Callicebus personatus barbarabrownae
Member of the moloch group. C. personatus is the largest species of the genus; its systematic position is uncertain.
Synonyms: Callithrix gigot (Spix, 1823 – part, colour pl. only, not type description in text, p. 22; Callithrix Gigot (Wagner, 1833 – part, reference to original colour plate only; Wagner, 1848 – “a northern variety of nigrifrons or melanochir”); Callithrix gigot (Kraft, 1983 – part, not holotype, reference to original color plate of Spix); Callithrix gigot (Reichenbach, 1862; Gray, 1866);
Callithrix gigo [sic] (Gray, 1870); Callicebus gigot (Elliot, 1913 – part, characters ex original coloured figure); Callicebus gigot gigot (Hill, 1960 – part); Callicebus personatus (Napier, 1976);
Callicebus personatus melanochir (Kinzey, 1982 – part).
Type locality: Lamarao, Bahia, Brazil, altitude about 300 m above sea level. Holotype in British Museum.
Distribution: Known only from the coastal highlands of north central Bahia, Brazil, between the Rio Paraguacu to the south and Rio Itapicuru to the north. The genus has not been recorded in Bahia north of the Itapicuru basin, west in the Rio Sao Francisco versant or between the Rio Paraguay and Rio Contas. Titis occurring south of the Contas are referable to C. personatus melanochir.
Description: Palest member of the species; general coloration buffy to silvery; forehead, crown, throat dominantly buffy, hairs except fine blackish tips nearly or entirely pheomelanin.
Holotype: Superciliary vibrissal line blackish, forehead, crown to anterior plane of ears, dominantly buffy, adpressed hairs with tips blackish, remainder of shaft buffy; raised hairs of remainder of crown buffy, the fine tips blackish, bases eumelanin; nape, shoulders dominantly pale bluff, the blackish hair bases showing through surface; hairs of back and sides of body with subterminal pheomelanin band followed by eumelanin band and another pheomelanin band, hair bases eumelanin; thighs, upper arms paler, forearms, legs like back; hands blackish, feet blackish except metatarsal patch buffy like ankles and legs; throat, chest, belly nearly entirely buffy, hair bases dilute eumelanin; tail dominantly orange, upper surface of base paler, or yellowish, hair bases eumelanin, remainder of tail entirely pheomelanin; scattering of fine short pheomelanic facial hairs not concealing blackish skin; ear tufts and skin blackish.
Holotype distinguished by 2 cm midback patch with cover hairs missing, the dark brown under fur fully exposed.
Variation: the type series of six specimens from Lamarao are fairly uniform. Two specimens from Formosa appear darker on back, nape, and tail because of the greater exposure of the basal eumelanin of the hairs. A female (BM 18.104.22.168) without locality data that survived six months in the London Zoo, agrees with holotype but with back and under parts paler, the hairs entirely pheomelanin; skin of face and ears paler.
Measurements: See table in publication.
Comparisons: Distinguished from geographically nearest Callicebus personatus melanochir by dominantly buffy (pheomelanic) crown, side of head, throat, trunk, and limbs with the subterminal pheomelanic bands of hairs paler; from nigrifrons and personatus by forehead not blackish.
Remarks: The discovery of Callicebus personatus barbarabrownae reveals an unsuspected dichotomy in the differentiation of the species. It appears that a northern population of the agouti prototype of C. personatus evolved into the pheomelanin-dominant barbarabrownae, and a southern parapatric population took the eumelanin pathway. Because of habitat destruction and fragmentation of the Atlantic coastal forest, the original boundary between the subspecies is represented by a wide geographic gap.
