

Hershkovitz, 1988

Callicebus personatus melanochir

Member of the moloch group. The systematic postion of the largest species, C. personatus, known only from skins and skulls, is uncertain. It may represent a distinct group.

Distribution: Bahia

Remarks: The buffy agouti to greyish agouti forehead, sideburns and throat are hardly distinguishable from the agouti crown, nape and anterior part of back. The dominantly pheomelanin agouti dorsum and greyish agouti under parts accord with the presumed colouration of the prototype of C. cinerascens. Cheiridia, however, are completely eumelanized, the tail with pheomelanin dominant.

Hershkovitz, P. (1988) Origin, Speciation, and Distribution of South American Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus (Family Cebidae, Platyrrhini), by Philip Hershkovitz . Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 140 (1): 240-272.

Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus personatus melanochir

Member of the moloch group. The systematic postion of the largest species, C. personatus, known only from skins and skulls, is uncertain.

Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Wied-Neuwied, 1820); Callithrix incanescens (Kuhl, 1820); Callithrix gigot (Spix, 1823 – part).

Type locality: Morro d’Arara or Fazenda Arara, Bahia, Brazil (Wied-Neuwied, 1820, p. 258). Subsequent restriction to the lower Rio Belmonte (= Rio Jequitinhonha) by Avila-Pires (1965, p.10), was unnecessary. Types in the Zoologische Staatssammlung, München. Syntypes in the natural history museums of Leiden (2), of Berlin (1), of Paris (1). According to Avila-Pires (1965, p. 10) the Paris museum type has been lost, but it seems to have reappeared; one of the two Leiden specimens, registered 17690, is here designated lectotype, the paralectotype is a skin and skull.

Distribution: Eastern Brazil, in the state of Bahia from the Rio Mucuri north to the Rio Itapicurii, west to the divide between coastal streams and Rio Sao Francisco; the area north of the Rio Paraguacu supports the extremely pale C. p. barbarabrownae.

Description: Forehead, entire crown, throat dominantly greyish agouti, buffy agouti or pale brownish agouti, the hairs finely banded.

Measurements: See table in publication.

Comparisons: Distinguished from C. personatus nigrifrons and C. p. personatus by forehead not sharply defined blackish, entire crown blackish agouti or greyish agouti like nape, sides of neck and throat greyish agouti or blackish agouti; from C. p. barbarabrownae by darker coloration, head dominantly eumelanin, not pheomelanin; from C. cinerascens by cheiridia and facial fringe blackish.

Specimens Examined: Total 6, al in Brazil. Bahia: Ilheus, 2; Rio Doce, 1; locality unknown, 3.

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Kobayashi, 1995

Callicebus personatus melanochir

Based on cranial measurements, the genus can be divided in five groups:

  • the donacophilus group (including modestus, olallae, d. donacophilus and d. pallescens)
  • the cupreus group (including caligatus, c. cupreus, c. discolor and c. ornatus)
  • the moloch group (including brunneus, h. hoffmannsi, h. baptista, moloch and cinerascens)
  • the personatus group (including p. personatus, p. nigrifrons, p. melanochir)
  • the torquatus group (including t. lucifer, t. lugens, t. medemi, t. regulus, t. purinus and t. torquatus).

The group position of C. dubius remains uncertain; C. oenanthe and C. barbarabrownae were not examined.

Kobayashi, S. (1995). A phylogenetic study of Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: 1. Phyletic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36(1): 101-120.

 Müller et al., 1997

Callicebus personatus melanochir

Locality: Estaçao Experimental Lemos Maia, Una District, Bahia, Brasil (15°18’S, 39°06’W); altitude about 100m asl.

Müller, K.; Ahl, C. and Hartmann, G. (1997). Geophagy in Masked Titi Monkeys (Callicebus personatus melanochir) in Brazil. Primates, 38(1): 69-77.

Heiduck, 1997

Callicebus personatus melanochir

Locality: Lemos Maia Experimental Station, near the town of Una, in the southern part of the state of Bahia (15°20’S, 39°05’W).

Heiduck, S. (1997). Food Choice in Masked Titi Monkeys (Callicebus personatus melanochir): Selectivity or Opportunism?International Journal of Primatology 18(4): 487-502.

Kobayashi and Langguth, 1999

Callicebus melanochir

Specimens examined: Fazenda Imbaçuaba, 30 km N de Prado, Bahia; Ilhéus, Bahia.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus personatus melanochir

Synonyms: Callithrix melanochir (Wied-Neuwied, 1820); Callithrix canescens (Kuhl, 1820); Callithrix gigot (Spix, 1823).

Distribution: Probably between the Rio Paraguaçu and lower Rio Jequitinhonha.

Description: (after Hershkovitz, 1990). Pelage multibanded; forehead, crown, and throat grey- to buff- or pale-brown agouti.

