Kobayashi and Langguth, 1999
Type locality: Proximity of the small village Aragão, in the region of Santana dos Frades about 11.0 km SW of Pacatuba, state of Sergipe, Brazil (10°32’S, 36°41 ‘W, alt. 90 m). The locality is south of the estuary of the Rio São Francisco.
Holotype: (UFPB 1599) Adult female, stuffed skin, complete skeleton. Skull slightly damaged. Obtained from a native hunter by S. Kobayashi and A. Langguth on January 30, 1994.
Paratypes: (UFPB 1600) Young adult female, stuffed skin, complete skeleton, skull damaged; same locality as holotype. (UFPB 1859) Adult female, stuffed skin, complete skeleton. Collected at Fazenda Arauari, about 10 km East-southeast of Maruim, (10°45’S, 37°00’W, alt. 75 m). (UFPB 1860) Adult female, stuffed skin, complete skeleton, skull damaged. Collected at the same locality as UFPB 1859. (MN 30550) Adutl female, stuffed skin, complete skeleton. Collected at Fazenda Cruzeiro, about 13 km South-southeast of Cristinápolis, on the left margin of the Rio Real, state of Sergipe, Brazil (about 11°29’S, 37°46’W, alt. c. 100 m). Paratype AFPB 1600 will be deposited in the Natural History Museum of Kyoto University, Japan.
Distribution: This new titi monkey is known from the three localities listed above, between the Rio São Francisco and the Rio Real which marks the southern border of the state of Sergipe. It is probably restricted to the south of the Rio São Francisco, but the southern limit to its range is unknown. Titis have been reported near the right bank of the Rio Real in the south. Oliver and Santos (1991), for example, obtained reports of titi monkeys from the vicinities of Cachoeira do Abadia and Jandaira, on the south bank of the Rio Real, in the north-east of the state of Bahia. The western limit of the distribution is also unknown. C. coimbrai is a true inhabitant of the Atlantic coastal forest, and it is believed that its range does not extend west to the highlands inland where the vegetation is drier and characterised by caatinga – thorn scrub, deciduous forest and gallery forest (Rizinni et al., 1988). Titis occurring there are probably referable to the form barbarabrownae.
Description: A titi of the Personatus group (sensu KobaYashi, 1995), but quite easy to distinguish from the other members of the group by the black forehead, crown and ear and the buffy trunk. The metaloph on the upper first and second molars is fragmented, and takes the form of two conical conules instead of a continuous crest. ln general appearance C. coimbrai is easily identified as a member of the Personatus group by both the blackish head and the orange or brownish tail. Within the Personatus group, the new form is sharply distinguished from Barbara Brown’s titi C. barbarabrownae and Spix’s (1823) figure of C. gigot, by its black head and crown with a clear line demarcating the whitish back of the crown and nape, as well as the buffy preauricular stripe and brownish tail. C. coimbrai differs from the other three members of the Personatus group by the buffy colour of its pelage, the zebra-striped pattern of the anterior half of the back, the well-defined whitish band across the back of the crown and nape, and the buffy preauricular stripe.
Description of the holotype: Forehead, crown, and ear black (a few buffy hairs on the forehead) and well demarcated from the other parts of the body; hairs on posterior crown whitish, the fine tips blackish, bases dark; nape also whitish, the fine tips of hairs blackish, bases dark (eumelanin), cheeks dominantly blackish, but with some hair tips buffy, remainder of shaft black; the side of the cheek has a buffy vertical stripe; shoulders, upper arms, forearms, thighs and legs buffy, the fine tips of hairs blackish with subterminal pheomelanin band followed by a eumelanin band and another pheomelanin band, hair bases eumelanin; anterior back of trunk buffy with faint black zebra-like stripes, hair band pattern same as the sides of the trunk; sides of trunk paler buffy, the hair tips blackish with three pheomelanin bands, hair bases eumelanin; posterior part of trunk brownish buffy, banding pattern of hairs same as the shoulders but some of the pheomelanin bands more pigmented; chest, throat and belly paler buffy, the fine tip of the hairs blackish with two pheomelanin bands, hair bases eumelanin; hands, wrists, ankles and feet blackish; tail dominantly orange, the hairs orange in outer half and brown in inner half; all under fur eumelanin coloured; skin of face, ear, palm and sole blackish.
Variation: ln two individuals the whitish cheek bands are wider, and the zebra-like pattern of anterior back is rather less distinct; in another the zebra-like pattern is not clear on the anterior third of the back and the brownish colour on the posterior part of the back extends forwards occupying one-third of the trunk.
