Literature baptista

Lönnberg, 1939baptista 9x13

Callicebus baptista

Locality: The Stockholm museum has 11 specimens originating from Lago de Baptista, East of Rio Tapajoz; 6 specimens from Lago Tapajuna, East of Rio Tapajoz, both localities situated in the Estado do Amazonas.

Description: This species has to some extent the same general pattern as the two titi monkeys mentioned above (moloch and hoffmannsi), but is decidedly darker and more richly coloured. The whole crown of the head is short-haired and clear grizzled grey by means of white tips or broad subapical rings above broad, pure black rings (the proximal portion of the hairs, which does not affect the general appearance, may be ringed black and white, or dark brown, or greyish). In front, just above the naked face, there is a thin black line in which the pure black hairs partly are more or less lengthened into bristles. The colour of the crown is somewhat similar to the same in C. moloch, but containing more black and thus less greyish looking. The back is rather dark brownish by means of numerous but usually comparatively narrow, pale buffish to almost whitish rings on the brownish black hairs; in some specimens, however, especially males, the general colour becomes somewhat rufescent and darker, because the rings of the hairs are whitish. The outside of the arms and legs is black, grizzled with white rings to a varying effect so that in some specimens the white is rather dominating on the upper arms. Distally the white rings decrease in size and number so that the hands often are pure black more or less sprinkled with white. The same is also the case with the feet on which the black in most cases dominates. The limbs are thus quite unlike those of C. remulus.
The sides of the head and neck, the whole lower side of the body, and the inside of the limbs are strongly rufous red, on the whiskers and the inside of the fore limbs in some specimens resembling “burnt siena”, but usually clearer and brighter, sometimes tending towards “orange rufous”, but in neither case fully exact and always much more saturated and darker than in C. moloch. In two female specimens the rich rufous colour of the inner side of the hind limb also extends somewhat to the outer side between the knee and the black foot, and in one of them also the greater part of the outer side of the arm has assumed this red colour, but the hand is black, a little grizzled. A few centimetres of the tail show the grizzled colour of the back, otherwise the visible parts of the tail is pure black with a narrow whitish tuft at the extreme end. The proximal parts of the black hairs are, however, more or less ringed with whitish, although this is not visible from the surface. The tail is thus, as also the limbs, very different in colour from that of the cupreus group, but it is the same time blacker then the same organ in C. moloch.

Collectors measurements: Males: total length 810/805/805mm; tail 490/451/450mm; hind foot 100/97/94mm.Females: total length 785/815mm; tail 465/435mm; hind foot 98/94mm.

Skull: measurements and description of five individuals in publication.

Remarks: When treating members of this genus it is often united whit considerable difficulties to decide with full certainty their affinity, and to which species they may belong. The cause os this is partly the variability in colour etc. of the animals, but still more the incompleteness of the short descriptions, especially in the earlier literature, and the often contradictory statements concerning the characteristics of animals decribed under the same name by different authors. In consequence of this the present author was at first hesitating, whether the titi monkey, now treated under the name C. baptista as a new species, really deserved this rank. It appeared namely at the first look that it offered a certain resemblance with the species quoted in the literature under the name C. moloch Hoffmannsegg. The general pattern seemed to be somewhat similar in several respects, but there were also statements that it did not suit at all. Unfortunately the original description by Hoffmannsegg was not available to me, and this increased my hesitation. It disappeared, however, when I found that such an eminent author as Isidore Geoffroy Saint Hillaire had had the opportunity to describe C. moloch and also to communicate a very fine coloured figure of the same (1844). The latter is said to be “faite d’après le vivant”. Concerning the original of this figure the author quoted has also later on given the very important communication in the “Catalogue” (1851), name that it was “one of the types of the species”. From Brasil, given by M. Hoffmannsegg, 1808. It was also said that it had been living in the menagery and then been painted by M. Werner. From this painting I. Goeffroy St. Hillaire had had his coloured plate engraved for the volume cited above. It may thus be considered that it is a typical specimen that has been the original to this coloured plate, which gives the impression of being very carefully made, by a skilful artist.

The description by the author quoted, and the fine figure of one of the original specimens of Callithrix (as the genus was called) moloch Hoffmannsegg prove quite plainly that the titi monkey, which I have described under the name C. baptista is quite different and certainly not identical with C. moloch.

Wagner has also expressed a quite similar opinion about C. moloch as I. Geoffroy St. Hillaire as well (1840). His diagnose for C. moloch  is very good for the monkey which Thomas later named C. remulus, but cannot be applied to the titi monkey, for which I have proposed the name C. baptista. From a zoogeographic also it does not appear to be any objection to consider C. remulus (Thomas) as identical with C. moloch (Hoffmannsegg). The latter had namely obtained his animals in the state of Pará, thus on the southern side of lower Amazonas near its mouth. Elliot has added to this concerning the type locality of C. moloch “near the mouth of Rio Tapajos”. The first locality indicated by Thomas for C. remulus is Santarem E. of Rio Tapajoz (1908). A few years later (1913), he adds that it was distributed over “the area between the Amazon, Xingu and Tapajoz, at the north-western corner of which Santarem is situated”. Our specimens are likewise from the country E. of Tapajoz. Consequently the type localities of C. moloch and of C. remulus coincide completely, which is a further proof of their identity, whereas C. baptista inhabits a quite different district further west, which appears to have been less explored.