The colour plate of Callithrix gigot Spix (1823, pi. 16) indicates an animal distinct from the one named melanochir three years earlier by Wied-Neuwied (1820, p. 258). Nonetheless, Wied-Neuwied (1826) regarded the two forms as identical but likely had in mind the description in text. Few authors followed this decision, although Cabrera (1958) includes gigot in the synonymy of melanochir. Judged by the original colour plates only, Callithrix melanochir and C. gigot are indeed distinct, as noted earlier by Wagner (1833, 1848). Callicebus personatus melanochir is figured as a basically greyish-bodied animal with reddish back, forehead greyish, crown in front blackish, tail variegated. The figured Callithrix gigot is entirely buffy-bodied, with brow line blackish, crown buffy, tail buffy like trunk. Spix’s (1823) original description of the holotype of gigot, however, is of a very different animal. Elliot (1913) had already noted that “Spix’s figure [of gigot] … in no way represents the type, which is a darker animal and of quite a different colour. Spix’s description, however, is fairly accurate.” The type specimen of gigot I examined in the Munich Museum, and that of a topotype in the Rio Museum (MNR 1 1201) from Ilheus, conform fairly well to that of Wied-Neuwied’s melanochir. On the other hand, the trunk of a specimen (FMNH 20444) from Bandeira do Melo, Rio Paraguacu, NW of Ilheus, is dominantly buffy as figured for gigot, its tail deep reddish as described for gigot. The series of British Museum specimens from Formosa (2) and Lamarao (6) in the same region NW of Ilheus, exhibit the same figured characters of gigot.
If Ilheus is indeed the type locality of gigot, and nothing in Spix’s text indicates otherwise, then gigot as originally described and represented by the mounted type specimen in the Munich Museum is indistinguishable from Wied-Neuwied’s C. p. melanochir. On the other hand, the FMNH skin only from Bandeira de Melo, the BM material from Formosa and Lamarao, together with Spix’s figure of a titi mistakenly labelled gigot, represent the distinct population of the northernmost known geographic limits of the species, here named C. p. barbarabrownae.
Specimens examined: Total 9 all from Brazil. Bahia – Bandeira do Melo, Rio Paraguacu, 1; Formosa, 2; Lamarao, 6.
Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.
Based on cranial measurements, the genus can be divided in five groups:
- the donacophilus group (including modestus, olallae, d. donacophilus and d. pallescens)
- the cupreus group (including caligatus, c. cupreus, c. discolor and c. ornatus)
- the moloch group (including brunneus, h. hoffmannsi, h. baptista, moloch and cinerascens)
- the personatus group (including p. personatus, p. nigrifrons, p. melanochir)
- the torquatus group (including t. lucifer, t. lugens, t. medemi, t. regulus, t. purinus and t. torquatus).
The group position of C. dubius remains uncertain; C. oenanthe and C. barbarabrownae were not examined.
Kobayashi, S. (1995). A phylogenetic study of Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: 1. Phyletic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36(1): 101-120.
Marinho-Filho and Wilson Verissimo, 1997
Callicebus personatus barbarabrownae
Distribution: Until now, C. p. barbarabrownae was recorded only in three localities: Lamaráo (11º46’S, 38º52’W), Bandeira de Melo (13º03’S, 41º49’W) and Formosa (11º18’S, 41º02’W) the most western record for the species. The genus has never been recorded west of the Chapada Diamantina, in the Rio Sao Francisco versant. We observed a troop of Barbarabrown titis during fieldwork as a counterpart to an irrigation project to be set up in the region of Mirorós (11º24’S, 42º17’W), in the municipality of Ibipeba, state of Bahia. There are also some recent unpublished reports of Callicebus surviving in small forest enclaves in the caatinga, north of the Itapicuru basin: R. B. Machado and A. Brandt, in 1988, observed a population of Callicebus at the Serra da Quixaba in the municipalities of Canudos (9º54’S, 39º01’W) and Monte Santo (10º26’S, 39º20’W) north of the Rio Vaza-Barris (see map), northern Bahia (pers. comm.). Ilmar Santos, in 1990, also recorded Callicebus at Jeremoabo (10º04’S, 38º20’W) a little to the east, on the northern margin of the Rio Vaza-Barris (pers. comm.). In all cases they report a characteristic yellowish colouration. This information and the geographic location of the areas allow us to regard these animals as Barbarabrown titis, suggesting that the Rio Sao Francisco, instead of Rio Itapicuru, could also be the northern limit for the distribution of Callicebus personatus.
