Literature brunneus

Wagner, 1842

Callithrix brunea

Description: saturated dark Callithrix, black line on front, black hands; pelage short and adpressed.

Measurements: head and body 312mm; tail 437mm.

Wagner, J.A. (1842). Diagnosen neuer Arten brasilischen Säugthiere. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 8(1): 356-357.

Lesson, 1848

Callithrix brunnea

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: pelage dark brown, with a black frontal band and hands.

Lesson, R.P. (1848). Etudes sur les Mammifères Primates. Revue Zoologique par la Societé Cuvierienne 11:232-233.

Wagner, 1848

Callithrix brunnea

Synonym: Callithrix brunnea (Wagner, 1842).

Locality: on the Rio Madeira.

Description: A species discovered by Natterer, related to C. caligata, resembling in size, stature and black band on forehead; it differs by the chestnut-brown colour, the complete black hands and the dark tail. Resembles C. nigrifrons , but the C. brunnea differs by its colouration, the small size and the short pelage with slack and not bushy hairs.
The dominant colour is a shiny rusty chestnut-brown with light brownish tips. This colour becomes towards the head very light yellow-brownish, while it becomes darker on the sides of the body and the limbs; the hands are completely black. The hairs are at the first half dark rusty-brown, then black with light yellow-brownish rings. On the neck and back of the head the terminal part of the hairs is uniform light brownish-yellow, showing only this colour, which is sharply demarcated from the rest of the head. The head is on the anterior half covered with shiny, coal-black hairs, which are at the back mixed with rusty-red, while the hairs here have short foxy-red tips. The dark colouration of the forehead is separated sharply from the light colouration of the back of the head over the middle of the skull. The sides of the face are also black. The ear is covered is rather long black hairs. The underside of the body is covered sparsely with black-brown, vaguely ringed hairs. The tail is uniform dark-brown, with very faded annulation, but becomes lighter on the tip. Face, ears and naked parts of hands and scrotum are black, only on the lips covered with some whitish hairs.

Wagner, J.A. (1848). Callithrix. Springaffe. Beitrage zur kenntniss der Säugthiere Amerikas Abhandlungen des Königl. Akademie des Wissenschaften München 5: 446-457.

Wagner, 1855

Callithrix brunnea

Synonym: Callithrix brunnea (Wagner, 1842, 1848).

Remarks: A species discovered by Natterer, that is related to C. caligata, with which is agrees in size, stature and the black band on the forehead. However, it differs in the rusty chestnut-brown colour, the completely black hands and the dark tail. Some resemblance to C. nigrifrons could be found, but C. brunnea differs in colour, by the smaller size and the shorter hairs of the pelage. The colour is somewhat rusty chestnut-brown with light brownish tips. This colour becomes towards the head very pale yellow-brownish, while it becomes on the sides of the body and on the limbs darker; the 4 hands are completely black. The hairs are at the base dark rusty-brown, then black with yellow-brownish rings. On the neck and back of the head is the terminal half of the hairs light brownish-yellow, making this part of the body this colour, sharply marked from the dark forehead. The forehead is covered with dark coal black hairs, at the back mixed with rusty-red, while the hairs here have foxy red tips. The dark colouration of the forehead is sharply separated on the middle of the head from the lighter colouration of the back of the head. The sides of the head are covered towards the forehead with shiny black hairs. The inner side of the ears are covered with long black hairs. The under side of the body is sparely covered with black-brown hairs that are vaguely annulated. The tail is uniform dark-brown, with very vague rings, but becomes towards the tip lighter. Face, ears, soles and scrotum are black. Some white hairs on lips.

Measurements: head and body 313mm; tail 438mm.

Wagner, J. A. (1855). Schreber, die Saugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband, Fünfte Abtheilung : Die Affen

Reichenbach, 1862brunneus 9x13

Callithrix brunnea

Synonym: Callithrix brunnea (Wagner, 1842).

Distribution: Brazil.

Description: Dark brown. Face black-grey, forehead black. Upper head and upper back because of the white tips of the hairs with a strong white-grey hue. Only the tip of the tail is whitish, hands black.

Measurements: head and body 375mm; tail 375mm.

Reichenbach, 1862. Die Vollständigiste Naturgeschichte der Affen.

Schlegel, 1876

Callithrix brunnea

Synonym: Callithrix brunnea (Natterer, Wagner 1842, 1848).

Distribution: Rio Mamoré, rapids of Bonaneira.

Description: General colour brown-chestnut brown; on the ventrum, brownish-black and on the tail dark brown. Hands and a large frontal band blakc; occiput brown-yellowish.

Schlegel, H. (1876). Les singes, Simia. Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Pays-Bas 12 :230-241.

 Von Pelzen, 1883

Callithrix brunnea

Synonyms: Callithrix brunnea (Wagner, 1842, 1848, 1855; Reichenbach, 1862; Schlegel, 1876).

Distribution: Rio Marmoré, Cachoeira da Bananeira.

Description: Were heard at the end of the day near a ranch, the call was almost like the Saa (= Callithrix nigrifrons) from Capitania of Sao Paulo, gargling; I shot four; one of them kept hanging high in a tree. Iris hazel brown. Naked skin of face and hands black. Scrotum and penis black. The tail straight and stiff. Clitoris very small, as well as the labia, all blackish.

Measurements: Male: total length: 87,6cm; tail 49,3cm; length of hairs on tip of tail 6,1cm. Female: total length: 82,6cm; tail 45,7cm; length of hairs on tip of tail 3,6cm.

Pelzen, A. von (1883). Brasilische Säugethiere pp. 19-20.