Remarks: The distribution of the new form is allopatric. The habitat may have been contiguous with that of the nearest forms, C. barbarabrownae to the west and C. melanochir to the south, before the widespread destruction and fragmentation of their forests through human activities (Coimbra-Filho and Camara 1996), but evidence concerning this will be difficult to obtain. Furthermore, there are striking differences in the habitat of the three forms. The Atlantic forest in the south of the state Bahia (C. melanochir) is different to that in Sergipe, and the semiarid habitat of C. barbarabrownae is very different from the Atlantic forest, although in the past more humid forests were widespread in the region (Coimbra-Filho and Camara 1996). The new form is clearly distinguishable, and there is no evidence of hybridisation or transitional phenotypes. The presence of melanochir-like phenotypes within the C. coimbrai populations would be an indication of gene flow and would argue for their classification as subspecies, but this is not the case. Recently, Marinho-Filho and Verissimo (1997) reported new records of C. barbarabrownae at about the same latitude of C. coimbrai but further to the west, in small forest enclaves in the Caatinga of Canudos, Jeremoabo and Monte Santo, localities of Northern Bahia. Further information must be obtained from the region south of the Rio Real to the Rio Paraguaçu in Bahia, where scattered and isolated populations of titi monkeys undoubtedly still exist, but their identity has still to be ascertained (Oliver and Santos, 1991). The forms in such as Callithrix and Leontopithecus, which show similar patterns in terms of their distribution and differentiation in the Atlantic forest, are classified as species (Kinzey, 1982; Mittermeier el al. 1988; Natori, 1989; Rylands et al. 1993).
As shown by the multivariate analyses, the craniometric shape of the new form is quite differentiated, and the degree of differentiation from the other members of the Personatus group corresponds to that found between species of the other Callicebus groups. For similar reasons, it is also considered that the other members of the Personatus group are not subspecies but full species.
Kobayashi, S. and Langguth, A. (1999). A new species of titi monkey, Callicebus Thomas, from north-eastern Brazil (Primates, Cebidae). Revista brasileis Zoologia 16(2): 531-551.
De Sousa, 2000
Localities: Mata do Crasto, municipality of Santo Luzia do Itanhy, State of Sergipe; Mata do Dira, municipalities of Itaporanga and Laranjeiras, State of Sergipe; Matas do Conde, municipalities of Conde and Jandaïra, state of Bahia.
Callicebus personatus coimbrai
Synonym: Callicebus personatus coimbrai (Kobayashi and Langguth, 1999).
Distribution: It seems to be restricted to the coastal region between the Rio Sao Fransisco and Rio Real; in the drier hinterland it is replaced by C. barbarabrownae, which, like the other supposed subspecies of C. personatus, they regarded, doubtless correctly, as full species.
Description: Kobayashi and Langguth, whose description was published just in time to be included in this book, distinguished their new species by its black forehead, crown, and ears and buffy body; pale cheek whiskers, this colour reaching to nape; hands and feet blackish, tail orange; and zebra stripes on forepart of back.
Roosmalen et al., 2002
Type locality: Proximity of the small village Aragão, in the region of Santana dos Frades about 11 km south-west of Pacatuba, state of Sergipe, Brazil (coordinates 10º32’S, 36º 41’W), altitude 90 m. The locality is south of the estuary of the Rio São Francisco. The holotype is an adult female, UFPB no. 1599, mammal collection of the Departamento de Sistemática e Ecologia, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, state of Paraíba, Brazil, collected January, 1994, by S. Kobayashi and A. Langguth.
Distribution: First described from three localities in eastern Brazil, along the coast of the state of Sergipe, between the Rio São Francisco in the north and the Rio Real in the south (the southern border of Sergipe). Oliver and Santos (1991) obtained reports of the occurrence of titi monkeys in the vicinities of Umbauba, Estância, and Aruá in coastal southern Sergipe, and also at Cachoeira da Abadia and Jandaira in north-east Bahia, which are probably referable to C. coimbrai. They indicated that the Rio São Francisco was the northern limit to the range of the genus in the Atlantic forest. Sousa (2000) reported two further localities in Sergipe: Mata do Crasto in the municipality Santa Luzia do Itanhy, and the Mata do Dira in the municipalities of Itaporanga and Laranjeiras. Sousa (2000) also reported hearing vocalizations of titi monkeys in the Matas do Conde, municipalities of Conde and Jandaira in extreme northern Bahia in 1996. The western limits of its range are unknown, but Ricardo B. Machado (pers. comm. 1989), Marinho-Filho and Veríssimo (1997) recorded Callicebus in forest patches in the Caatinga, inland between Monte Santo and Uauá in the upper valley of the Rio Vaza-Barris, and Jeremoabo and Canudos in northern Bahia. Marinho-Filho and Veríssimo (1997) identified them as the form barbarabrownae, although they are at about the same latitude as coimbrai. The evidence obtained by Kobayashi and Langguth (1999) indicated that C. coimbrai is today restricted to the humid coastal Atlantic forest of Sergipe, and that its southern limit is the Rio Itapicurú in Bahia, the northern limit to the range of C. barbarabrownae (Hershkovitz, 1990). Considering the widespread and rapid destruction of the forests in northern Bahia and Sergipe even in the early 16th Century (Coimbra-Filho and Câmara, 1996), C. coimbrai undoubtedly had a much broader range in the past.
