Literature chloroenemis & primaevus.

Lund,1839

Callithrix primævus (fossil species)

Locality: between the Rio das Velhas (an affluent of the Rio de S. Franscisco) and the Rio de Paraopeba.

Lund, P. W. (1839). Coup d’œil sur les espèces éteintes de mammifères du Brésil ; extrait de quelques mémoires présentes à l’Académie royale des Sciences de Copenhague. Annales des Science Naturelles 2 (11) : 214-234.

Lund, 1840

Callithryx chloroenemis (species living currently)
Callithrix primaevus (fossil species)
Jacchus grandis (fossil species)

Lund, P. W. (1840). Nouvelles recherches sur la faune du Brésil. Annales Science Naturelle.  2 (13): 310-319.

Lund, 1841

Callithrix primaevus (fossil species)
Jacchus grandis (fossil species)
Callitrix antiquus

Remarks: …, finally, two species have been added to the Order Quadrumana, namely Grandis jacchus and Callithrix primævus, both have been twice as large as any of the existing species. This order consequently counts three species in the earlier period in Rio das Velha’s.

I have in my previous essay mentioned the here living Guigo as well as an intermediate species between the genera Mycetes and Callithrix. The strength of its voice, the development of the tracheal head and the resulting changes in cranial build are the same as in howler monkeys. When none of the writers, I had at hand (Cuvier, Illiger, etc.), took the slightest notice of these important characters of the genus Callithrix, I felt compelled to, despite the outer harmony with the other species of this genus, to hold my Guigo different from these, forming a transition between them and the howler monkeys. However, reading the prince of Neuwied’s “Beiträge”, from which I for some time had been separated, I see that that traveller have noticed among the observed species of the genus Callithrix a peculiar development of the vocal organ showing an approximation to the well-known build of this organ in Mycetes. I therefore do not hesitate grouping my Guigo with the genus Callithrix, although it, as a species, is different from the Prince of Neuwied’s Gigo, as well as from Spix’s Call. Gigot.
Both mentioned author’s spelling of this name is incorrect, as it is not pronounced as Jigo, still less as Jigot but as we would pronounce “Gigoh” and therefore in Portuguese should be written as it in reality also is written by the Brazilians, ‘Guigó’.

Lund, P. W. (1841). Blik paa Brasiliens Dyreverden för sidste Jordomvaeltning. Tredie Afhandlung: Fortsettelse af Patteddyrene. Afhandligen Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Naturvidenskabelige og Mathematiske Afhandlinger. 8: LXXXVII + 254-255.

Lund 1842

Callithrix chlorocnemis (species living currently)
Callithrix primaevus (fossil species)
Jacchus grandis (fossil species)

Lund, P. W. (1842). Fortsatte Bemærkninger over Brasiliens uddöde Dyrskabning. Afhandligen Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs   Naturvidenskabelige og Mathematiske Afhandlinger. 9:135.

Lund, 1843

I have in my previous essay mentioned the here living Guigo as well as an intermediate species between the genera Mycetes and Callithrix. The strength of its voice, the development of the tracheal head and the resulting changes in cranial build are the same as in howler monkeys. When none of the writers, I had at hand (Cuvier, Illiger, etc.), took the slightest notice of these important characters of the genus Callithrix, I felt compelled to, despite the outer harmony with the other species of this genus, to hold my Guigo different from these, forming a transition between them and the howler monkeys. However, reading the prince of Neuwied’s “Beiträge”, from which I for some time had been separated, I see that that traveller have noticed among the observed species of the genus Callithrix a peculiar development of the vocal organ showing an approximation to the well-known build of this organ in Mycetes. I therefore do not hesitate grouping my Guigo with the genus Callithrix, although it, as a species, is different from the Prince of Neuwied’s Gigo, as well as from Spix’s Call. Gigot.
Both mentioned author’s spelling of this name is incorrect, as it is not pronounced as Jigo, still less as Jigot but as we would pronounce “Gigoh” and therefore in Portuguese should be written as it in reality also is written by the Brazilians, ‘Guigó’.

Lund, P.W. (1843). Anmerkungen über den Guigo. Isis von oken. Year 1843, 10:754-755.