Forbes, 1896

Callithrix personata

Synonyms: Callithrix personatus (Geoffroy, 1812; Spix, 1823; Gray, 1870); Callithrix brunnea (Wagner, 1842); Pithecia melanops (Vigors, 1829); Callithrix personata (Schlegel, 1876).

Distribution: Upper Amazon. Of all the species of this genus, this range furthers to the south – to 14º S. lat.

Description: Size larger than that of the other titis. Style of fur the same as in C. cinerascens, but longer, and the long stiff hairs more bristly; general colour black, mottled with grey rings on the hairs; back grizzled grey; entire head, hands, feet, and lower part of limbs, black; chest, under side of the body, and tail dark ashy-grey, the latter washed at the base, sometimes extensively, with rufous, and grey towards the tip below. The female has the body strongly washed with whitish-yellow, and the tail with rufous; forehead between the ears, black.

Forbes, H.O. (1896). A Handbook of the Primates pp. 159-165 + plate 14.

Meerwarth, 1897

Callithrix personatus

Distribution: Rio Mamore.

Description: Under and upper side the same colour, never coppery; hands and feet black, tail covered with hairs of the same length. Colour predominantly brown, more or less pale, becoming reddish on the tail. Hands, front, face and throat also black. Body predominantly chestnut, under side brown-black. Tail black, occiput brown-yellow.

Remarks: I agree with Forbes (1896) that brunnea is reunited with personatus.

Meerwarth, H. (1897-1898). Simios (macacos) do novo mundo. Boletin do Museo Paraense de Historia Natural y Etn. 2: 121-154.

Trouessart, 1898-1899

Callithrix personata

Synonym: personata (Geoffroy, 1812; Spix, 1823; Wied, 1826; Gray, 1970); melanops (Vigors, ?); p. fossilis (Winge, 1895); p. grandis (Jacchus) (Lund, 1842; Winge, 1895); chlorocnemis (Lund, 1842; Winge, 1895); antiqua (Lund, 1842).

Distribution: Upper Amazonia, from Rio Sao Matthaeus and Rio Doce till the region of Rio Janeiro.

a) – brunnea (Wagner, 1842, 1855; Pelzeln, 1883; Reichenbach, 1896).

Distribution: Rio Mamoré, Cascada de Baneira.

Trouessart, E.L. (1898-1899). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium 1: 44-46.

Trouessart, 1904-1905

Callicebus personata

Synonyms: personata (Geoffroy, 1812); † fossilis (Winge, 1895); † grandis (Lund, 1842; Winge, 1895); † chlorocnemis (Lund, 1842); † antiqua (Lund, 1842).

Distribution: Brazil, from Upper Amazonia Rio Janeiro.

a)brunnea

Distribution: Rio Mamoré.

Trouessart, E.L. (1904-1905). Catalogus mammalium tam viventum quam fossilium. Quinquennale Suppl. Pp. 25-26.

Elliot, 1913

Callicebus brunneus

Synonym: Callithrix brunneus (Wagner, 1842, 1855; Reichenbach, 1862; Schlegel, 1876; von Pelzen, 1883).

Type locality: Falls of the Bananeira, Rio Mamore, Brazil (Type in Vienna Museum).

Description: Face black; forehead black; hairs tipped with red; these red tips are absent on the centre of the forehead in front, which is jet black, but behind this and on the sides the red tips dominate, and the colour is dark red, the black not showing; whiskers dark red, hairs tipped with black, just the opposite to the colouring of the forehead; top and back of head, back and sides of neck, and entire upper parts pale yellowish brown, the hairs being rufous and tipped with yellowish brown, which becomes the dominant colour of the upper parts; throat, breast, under parts, flanks and limbs on inner and outer sides reddish chestnut, some hairs on inner side of arms tipped with black; hands and feet black; tail reddish chestnut, hairs with black tips, tip of tail yellowish brown tufts on ears black.

Measurements: Total length, 815mm; tail, 440mm; foot, 90mm.

Remarks: Three specimens are in the Vienna Museum, a male and two females obtained by Natterer. It is a strongly marked species not to be confounded with any other. Unfortunately there is no skull. The general appearance is that of a reddish animal with a yellowish brown back and black forehead. There is no difference in colour between the sexes.

Elliot, D.G. (1913). A review of the primates 1: 234-257.

Cruz Lima, 1945

Callicebus brunneus

Synonym: Callithrix brunnea (Wagner, 1842).

Distribution: Information as to the range of this species is restricted to the locality from which the type came.

Description: Face black; forehead black; hairs tipped with red; these red tips are absent on the centre of the forehead in front, which is jet black, but behind this and on the sides the red tips dominate, and the colour is dark red, the black not showing; whiskers dark red, hairs tipped with black; just the opposite to the colouring of the forehead; top and back of head, back and sides of neck, and entire upper parts pale yellowish brown, the hairs being rufous and tipped with yellowish brown, which becomes the dominant colour of the upper parts; throat, breast, under parts, flanks and limbs on inner side of arms tipped with black; hands and feet black; tail reddish chestnut, hairs with black tips, tip of tail yellowish brown; tufts on ears black (= Elliot’s description of the type in the Vienna Museum). Sexes similar.

Measurements: (of the type) total length 815mm; tail 440mm; foot 90mm.