Remarks: we obtained a skin of a Barbarabrown titi killed by a hunter and could confirm our identification in the field. The skin (no skull) is deposited as a voucher specimen in the Zoological Collection of the Department of Zoology of the University of Brasilia.
Marinho-Filho, J. and Wilson Verissimo, E. (1997). The Rediscovery of Callicebus personatus barbarabrownae in Northeastern Brazil with a New Western Limit for Its Distribution. Primates 38(4): 429-433.
Kobayashi and Langguth, 1999
Locality: Bandeira de Melo, Rio Paraguaçu, Bahia; Mirorós, Ibipeba, Bahia.
Distribution: C. coimbrai is a true inhabitant of the Atlantic coastal forest, and it is believed that its range does not extend west to the highlands inland where the vegetation is drier and characterised by caatinga – thorn scrub, deciduous forest and gallery forest. Titis occurring there are probably referable to the form barbarabrownae (see map).
Callicebus personatus barbarabrownae
Synonym: Callicebus personatus barbarabrownae (Hershkovitz, 1990).
Distribution: Probably between the Rio Itapicuru and Rio Paraguaçu; coastal highlands of north-central Bahia.
Description: (after Hershkovitz, 1990). Body pale, buffy to silvery. Forehead, crown, and throat buffy, the hairs black-tipped.
Roosmalen et al., 2002
Type locality: Lamarão, Bahia, Brazil, altitude about 300 m above sea level. The holotype is a skin and skull, no. 22.214.171.124, British Museum of Natural History, London, U.K., collected June 1903 by Alphonse Robert.
Distribution: According to Hershkovitz (1990), the coastal highlands of the north-central part of the state of Bahia, Brazil, between the Rios Paraguaçú, just north of the city of Salvador, and Itapicurú. The western limits to its range are unknown but probably, at least historically, the middle reaches of the Rio São Francisco. Ricardo B. Machado and the late A. Brandt (pers. comm. 1988) recorded a population of Callicebus at the Serra da Quixaba in the municipalities of Canudos and Monte Santo, north of the Rio Vaza-Barris, northern Bahia (39º20’W, 10º15’S). Ilmar B. Santos also recorded Callicebus at Jeremoabo, a little to the east, on the northern margin of the Rio Vaza-Barris in 1990 (pers. comm.). Marinho-Filho and Veríssimo (1997) confirmed the westernmost locality. They observed it in gallery forest at Mirorós, municipality of Ibipeba, western Bahia (11º24’S, 42º17’W). C. barbarabrownae was evidently once widespread in forests east and south of the Rio São Francisco (see Coimbra-Filho and Câmara, 1996), but today survives only in small forest enclaves in what is now predominantly caatinga (dry thorn scrub).
Description: Superciliary vibrissal line black, forehead and crown to anterior plane of ears dominantly buffy; raised hairs of rest of crown buffy, the fine tips blackish; sideburns, nape, and shoulders pale buff; hairs of back and sides of body banded pheomelanin and eumelanin; thighs and upper arms paler, forearms and legs like back; cheiridia blackish; throat, chest, and belly nearly entirely buffy; tail dominantly orange, base of tail yellowish; ears and skin blackish.
Distinguished from C. melanochir by dominantly buffy crown, sideburns, throat, trunk, and limbs with the subterminal pheomelanic (buffy) bands of hairs paler; from C. nigrifrons and C. personatus by forehead buffy instead of blackish; from C. coimbrai by buffy forehead and crown.
van Roosmalen, G.M.; van Roosmalen, T. and Mittermeier, R.A. (2002). A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10(Suppl.): 1-52.
Pinto and Grelle, 2009
Locality: semidecidous forests along rivers inside Caatinga biome.
Locality: Ba, Mirorós – Faz Conceição (11°24’S 42°17’W).