Remarks: Hershkovitz (1990) described the confusion in the literature over the use and significance of the name gigot (Spix, 1823); the holotype is an example of C. p. melanochir.


Chiarello et al., 2001

Callicebus personatus melanochir?

Localities: six Atlantic Forest reserves and fragments in the north of Espírito Santo in south-eastern Brazil (18º12’–19º48’S; 39º50’–40º15’W; see map). Sooretama Biological Reserve; Linhares Forest Reserve; Rio Preto National Forest; Córrego do Veado Biological Reserve; M7/317; Putiri.

Remarks: Regarding the masked titi monkey, the study sites are within the range of one subspecies (Callicebus personatus personatus), which occurs on both banks of Rio Doce (Kinzey, 1982; Rylands et al., 1996). Kinzey (1982) stated that the Bahian subspecies, Callicebus personatus melanochir, occurs as far south as Rio Itaunas in Espírito Santo, including, therefore, one of our surveyed sites (CGBR). Unfortunately, we neither saw nor heard masked titis in Córrego Grande Biological Reserve; therefore, we could not ascertain which form occurs there.

Chiarello, A.G. and de Melo, F.R. (2001). Primate Population Densities and Sizes in Atlantic Forest Remnants of Northern Espírito Santo, Brazil. International Journal of Primatology 22(3): 379-396.

Heiduck, 2002

Callicebus personatus melanochir

Distribution: The south-east Bahian subspecies C. p. melanochir ranges from the south of Rio Paraguaçu to the Rio Mucuri (Fonseca et al., 1994). It borders the range of C. p. personatus in the south and C. p. barbarabrownae in the north-west. The north-eastern area up to Rio Sao Francisco was formerly considered to be part of the range of C. p. melanochir but is now recognized to be the range of C. coimbrai (Fonseca et al., 1994).

Heiduck, S. (2002). The use of disturbed and undisturbed forest by masked titi monkeys Callicebus personatus melanochir is proportional to food availability. Oryx 36(2): 133-139.

Roosmalen et al., 2002

Callicebus melanochir

Type locality: Morro d’Arara or Fazenda Arara, state of Bahia, Brazil. The holotype is an adult female, mounted without skull, no. 26, Zoologische Staatssammlung, München, Germany. Syntypes, two in Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, Holland, of which no. 17690 is designated lectotype by Hershkovitz (1990), one in Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany, one in Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France, skin no. 505, skull no. A2.815, all mounted with skull in skin, collected April 1816.

Distribution: Hershkovitz (1990) gives the range as the Atlantic coastal forest of eastern Brazil, north from the Rio Mucurí in the state of Espírito Santo to the Rio Paraguaçú in Bahia. As discussed for C. personatus, it would seem that the southern limit is not clear-cut, and is possibly marked by a zone of intergradation in the valleys of the Rios Itaúnas and Mucurí in northern Espírito Santo. To the north, C. melanochir extends as far as the Rio Paraguaçú, where it meets the range of C. barbarabrownae (Hershkovitz, 1990; Oliver and Santos, 1991; Flesher, 1999). Inland it would appear that its range is limited by inhospitable liana forests and dry forests of the interior of the state of Bahia. South of the Rio Jequitinhonha, it is restricted to coastal forest, being replaced by C. personatus further inland.

Description: Forehead, crown, and throat dominantly greyish agouti, buffy or pale brownish agouti, the hairs finely banded, cheiridia and facial fringe blackish, overall the least colourful member of the personatus group. Distinguished from C. nigrifrons and C. personatus by the forehead not being sharply defined blackish, entire crown blackish agouti or greyish agouti like nape, and sides of neck and throat greyish or blackish agouti; from C. barbarabrownae by overall much darker coloration; from C. coimbrai by greyish agouti, buffy or pale brownish agouti forehead, crown, and throat.

van Roosmalen, G.M.; van Roosmalen, T. and  Mittermeier, R.A. (2002). A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10(Suppl.): 1-52.

De Vleeschouwer et al., 2004

Callithrix melanochir

Locality: Una Biological Reserve, Bahia, Brazil (15°07–15’S, 39°15–25’W).


Pinto and Grelle, 2009

Callicebus melanochir

Distribution: States of Bahia, Minas Gerais and Espirito Santo.

Pinto, M.P. and Grelle, C.E.V. (2009). Reserve selection and persistence: complementing the existing Atlantic Forest reserve system. Biodiversity Conservation 18: 957–968.

Auricchio, 2010

Callicebus melanochir

Locality: BA, (loctip Morro Dárara ou Faz Arara) (14°00’S 40°00’W).

Auricchio, P. (2010). A morphological analysis of some species of Callicebus. Neotropical Primates 17(2): 47-58.

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