Remarks: Type in the Vienna Museum, obtained together with two females by Natterer.
Elliot says that this species is distinctly characterized and need not to be confused with any other. The simple comparison of the above description given by him of the type in the Vienna Museum with the specimens of C. caligatus belonging to the Museu Goeldi shows, on the contrary, that the two species are very closely related, the only noticeable difference between the two forms being restricted to the colour of the tail (in C. brunneus Elliot says the tail is reddish chestnut, a colour which absolutely is not found on the tail of C. caligatus), for even the red tips of the hairs on the forehead and the black tips of the hairs on the arm are also found, although on a small scale, in the last-mentioned species. It is true that Meerwarth in his key, following Schlegel, gives the colour of the tail of C. brunneus as black and of the under parts as black brown, which would eliminate the principal distinguishing feature between the two forms, although he gives them as separate forms in the key. But one must note that there is evident confusion with the southern species C. personnatus, which also has a chestnut tail and blackish-brown belly. Forbes adds to this confusion by identifying C. brunneus with C. personnatus, but the latter is distinguishable from the two other forms by the black throat and sides of the head, which are not found in C. caligatus nor in C. brunneus, and by its sexual dimorphism. A priori one might consider C. caligatus and C. brunneus at least as subspecies or local varieties, which perhaps is the case, taking in also the southern form, but it is still unknown. Trouessart subscribes to this view and considers C. brunneus a subspecies of C. personatus.

Cruz-Lima, E. da (1945). Mammals of Amazonia Vol. 1. General introduction and primates pp. 175-198.

Vieira, 1955

Callicebus brunneus

Synonym: Callithrix brunnea (Wagner, 1842).

Distribution: Region of the upper Rio Madeira (Porto Velho).

Vieira, C. da C. (1955). Lista remissiva dos mamiferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 8 (10): 375-379.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus brunneus

Synonyms: Callithrix brunnea (Wagner, 1842); Callithrix personatus (Gray, 1870); Callicebus brunneus (Elliot, 1913); Callicebus ollalae (Lönnberg, 1939).

Distribution: Extreme northwest of Mato Grosso State and the adjacent part of Bolivia.

Remarks: The description of C. olallae contains nothing that permits to distinguish if from C. brunneus, and its locality is that close to these that one could think of a subspecific difference.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus cupreus brunneus

Type locality: Bananeiras Falls, Rio Mamore, near its confluence with the Rio Beni, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Type in Vienna Museum.

Distribution: Upper Rio Madeira; known from the type locality and from Porto Velho (Upper Rio Madeira).

Description: Very closely allied to caligatus (fide Lima, though stated by Elliot to be very distinct).
Chiefly distinguished from caligatus by colour of tail, which is reddish-chestnut, and by the somewhat browner under parts. Forehead black, the hairs tipped with red, except on the median part of the forehead; posteriorly an at sides red tips predominant, the general effect being dark red, the black being hidden; ears with black hairs; sides of head dark red, hairs black tipped; crown, occiput, dorsal surface of body pale yellowish-brown, each hair with rufous base and yellowish-brown tip; throat, breast, under parts, flanks and both lateral and medial sides of limbs reddish-chestnut, with the hairs black tipped, apex of tail yellowish-brown.

Measurements: head and body 375mm; tail 440mm; foot 90mm.

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Hershkovitz, 1963

Callicebus moloch brunneus

Synonyms: Callithrix brunnea (Wagner, 1842); Callithrix brunnea (Wagner, 1848); Callithrix castaneoventris (Gray, 1866), Callicebus toppini (Thomas, 1914); Callicebus olallae (Lönnberg, 1939); Callicebus modestus (Lönnberg, 1939); Callicebus cupreus acreanus (Vieira, 1952); Callithrix cuprea (Goeldi and Hagman, 1904); Callicebus caligatus (Osgood – not Wagner -, 1916).

Type locality: Brazil, subsequently specified as Cachoeira da Bananeira, Rio Mamoré, upper Rio Madeira, State of Guaporé. The distributional pattern of the race, however, indicates that the type almost certainly originated on the Bolivian side of the river (Rio Mamoré) in the department of Beni. Four cotypes in Vienna Museum.

Distribution: The upper Rio Madeira and Rio Purus basins in Acre and Guaporé 9Lower Rio Guaporé), Brazil, the departments of Madre de Dios, Puno and Cusco, Peru, thence east to the Rio Beni in the department of Beni, Bolivia. Altitudinal range from approximately 100 to 650 meters above sea level.

Description: (key to species:) general body colour grey, reddish or brown; under parts like back or sharply defined reddish orange or buff; hind feet black, brown, red or grey, tail grey or blackish with tip grey or grey mixed with black; throat like chest; forearms grey, red, dark brown sometimes blackish above; upper surface of hands grey to blackish never sharply contrasted with colour of upper side of wrists.
Forehead grey sometimes edged with black or dominantly black to blackish brown and always well defined from posterior half of crown and nape, outer side of forearms grizzled or more or less uniformly reddish to dark brown. Forehead blackish; under parts of body reddish brown or blackish brown and not always well defined from sides; forearms chestnut, reddish brown or blackish; tail grey, dark brown or blackish. Under parts brownish or reddish brown never well defined from sides; forearms dark brown to blackish; tail dominantly black or dark brownish at least on basal two thirds.

Measurements: see table in publication.

Remarks: the original description of castaneoventris, toppini, olallae, modestus and acreanus, all from the same general area, are based on vague comparisons with cupreus only. No mention was made of other related forms although Lönnberg did attempt to distinguish his modestus from his olallae described in the same paper. It is not surprising therefore, that all should prove equally distinct from cupreus and equal to each other, or brunneus, the oldest available name.
The described characters of Callithrix castaneoventris agree with those of brunneus down to the white tip of its tail. Thomas affirmed the distinction of castaneoventris from caligatus, but authors have usually identified the first with the second or its senior synonym, cupreus. Cabrera (1958) sank acreanus in the synonymy of toppini, where it undoubtly belongs except that brunneus is the prior name for the titis of this region. Callicebus olallae from the Rio Beni, Bolivia, was also disposed of by Cabrera, this time in synonymy of brunneus which he regarded as a distinct species. Judged by the description, the type and only known specimen of olallae has all the important diagnostic characters of Callicebus moloch brunneus and others which suggest intergadation with C. m. donacophilus.
The original characterization of the subadult and adult cotypes of Callicebus modestus from higher up the Rio Beni, points to complete intergradation between brunneus and donacophilus. Geographically, modestus could be assigned to either race. The hands and feet of both specimens are black as in brunneus. The tail is described as “speckled blackish and greyish white”, but with the black “dominating in the middle for about two thirds” in the adult. If this means that the tail is dominantly blackish for two thirds its length, then the older cotype of modestus is more like brunneus, in this respect. On the other hand, the ears of modestus (and the type of olallae) are said to be tufted with white, a feature which is more conspicuously developed in donacophilus than in any other race. Cabrera (1958) treats modestus as a synonym of modestus. The original description of modestus, however, suggests a darker animal than any now identified with donacophilus.