Description: Forehead, crown, and ears black; trunk buffy; cheiridia blackish; tail orange; sideburns, cheeks, back of head, and nape pale buffy; anterior half of dorsum saddle-backed (with striped pattern). Distinguished from all other titis of the C. personatus Group by black forehead, crown, and ears sharply contrasting with buffy sideburns, cheeks, back of head, nape, and trunk.
van Roosmalen, G.M.; van Roosmalen, T. and Mittermeier, R.A. (2002). A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10(Suppl.): 1-52.
Localities: Mata da Santana (10°32’S, 36°44’W); Mata do Serigy (10°33’S, 36°42’W); Mata do Oiteiro (10°39’S, 37°03’W); Mata do Cadoz (10°23’S, 36°39’W); Mata da Serra Preta (10°30’S, 37°37’W);Mata da Fazenda Sabão (11°30’S, 37°34’W); Mata da Aiumas (10°25’S, 36°39’W); Mata da Aguada (10°40’S, 36°56’W); Mata do Junco (10°32’S, 37°03’W); Mata da Nova Descoberta (11°06’S, 37°19’W); Mata da Fazenda Trapsa (11°12’S, 37°14’W); Mata do Crasto (11°22’S, 37°25’W); Mata do Dira (10°53’S, 37°21’W); Mata da Arauari (10°45’S, 36°59’W).
Jerusalinsky et al. 2006
Distribution: many new sites and a map are supplied.
Rodriguez et al., 2006
The specimen studied herein presented a karyotype with 44 chromosomes, with 13 biarmed pairs and 8 acrocentrics. The X chromosome is a submetacentric and the Y is a small acrocentric.
Remarks: The karyotypic data obtained herein indicates a stronger association between C. coimbrai and C. personatus than with C. nigrifrons.
Sousa et al., 2008
Localities: a large number of localities are mentioned in the publication, and there is a detailed map. See here.
Remarks: Observations of C. coimbrai in the forest fragments in its distribution area and of captive animals have shown differences in fur colour patterns, differences that can be seen in individuals of a same group. These differences were observed in populations of the driest areas and in the humid forest of the coastal region and can be due to different causes: a reactive change in the structure of the melanin pigments for photo protection, diet or ontogenic differences.
The first colour pattern was based in the holotype collected and photographed by Kobayashi and Langguth (1999) in the Atlantic rain forest (Mata Atlantica) in the north of Sergipe. It is a beige and ochre pattern relatively similar to the one observed in specimens of Sergipe, which present discrete differences in the lines on the face, and a lot of similarity in the colouration of the body, being striped in beige, black and grey, and in the conspicuous white spot in the cervical area, probably a characteristic of young individuals. The main differences observed in animals from the dry forest and the humid coastal forests are: (1) the face colouration, cheeks and front are totally black or with beige lines more or less apparent; (2) the orange, brown or orange/brown colouration of the tail; (3) The cervical area is white, beige or whitish beige; (4) the body is beige striped with iron brown grooves, or beige and ochre, or beige with brown, grey/black and beige/white stripes.
On the other hand, the black colouration of the hands and feet was observed in all individuals. Therefore, we feel that the fur colouration is not reliable as a taxonomic character, although it was used by Kobayashi and Langguth, together with cranial and dental morphometry, for the species description. Moreover, the fur colouration was used to differentiate C. coimbrai and C. barbarabrownae, although the colour pattern variation within a same population could be greater than the one observed between these two species of the personatus group. The lack of specimens in scientific collections compromises the resolution of this taxonomic challenge.
Pinto and Grelle, 2009
Distribution: State of Sergipe.
Pinto, M.P. and Grelle, C.E.V. (2009). Reserve selection and persistence: complementing the existing Atlantic Forest reserve system. Biodiversity Conservation 18: 957–968.
Locality: SE, Cristinapolis, Faz. Cru¬zeiro (11°28’S 37°45’W).
Auricchio, P. (2010). A morphological analysis of some species of Callicebus. Neotropical Primates 17(2): 47-58.
Souza-Alves et al., 2011
Locality: Fazenda Trapsa (11°81’20”S, 37°81’40”W) in the municipality of Itaporanga d’Ajuda in the
northeastern Brazilian state of Sergipe.