Reichenbach, 1862

Callithrix chlorocnemis

Distribution: valley of the Rio das Velhas.

Remarks: I do not have a description or figure of this species.

Reichenbach, H.G.L. (1862). Die Vollständigiste Naturgeschichte der Affen.

Winge, 1895

Callithrix personata

Synonyms: Jacchus grandis (Lund, 1842); Callithrix chloroenemis (Lund, 1842).

Locality: Extant at Lagoa Santa. Remnants found in Lapa da Serra das Abelhas (upper end of a femur).

Remarks: The dug up femur, which is of a very old monkey, corresponds so clearly with a present day Callithrix personata, that there can hardly be any species difference. It is negligible larger than the fresh femur with which it has been compared, the Trochanter minor is slightly more rounded, the crest at the base of the Vastus internus is a little sharper, and the crest in the ligament around the Collum femoris is also a little sharper. Compared with Nictipithecus, Pithecia, Mycetes, Hapale, Cebus, Ateles, etc. there is a good difference.

Lund’s latest List of monkeys from Lagoa Santa (A look at Brazil’s Animals, 4th essay, 1842, p. 64) is as follows (attached names are names that Lund has previously used in his thesis):

Now living : Callithrix chlorocnemis m. (Mycetes crinicaudus)
Fossil: Callithrix primaevus (C. antigues)

Jacchus grandis has been established from an upper end of a femur, which undoubtedly belongs to Callithrix personata. The reason that Lund has found similarities with Hapale (Jacchus) greater than similarities with Callithrix are probably that the Callithrix-femur, as can be seen that Lund has used for comparison, incidentally by skeletonizing has been damaged and consequently the crest in the ligament around the Collum femoris has almost completely been scraped off

Callithrix chlorocnemis (Lund) is C. personata (Geoffroy). In the outer it coincides well with pictures and descriptions from Spix, Wied and Schlegel.  Callithrix primævus has been described from a dug up ulna, which hardly differs any from the Ulna of Mycetes seniculus.

About Callithrix personata Lund wrote: “The strength of its voice, the development of the tracheal head and the resulting changes in cranial build are the same as in howler monkeys” and Weldon has found the thyroid cartilage from a young female rather large and partially ossified. (At the Zoological Museum there is not a single larynx or hyoid bone from Callithrix). A powerful voice seems to be common in all Cebids, and larynx and hyoid bone from other species than Mycetes are also somewhat adapted here to.

Winge, H. (1895). Jordfundne og nulevende aber (Primates) fra Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes, Brasilien : med udsigt over pungdyrenes slægtskab.

Trouessart, 1898-1899

Callithrix personata

Synonyms: personata (Geoffroy, 1812; Spix, 1823; Wied, 1826; Gray, 1970); melanops (Vigors, ?); p. fossilis (Winge, 1895); p. grandis (Jacchus) (Lund, 1842; Winge, 1895); chlorocnemis (Lund, 1842; Winge, 1895); antiqua (Lund, 1842).

Remarks: fossilis; p. grandis (Jacchus) and chlorocnemis are extinct.

Trouessart, E.L. (1898-1899). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium 1: 44-46.

Trouessart, 1904-1905

Callicebus personata

Synonyms: personata (Geoffroy, 1812); † fossilis (Winge, 1895); † grandis (Lund, 1842; Winge, 1895); † chlorocnemis (Lund, 1842); † antiqua (Lund, 1842).

Trouessart, E.L. (1904-1905). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium. Quinquennale Suppl. Pp. 25-26.

Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus personatus nigrifrons

Synonyms: Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823 – plate) ; Pithecia melanops (Vigors, 1829, Gray, 1870); Callithryx [sic] chloroenemis (Lund, 1840 – nomen nudum); Callithrix chloroenemis [sic] (Lund, 1842 – nomen nudum); Callithrix crinicaudus (Lund, 1841); Jacchus grandis (Lund, 1841);
Callicebus personatus brunello (Thomas, 1913).

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus personatus nigrifrons

Synonyms: Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823); Pithecia melanops (Vigors, 1829); Callithryx chlorocnemius (Lund, 1840); Callithrix crinicaudatus (Lund, 1841); Jacchus grandis (Lund, 1841); Callicebus personatus brunello (Thomas, 1913).

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