Specimens examined: Brazil – Guaporé: Porto Velho; Peru – Cusco: Huaijumbe, Marcapata; Madre de Dios: Itahuania; Puno: Condamo.


Hershkovitz, 1988

Callicebus brunneus

Member of the moloch group.

Remarks: the chromogenetically well advanced or derived prototypes of moloch group species brunneus and cupreus must have spread downstream through gallery forests into the Amazonian flood plains. As lowland gallery forests with their faunas expanded through intrafluvial basins, modern C. brunneus became sympatric with modern C. cupreus.

Hershkovitz, P. (1988) Origin, Speciation, and Distribution of South American Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus (Family Cebidae, Platyrrhini), by Philip Hershkovitz . Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 140 (1): 240-272.

Minezawa et al., 1989

Callicebus moloch brunneus

The chromosome number of all the specimens studied was 48. Their autosomes consisted of 5 pairs of subtelocentric, 5 pairs of submetacentric or metacentric, and 13 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes. The X-chromosome and the Y-chromosome of this karyotype were submetacentric and metacentric, respectively.

Minezawa, M.; Jordan, C.O. and Valdivia, C.J. (1989). Karyotypic Study of Titi Monkeys, Callicebus moloch brunneus. Primates, 30(1): 81-88.

Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus brunneus

Member of the moloch Group.

Synonyms: Callithrix brunea (Wagner, 1842); Callithrix brunnea (Wagner, 1848).

Type locality: Brazil, subsequently specified by Pelzeln (1883) as Cachoeira da Bananeira, Rio Guapore, upper Rio Madeira, Rondonia. Lectotype in Naturhistorische Museum, Wien.

Distribution: Middle and upper Rio Madeira basin in Rondonia and Acre, Brazil, the departments of Madre de Dios, Puno, and Cusco in Peru; west into the upper Rio Purus basin in Amazonas, Brazil, and Ucayali, Peru; altitudinal range about 100-650 m above sea level. The actual provenance of the AMNH specimens of Callicebus brunneus labelled “Rio Inuya” and “Rio Urubamba”, upper Rio Ucayali valley, Ucayali, Peru, by “collectors” Olalla Hijos, is questionable.

Description: Duskiest species of moloch group; forehead, forearms, legs, cheiridia, and two-thirds to entire tail blackish but with pencilled tip often contrastingly pale; sideburns reddish brown or blackish, not sharply defined from forehead and crown; upper parts and sides of body brownish agouti, under parts brownish or reddish brown, not sharply defined from sides of body. Cranial characters like those of the moloch group.

Measurements: See publication.

Comparisons: Distinguished from Callicebus modestus and C. olallae by generally blackish or dark brown forehead and outer surface of limbs, chest, and belly, ears not tufted whitish; from caligatus by blackish or reddish brown sideburns, under parts not sharply defined from crown and sides of body, tail entirely or dominantly blackish except often tip; from C. cupreus by blackish of forehead usually extending to crown, brownish or blackish not reddish or whitish cheiridia, tail mostly to entirely blackish; from all other species of Callicebus by one or more of above characters.

Specimens examined: Total 36. Brazil – Acre: Sena Madureira; Rondonia: Cachoeira da Bananeira; Cachoeira Nazare; Finca Rio Candeia; Porto Velho; Rio Jamari; Santa Barbara, Jamari; Peru – Cuzco: Huajllumbe; Puno: Candamo; Madre de Dios: Altamira; Itahuania; nr. Santa Rosa; Ucuyali: Balta; Rio Curanja; ?Ucayali: “Boca Rio Urubamba”; “Rio Inuya”.

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

 Castro et al., 1990

Callicebus brunneus

Localities: the two study areas were in south-eastern Peru, one between the ríos Acre and Tahuaman, and the other between the ríos Tahuaman and Madre de Díos, close to the border with Brazil and Bolivia.

Castro, N.; Encarnación, F; Valverde, L; Ugamoto, M; Maruyama, E. (1990). Censo de primates no humanos en el suroriente peruano: Iberia e Iñapari (Departamento de Madre de Dios). La Primatología en el Perú. 163-168.

Cameron and Buchanan-Smith, 1991

Callicebus brunneus

Locality: Pando, Bolivia.

Cameron, R. and Buchanan-Smith, H. (1991). Primates of the Pando, Bolivia. Primate Conservation 12/13: 11-14.

Schneider et al., 1993

Callicebus brunneus

Locality: captured during the building of the Samuel Dam in the Rio Jamari, near the Samuel village, state of Rondonia, Brazil.

