Literature brunello

Thomas, 1913

Callicebus personatus brunello

Distribution: Sao Paulo and Rio Janeiro Provinces. Type from Piquete, N.E. Sao Paulo. Alt. 600m.

Remarks: Among the titi monkeys in the British Museum which have been referred to Callicebus personatus there appear to be two different forms, one from the N.E. corner of Sao Paulo, no doubt that which also occurs near Rio Janeiro itself, and another from the state of Espiritu Santo, whence a good series of it were sent by Mr. Robert. The original Callithrix personatus of Geoffroy was without any more exact locality than “Brésil”, and its description is too brief to be distinctive, though the words “pelage cendré-fauve”, correspond better with the Espiritu Santo form than with the more southern one.
Apart from Humboldt, who merely reproduced Geoffroy’s diagnosis, the next author after Geoffroy to mention the species is Desmarest, who describes fairly fully what he identifies as C. personatus from specimens brought by Auguste Saint-Hilaire from the coast-region between 18º30’ and 21º S. on the rivers Itabapuana and others, including the Rio Doce, Espiritu Santo – therefore quite the region where Mr. Robert’s series was collected.
In spite, therefore, of Spix, Burmeister, and other authors identifying the Rio Janeiro titi with C. personatus, it seems to me that Desmarest’s determination, being the first, should be accepted, especially as he probably had for examination the type described by Geoffroy eight years before. This type would seem to have disappeared by 1851, as it is not mentioned in I. Geoffroy’s Catalogue of that date.
In the Espiritu Santo specimens the upper surface and especially the nape, shoulders, and arms down to the wrists are broadly washed with pale greyish white. From this the more southern form may be distinguished as follows:

Description: General characters as in true personatus, including the extent of black on the face, crown, ears, hands, and feet, and in this respect similarly differing from C. nigrifrons, in which only a narrow frontal band is black, the crown being dark grey. Whole of upper surface greyish brown, this colour extending uniformly over the nape, shoulders, and back. Under surface similarly brown, without any tinge of reddish on the chest. Fore limbs proximally a similar greyish brown, inconspicuously speckled with buffy, very different from the conspicuously whitish forearms of true personatus; hands and wrists black. Hind limbs similar, the greyish brown extending to the ankles. Tail dull reddish.

Measurements: (of the type): head and body 380mm; tail 420mm; hind foot 100mm; ear 30mm.

Skull: in publication.

Thomas, O. (1913). New mammals from South America. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8) 12:567-574.

Vieira, 1944a

Callicebus personatus brunello

Synonym: Callicebus personatus brunello (Thomas, 1913).

Type locality: Piquete, state of Sao Paulo.

Description: specimen 5.931, an adult male, has the head till neck, ears, throat and naked face black; neck very pale yellow; back light brown-reddish turning into shiny chestnut-reddish in the region of the tail base; arms light chestnut, some whitish on the forearms; legs and thighs paler chestnut; hands and feet completely black; chest and belly pale orange-brown; tail reddish-brown on the base, becoming darker towards the tip.

Remarks: the Callicebus personatus of E. Geoffroy (1812) corresponds according to Thomas (1913) to the form of Esperito Santo, later described by Desmarest (1820) from specimens collected by A. de Saint-Hillaire of the coastal region of that state. The geographical distribution given by various authors for this race was completely inexact. The zoological department has three specimens of which one origins from Colatina, Rio Doce, Esperito Santo and two others from the lower Sussui, affluent of the same river, Minas Gerais.

The principal difference between the subspecies created by Thomas is in the colour of the arms, where it presents less whitish than the species from Esperito Santo.

Measurements: head and body: 410/400/380mm; tail: 450/440/-mm.

Vieira, C. da C. (1944a). Os Simios do Estado de Sao Paulo. Papeis Avulsos do Departemento de Zoologia, Sao Paulo 4(1): 1-31.

Vieira, 1955

Callicebus personatus brunello

Synonym: Callicebus personatus brunello (Thomas, 1913).

Distribution: Serra da Mantiqueira, divisions between Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais.

Vieira, C. da C. (1955). Lista remissiva dos mamiferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 8 (10): 375-379.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus personatus brunello

Synonyms: Callithrix personatus (Spix, 1823); Callicebus personatus brunello (Thomas, 1913).

Distribution: Eastern Brazil, in the Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo States. Type locality: Piquete, Sao Paulo.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus personatus brunello (Thomas, 1913)

Synonym: Callicebus personatus brunello (Thomas, 1913)

Type locality: Piquete, N.E. Sao Paulo. Type in British Museum.

Distribution: Coastal area of S.E. Brazil in Provinces of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, especially the Serra Mantiqueira. Vieira (1955) gives an extension of the range info Minas Gerais along the Sussui, an affluent of the Rio Doce.

Description: male: much like typical personatus, especially in extent of black on face, crown, ears and extremities, and, like it, differing in these respects from nigrifrons, where only the frontal band is black.
Whole upper surface greyish-brown, extending uniformly over nape, shoulders and back. Under parts similarly brown and without rufous suffusion on chest. Fore-limbs proximally greyish-brown inconspicuously speckled with buff (in contrast with to the conspicuously speckled whitish forearms of true personatus). Wrists and hands black; hind-limbs similar to fore-limbs, the grey-brown extending distally to ankles; tail dull reddish. Female: no sexual differences recorded.

Measurements: head and body 380mm; tail 420mm; foot 100mm.

Skull: dimensions in publication.

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Kraft, 1983

Callicebus personatus brunello

Synonym: Callithrix personata

Remark: Type specimen present in Munich collection.

Kraft, R. (1983). Die von JB Spix beschriebenen neotropischen Primaten und Chiropteren Verzeichnis der in der Zoologischen Staatssammlung München. Spixiana Supplement . 9:429-441.

Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus personatus nigrifrons

Synonyms: Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823 – plate) ; Pithecia melanops (Vigors, 1829, Gray, 1870); Callithryx [sic] chloroenemis (Lund, 1840 – nomen nudum); Callithrix chloroenemis [sic] (Lund, 1842 – nomen nudum); Callithrix crinicaudus (Lund, 1841); Jacchus grandis (Lund, 1841); Callicebus personatus brunello (Thomas, 1913).

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus personatus nigrifrons

Synonyms: Callithrix nigrifrons (Spix, 1823); Pithecia melanops (Vigors, 1829); Callithryx chlorocnemius (Lund, 1840); Callithrix crinicaudatus (Lund, 1841); Jacchus grandis (Lund, 1841); Callicebus personatus brunello (Thomas, 1913).

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