Remarks: Estimates of genetic similarity between the taxa showed that C. moloch is the most differentiated, since it presented genetic distances of 0.059 and 0.066 when compared to C. brunneus and C. cupreus, respectively; the most distinctive loci are GPI and CA2. On the other hand, the genetic distance between C. brunneus and C. cupreus showed a value of 0.008 only. This estimate is quite similar to those observed among other New World monkeys at the subspecies level. In fact, assuming Thorpe’s (1982) criteria, that genetic distances lower than 15% would be typical of those separating subspecies, we would have to consider the three taxa investigated here as belonging to a single species. As shown in the table, cytogenetic studies in the genus Callicebus are scarce. The karyotypes of eight of the 13 species in this genus are still unknown. However, the three species considered in the present study have already been karyotyped. Consideration of the biochemical and cytogenetic data together, therefore, establishes that:
a) the comparison which showed the largest chromosome difference (brunneus/cupreus) is the one presenting the least differentiation at the biochemical level; and
b) the cytogenetic diversity is compatible with divergence at the species level, unlike the biochemical data.

Schneider, H; Schneider, M.P.C.; Sampaio, M.I.C.; Montoya, E.; Tapia, J. ; Encarnacion, N.P. ; Anselmo, N.P. and Salzano, F.M. (1993). Divergence Between Biochemical and Cytogenetic differences in three Species of the Callicebus moloch Group. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 90:345-350.

Kobayashi, 1995

Callicebus brunneus

Based on cranial measurements, the genus can be divided in five groups:

  • the donacophilus group (including modestus, olallae, d. donacophilus and d. pallescens)
  • the cupreus group (including caligatus, c. cupreus, c. discolor and c. ornatus)
  • the moloch group (including brunneus, h. hoffmannsi, h. baptista, moloch and cinerascens)
  • the personatus group (including p. personatus, p. nigrifrons, p. melanochir)
  • the torquatus group (including t. lucifer, t. lugens, t. medemi, t. regulus, t. purinus and t. torquatus).

The group position of C. dubius remains uncertain; C. oenanthe and C. barbarabrownae were not examined.

Kobayashi, S. (1995). A phylogenetic study of Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: 1. Phyletic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36(1): 101-120.

Ferrari et al., 1995

Callicebus brunneus

Locality: Guajará-Mirim State Park, Rondonia, Brazil (see map).


Wallace and Painter, 1996

Callicebus brunneus

Distribution: Flor de Oro region, Guaporé, Iteñez River, Brazilian side. Not observed on the Bolivian side of the river.


Voss and Emmons, 1996

Callicebus brunneus

Locality: Cocha Cashu Biological Station (11°54’S, 71°22’W) is situated at about 380 m elevation on the left bank of the Rio Manu, a white-water tributary of the Rio Alto Madre de Dios, in Departamento Madre de Dios, Peru.

Voss, R.S. and Emmons, L.H. (1996). Mammalian diversity in neotropical lowland rainforests: a preliminary assessment. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 230: 1-114.

Anderson, 1997

Callicebus brunneus

Synonyms: Callithrix brunea (Pelzeln, 1883); Callicebus gigot donacophilus (Hill, 1960. part – mapped all of the Bolivian range of Callicebus under this name); Callicebus moloch brunneus (Hershkovitz, 1963; Jones and Anderson, 1978; Kinzey, 1982; Anderson, 1985; Brown and Rumiz, 1986; Suirez Morales, 1986; Minezawa et al.,1989; Emmons and Feer, 1990; Tarifa,1991. Callicebus moloch (Heltne et al., 1976; Bejarano,1980; Izawa and Yoneda, 1981; Izawa, 1980; Freese et al., 1982; Pook and Pook, 1982; Tello, 1986; Buchanan-Smith, 1990; Emmons, 1991. Callicebus brunneus (Hershkovitz, 1988; Hershkovitz,1990; Kobayashi, 1990; Anderson, 1993). Callicebus cupreus (Cameron et al., 1989).

Distribution: Known localities are: Beni: 1036/6525, Cachoeira da Bananeira, 4 Vienna (Wagner, 1842b). Pando: 1117/6855, rio Nareuda, 1 AM; 1118/6846, rio Nareuda area, 1 FM; 1120/6908, Centro Grande, 1 La Paz; 1132/6803, Montecarlo (Minezawa et al., 1989); 1223/6835, Chive, 1 AM.
Hershkovitz (1963a: 32) noted that C. m. brunneus ranged “east to the Rio Beni in the department of Beni, Bolivia.”

Remarks: Some names used for Bolivian specimens have type localities outside of Bolivia. Callithrix brunea was described by Natterer (in Wagner, 1842a: 357); type locality not given by author, restricted to “Salto de Bananeira, Mamore River, Mato Grosso, Brasil,” by Hershkovitz (1963a: 32), or “Cachoeira da Bananeira, Rio Guapore, upper Rio Madeira, Rondonia” (Hershkovitz, 1990: 59, quoting Pelzeln, 1883: 20).

Anderson, S. (1997). Mammals of Bolivia, Taxonomy and Distribution. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 231: 1-652.

Wallace et al., 1998

Callicebus brunneus

Locality: the Brazilian side of the Itenez River. Not observed in the Noel Kempff Mercado National Park in northeastern Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia.

Wallace, R.B.; Painter, R.L.E. andTaberi, A.B. (1998). Primate Diversity, Habitat Preferences, and Population Density Estimates in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia.  American Journal of Primatology 46:197–211.

Toledo et al., 1999

Callicebus moloch moloch

Locality: Carajás region, Pará, Brazil.

This species is exotic in the study area.

Toledo, P. M., H. M. Moraes-Santos and C. C. S. Melo. (1999). Levantamento preliminar de mamíferos não-voadores da Serra dos Carajás: grupos silvestres recentes e zooarqueológicos. Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi, sér. Zool. 15: 141 – 157.

Christen, 1999

Callicebus sp. “dark brown back”

Locality: between Rio Nareuda/Tahuamanu and Rio Acre (see map).


Ferrari et al., 2000

Callicebus brunneus

Localities: see map (north and south of the Serra dos Pacais Novos).

Distribution: There is no evidence to suggest that brunneus and C. moloch, found in southern Rondonia, are ecologically distinct, by contrast, which suggests that a contact zone exists somewhere between the Serra dos Pacais Novos, to the north, and the Chapada dos Parecis, to the south. The characteristics of this contact zone remain unclear, i.e. whether sympatry or even hybridization occurs, but it is interesting to note that at two sites (marked A and B on the map) located south of the Pacaás Novos, some of the monkeys observed were relatively lightly-coloured (more similar to C. moloch) in contrast with the typical dun tones of C. brunneus. Local residents also confirmed the existence of two distinct types of titis in different areas at this site.

Ferrari, S.F.;  Iwanga, S.; Messias, M.R.; Ramos, E.M.; Ramos, P.C.S.; da Cruz Neto, E. and Coutinho, P. E.G. (2000). Titi Monkeys (Callicebus spp., Atelidae: Platyrrhini) in the Brazilian State of Rondônia. Primates, 41 (2): 229-234.

Buchanan-Smith et al., 2000

Callicebus brunneus

Localities: both north and south of the Rio Tahuamanu in the Pando. Cocamita, 11º13’S, 68º42’W; Buena Vista, 10º57’S, 69º18’W; Los Campos, 11º24’S, 69º01’W; Piaou, 10º58’S, 69º10’W; Belo Horizonte, 11º01’S, 68º59’W; Rutina, 11º24’S, 69º01’W; Santa Rosa (Rio Abuña), 10º35’S, 67º28’W; Ponton, 11º31’S, 68º03’W.

Remarks: The classification of this species is based on Hershkovitz (1990). Previous surveys in the Pando have reported them as Callicebus moloch (Freese et al., 1982) or C. cupreus (Cameron et al., 1989). Variations in their pelage coloration are quite pronounced. Some were very reddish/ orange on their backs, while others were medium to dark brown.

Buchanan-Smith, H.M.; Hardie,S.M.; Caceres, C. and Prescott, M.J. (2000). Distribution and Forest Utilization of Saguinus and other Primates of the Pando Department, Northern Bolivia. International Journal of Primatology  21(3): 353-379.

Alonso et al., 2001

Callicebus moloch brunneus

Locality: Cashiriari-3, southern (left) margin of the Río Camisea.

Alonso, A., F. Dallmeier and P. Campbell, eds. 2001. Urubamba: The Biodiversity of a Peruvian Rainforest, SI/MAB Series #7. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.

 Messias, 2001

Callicebus brunneus

Locality: Rio Ouro Preto State Reserve, Rondonia, Brasil.


Porter, 2001

Callicebus brunneus

Locality: San Sebastian (11º24’S, 69º06’W, ca. 280 m elevation) in the Department of the Pando, northern Bolivia, 3 km north of the Río Tahuamanu and 42 km east of the border with Peru.

Porter, L.M. (2001). Dietary Differences Among Sympatric Callitrichinae in Northern Bolivia: Callimico goeldii, Saguinus fuscicollis and S. labiatus. International Journal of  Primatology, 22(6)961-992.    

Groves, 2001

Callicebus brunneus

Synonyms: Callithrix brunea (Wagner, 1842).

Distribution: Middle and upper Rio Madeira basin, west to upper Rio Purus basin.

Description: Body wood brown, with very fluffy pelage, the hairs with long black-brown base, usually with three pairs of alternating bands, light brown and black, usually alight tip. Crown black, the hairs with very short, light grey bases. Limbs black. Tail black, with tendency to have a light tip. Underside black brown, not sharply set off from body; inner aspect of limbs, chin, and cheeks much blacker.


Roosmalen et al., 2002

Callicebus brunneus

Type locality: Cachoeira da Bananeira, Rio Guaporé, upper Rio Madeira, state of Rondônia, Brazil. The lectotype is an adult male, skin and skull, no. 3454, Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien, Austria, collected by Johann Natterer, September, 1829.

Distribution: Right bank of upper Rio Madeira, in the states of Rondônia and Acre, Brazil. In Rondônia, the species is parapatric with C. bernhardi along the entire Rio Ji-Paraná; in the north of its distribution, it is parapatric with C. dubius along the west bank of the Rio Madeira; in the west of its distribution, it is parapatric with C. cupreus along the upper Rio Purús; in the south of its distribution, it is parapatric with C. modestus in the interfluve of the Ríos Beni and Madre de Dios, and with C. donacophilus in the upper Río Mamoré and San Miguel basins, Bolivia.

Description: Darkest species of the moloch group, the forehead, forearms, legs, cheiridia, and base of the tail blackish to dark reddish-brown, but rest of tail contrasted pale or dominantly buffy mixed with blackish; sideburns blackish to dark reddish-brown; upper parts and sides of body brownish or red-brown agouti, under parts brownish or reddish, not sharply defined from sides of body.
Distinguished from C. bernhardi by generally blackish or dark brown forehead, lack of white ear tufts, blackish or reddish-brown instead of contrasted bright orange sideburns and under parts, and brownish or blackish not whitish cheiridia; from C. cinerascens by its generally blackish or dark brown instead of greyish appearance, blackish or reddish-brown instead of greyish sideburns, and tail dominantly buffy intermixed with black.

van Roosmalen, G.M.; van Roosmalen, T. and  Mittermeier, R.A. (2002). A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10(Suppl.): 1-52.

 Rowe and Martinez, 2003

Callicebus brunneus

Locality: Callimico Biological Station, near Cobija, Bolivia (11º25.142’S, 069º00.144’W – 139m); near Suciri (11º34.862’S, 067º08.456’W – 145m) (+ other unconfirmed localities).

Description: they had dark foreheads with no white visible,and their limbs, throat and belly were reddish with a grey brownish back. The tail, however, did not appear to have nearly as much white as depicted in the illustration of C. brunneus by Stephen Nash in Van Roosmalen et al. (2002). On the individuals we observed, the tail was reddish-brown with a white tip.

Rowe, N. and Martinez, W. (2003). Callicebus sightings in Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador. Neotropical Primates 11(1): 32-35.

Phillips et al., 2004

Callicebus brunneus

Localities: Tambopata Research Center, Tambopata National Reserve, Peru, located in south-eastern Peru in the Department of Madre de Dios. Western bank of the Tambopata River (13º8’10’’S, 69º36’40’’W), 75 km SSW from Puerto Maldonado.

Phillips, K.A.; Haas, M.E.; Grafton, B.W. and Yrivarren, M. (2004). Survey of the gastrointestinal parasites of the primate community at Tambopata National Reserve, Peru. Journal of  Zoolology, London 264: 149–151.

Anonymous, 2004

Callicebus brunneus

Locality: The Tahuamanu Biological Station of the Amazonian University of Pando (Pando, Bolivia).


Solari et al., 2006

Callicebus brunneus

Localities: Manu Biospere Reserve:
1. Aguas Calientes, Río Alto Madre de Dios, ca. 1 km below Shintuya (also Quebrada Aguas Calientes, left bank, Río Alto Madre de Dios, 2.75 km E Shintuya), (12°66’83’’ / 71°26’90’’) 450–520 m als.
2. Altamira, (12°19’02’’ / 71°01’84’’) 350–400 m asl.
3. Cocha Cashu Biological Station (also ca. 70 km NW mouth of Río Manu on Río Manu; Río Manu, 70 Airline km above Mouth, N. Bank), (11°85’ / 71°31’66’’) 380 m asl.
4. Itahuania, (12°78’33’’ / 71°21’67’’) 450 m asl.
5. Pakitza (Pakitza Control Post, 57 km above mouth of Río Manu; Pakitza, 40 km above mouth of Río Manu; Río Manu, Puesto de Vigilancia de Pakitza), (11°94’64’’ / 71°28’33’’), 340–350 m asl.


Ferrari et al., 2007

Callicebus brunneus

Locality: “Toledo et al. (1999) report that a population of the exotic Callicebus brunneus may have been established in the area (= Carajás complex), derived from animals released from captivity”.


Vermeer, 2009

Callicebus brunneus

This species is described by Van Roosmalen et al. (2002) as having the forehead, forearms, legs, cheiridia and base of tail blackish to dark-reddish-brown, the rest of the tail contrasted pale or dominantly buffy mixed with blackish. The upperparts are brownish or reddish. The drawing of Stephen Nash is in agreement with this description. The description and the drawing were compared to the lectotype and lectoparatypes of Callicebus brunneus at the Naturhistorisch Museum in Vienna, Austria (No. B-3453, B-3454, ST122). The colouration of these specimens differs considerably from the description in Van Roosmalen et al. (2002). The upperparts of all specimens are dark brown, the arms and legs only slightly darker than the back, but brownish.
The forehead is black, while the rest of the head is strikingly light-brown in all specimens. The tail is dark-brown, in one specimen somewhat lighter than its upperparts. The tip ofthe tail is buffy. The hands and feet of the lectotype are black, those of the lectoparatypes light-brown.
The colouration of the specimens in the Vienna museum match the picture of Callicebus brunneus published on page 85 in Rowe (1996). The animals depicted in Van Roosmalen et al. (2002), page 21, at the National Zoo in Washington, must be Callicebus cupreus and certainly are not Callicebus brunneus. The animals living at the Los Amigos Research Station near the Madre de Dios, Peru (12° 34′ S, 70° 06’W) and at Tambopata are usually identifed as being Callicebus brunneus, and they indeed resemble the drawing of this species in the publication of van Roosmalen et al. (2002). However, when comparing them to the type specimens of this species they are considerably different, and the titi monkeys in this area are most probably Callicebus aureipalatii (Wallace et al. 2006). Individuals of Callicebus aureipalatii were also observed by the author in the eastern part of Manu National Park, Peru (Pantiacolla Lodge, 12° 39’S, 71° 13′ W). However, the situation in this area is quite confusing, as other animals were much darker, resembling a transitional coloration between Callicebus aureipalatii and Callicebus brunneus. Very dark animals in the collection of the Natural History Museum in Lima resemble Callicebus brunneus very closely, and were collected at Quebrada Aguas Calientes in Manu National Park. More research is urgently needed on the identification of the titi monkeys in and around Manu National Park.

Vermeer, J. (2009). On the Identification of Callicebus cupreus and Callicebus brunneus. Neotropical Primates 16(2): 69-71.

Auricchio, 2010

Callicebus brunneus

Localities: RO Alto Paraíso. Polonoroeste (09°37’S 63°27’W); Porto Velho (08°47’S 63°55’W); RO Santa Bárbara (09°10’S 63°04’W); RO Rio Machado Cach Nazaré (08°52’S 62°07’W); RO Pedra Branca (10°01’S 62°05’W); RO Faz. Rio Candeias município Porto Velho (08°57’S 63°38’W); RO UHE Samuel rio Jamari afl.dir. rio Madeira (08°40’S 63°25’W); RO Calama margem direita Rio Ji-paraná (08°03’S 62°53’W).

Auricchio, P. (2010). A morphological analysis of some species of Callicebus. Neotropical Primates 17(2): 47-58.

Mercado and Wallace, 2010

Callicebus brunneus 

Remarks: Hershkovitz (1988) proposes that the species of this genus that can be found in the Pando Department is C. brunneus. However, van Roosmalen et al. (2002) classify them as C. dubius, although these have a white frontal band (characteristic of C. dubius). The tail is not as whitish as on the figure of C. brunneus by Stephen Nash in van Roosmalen (2002), but this is brown-reddish with a white tip (Row and Martinez, 2004). At the same time, comparing specimens collected in Brazil of C. brunneus with a specimen collected in Chivé above the Río Madre de Dios, in the departments of Pando and La Paz, one can observe a clear difference with the specimens from Brazil (Wallace et al., 2006). Here we prefer to call them Callicebus sp. until the confirmation of its identity.

Mercado, N.I. and Wallace, R.B. (2010). Distribución de primates en Bolivia y áreas prioritarias para su conservación. Tropical Conservation Science 3 (2):200-217.

Engelberger, 2010

Callicebus brunneus

Synonyms: Callithrix brunea (Wagner, 1842; no locality given); Callithrix brunnea (Wagner, 1848; Rio Madeira, Western border of central Brasil); Callicebus brunneus  (Hershkovitz, 1988, 1990; Roosmalen et al. 2002; Rylands and Mittermeier, 2009).

Types: Lectotype: NMW 775/B 3454 (no.61) ♂, skull, skin. Collected at Cachoeira da bananeira; 4.ix.1829; (coll. Joh. Natterer) (no.124), 12th shipment. Paralectotypes (2): NMW B 3453 (no.59) ♀, (skull), skin. Collected at Cachoeira da bananeira; 3.ix.1829; (coll. Joh. Natterer) (no.124); NMW ST 122 (no.7) ♀ mount. Collected at Cachoeira da Bananeira; 4.ix.1829 (NMW label); coll. Johann Natterer (no.124). Paralectotype in other institution: ZMB 3190 ♀, mount. Collected at Cachoeira da Bananeira; 2-3.ix.1829; coll. Joh. Natterer (no.124), ex. coll. NMW ded.

Locality: Cachoeira da Bananeira, 10°36’S, 65°25’W, Rio Mamoré, Rondônia, Brazil.

Comments: Callithrix brunnea Wagner, 1848 is an unjustified emendation of C. brunea Wagner, 1842 (Hershkovitz, 1963 supposed a typographical error in the original description, wherefore no cogent indication has been found) in terms of the ICZN (1999, art. 33.2.1.). Though, the former is in prevailing usage and attributed to Wagner 1842 (e.g. Wagner 1843, 1848; Pelzeln 1883) it is deemed to be justified (ICZN 1999, art. 33.2.3.1.).
According to Josef Natterer’s catalogue of the specimens obtained by the NMW from Johann Natterer, seven specimens of C. brunnea, two ♂♂, four ♀♀ (10th shipment), and one ♂ (12th shipment), have been acquired until 1836. Yet in 1848 Wagner mentioned only four specimens (two ♀♀ and two ♂♂) to be kept at the NMW and it is presumed that he only had these at hand for his description in 1842. Thereof one specimen, a study skin, possessing the old NMW number 63 (referred to as “Heckel Numer” in the AV [AV 1866/X]) came in exchange to the ZMB (AV 1866/X/3a), where it was mounted (pers. comm. N. Lange iii.2010). Consequently Hershkovitz’s (1963, 1990) mentioning of four type specimens in the NMW is incorrect. Supposedly he did not examine the specimens in the public exhibition during his stay at the NMW in 1985, since contrary to his statement only one mount (NMW ST 122), instead of two mentioned (HERSHKOVITZ 1990), was shown there at that time.
The lectotype has been designated by ELLIOT (1913; cf. ICZN 1999, art. 74.5.). However, also the specimen in the ZMB (ZMB 3190) bears a syntype label with “Lectotyp.” added subsequently by an unknown hand (pers. comm. N. Lange iii.2010). Since Daniel Giraud Elliot visited the ZMB as well as the NMW during the preparation of his “Review of the primates”, wherein he explicitly described a specimen from the NMW as the (lecto)type of C. brunneus (ELLIOT 1913), ZMB 3190 undoubtedly represents a paralectotype.

Engelberger, S. (2010). Annotated catalogue of primate type specimens in the mammal collection of the Museum of Natural History Vienna. Diplomarbeit, Universität Wien.

Aquino et al., 2013

Callicebus brunneus

Localities: “the lower Río Urubamba and theinterfluvium between this river and the Río Tambo”(no detailed information is provided on the exact locations of sightings).

Aquino, R.; Cornejo, F.M. and Heymann, E.W. (2013). Primate abundance and habitat preferences on the lower Urubamba and Tambo rivers, central–eastern Peruvian Amazonia. Primates 54:377–383.

Vermeer and Tello-Alvarado, 2015

Callicebus brunneus

Remarks: It (= C. urubambensis) is distinguished from the Brazilian Callicebus brunneus (Wagner) by the coloration of the head. In C. urubambensis, the occiput and the sides of the face are the same brown color as the back. In C. brunneus, there is a dark brown band behind the jet-black frontal blaze, separating it from the yellowish occiput. The yellowish coloration extends towards the neck, where it becomes the same agouti-brown color as the back and the sides of the body. The cheeks of C. brunneus are dark brown, conspicuously darker than the sides of the body. There is some variation in the coloration of the lecto-(para)-types of C. brunneus, but none has the black forearms of C. urubambensis. There is a geographical gap of more than 600 km between the most eastern observation of C. urubambensis and the most western confirmed sighting of C. brunneus. Genetic studies could elucidate the taxonomic relationship between the two species.

Distribution: there is no description of its distribution range in the publication, but a map shows that its distribution is restricted to Rondonia, Brazil.