Since the above already was written, I received a direct copy of Hoffmannsegg’s description. The detailed and very careful description of the animal proves that it must be identical with Callicebus remulus and at the same time entirely differs from C. baptista.

Lönnberg, E. (1939). Notes on some members of the genus Callicebus. Arkiv för Zoologi 31 (13): 1-18.

Cruz Lima, 1945

Callicebus baptista

Synonym: Callicebus baptista (Lönnberg, 1939).

Description: The whole crown of the head covered with short hairs, appearing clear grizzled grey owing to the white tips or broad white subapical rings above wide, pure black rings, the remaining portion of the hairs down to their bases being ringed black and white, or dark brown, or greyish, this part not being visible. On the forehead, immediately above the bare skin of the face there is a thin black line of hairs, some lengthened more or less into bristles. Back rather dark brownish due to numerous but narrow, pale buffish to almost whitish rings on the brownish-black hairs. In some specimens, especially male, the general colouring becomes somewhat rufescent and darker as the rings of the hairs are of a richer buff colour. The lower flanks are, as a rule, more greyish due to the whitish hair-rings. Outer surface of limbs black grizzled with white rings , the white rings decreasing in size and number distally so that the hands often are pure black more or less sprinkled with white, the same being the case with the feet. Sides of the head and neck, the whole of the under parts and the inner sides of the limbs strongly rufous red, on the whiskers and the inner surface of arms, in some specimens, resembling burnt siena, but usually clearer and brighter, sometimes tending towards orange rufous, but always darker than in C. moloch. Tail on a few basal centimetres the same grizzled colour of the back, otherwise pure black with a narrow whitish tuft on the tip, the basal portion of the black hairs being, however, more or less ringed with whitish, this being invisible from the surface. (Condensed from the original description).

Measurements: (of the collector) total length 810mm; tail 490mm; foot 100mm.

Remarks: Type in the Stockholm museum, no holotype designated among the 17 specimens mentioned.

Lönnberg states that this animal is very much like moloch and he hesitated about considering it a new species because of the great variation in the colouring and insufficiency and confusion in the descriptions; he arrived at the above conclusion only through comparison with the description of moloch given by I. Geoffroy and the plate. According to Lönnberg’s illustration, however, in which the colouring of the ventral surface is much darker and more purplish, his species could more easily be united with ustofuscus, as well as his description which inclines one to place it with the cupreus group.

Cruz-Lima, E. da (1945). Mammals of Amazonia Vol. 1. General introduction and primates pp. 175-198.

Vieira, 1955

Callicebus baptista

Synonym: Callicebus baptista (Lönnberg, 1939).

Distribution: known only from the type locality.

Vieira, C. da C. (1955). Lista remissiva dos mamiferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 8 (10): 375-379.

Cabrera, 1958

Callicebus moloch baptista

Synonym: Callicebus baptista (Lönnberg, 1939).

Distribution: Central Brazil, in the lagoons-zone west of the Tapajos River.

Remarks: Lönnberg has mentioned various specimens of this form, which may only be a chromatic variety of C. moloch hoffmannsi, from the Baptista and Tapaiuma lagoons, west (and not east, as has been written) of the Tapajos, without designating a type nor type locality, but its name obliged to choose the first locality.

Cabrera, A. (1958). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de la Ciencias Naturales, Ciencia Zoologica, 4 (1): 137-142.

Hill, 1960

Callicebus moloch baptista

Type locality: Lago de Baptista or Lago Tapajuna, east bank of Rio Tapajoz, Pará, Brazil.

Distribution: Known only from the type localities.

Description: Much like moloch, but differing in colour of crown, which is clothed with short hairs, grizzled grey with white tips, or broad white subapical rings distal to pure black zone, basal (hidden) part of each hair ringed black and white or dark-brown or grey. Forehead with thin black line of superciliairy hairs, some lengthened into bristles. Upper parts of body darkish brown, the hairs mainly brownish-black with pale buff to whitish rings, but sometimes, especially in males, more rufescent from deepening of tone of the buff annulations. Lower flanks greyer from effect of whitish zone of individual hairs. Lateral surfaces of limbs grizzled, due to alternate annulations of black and white, the white rings decreasing distally, the hands and feet being almost entirely black, but with sprinkling of white. Sides of head and feet being almost entirely black, but resembling burnt sienna on whiskers and medial surface or arms in some specimens, otherwise tending to orange-rufous, though invariably darker than in other races of moloch. Basal part of tail like back, the rest clothed with black hairs bearing basal whitish rings; apex of tail with narrow whitish tuft.
Lönnberg’s plate shows the under parts with a purplish tinge which suggested to Lima that this form pertains with the cupreus group. This may, however, be artist’s licence, as is certainly the posture in which the animal is depicted.

Measurements: head and body 320mm; tail 490mm; foot 100mm.

Skull: see measurements in publication.

Hill, W.C.O. (1960). Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy  4 (A): 98-147.

Hershkovitz, 1963

Callicebus moloch hoffmannsi

Synonyms: Callicebus hoffmannsi (Thomas, 1908); Callicebus baptista (Lönnberg, 1939); Callicebus moloch baptista (Cabrera, 1958).

Remarks: specimens representing hoffmannsi from the left bank of the Tapajóz are notably darker on upper and outer sides of trunk and limbs and appreciably paler on under parts and sides of face than typical moloch from the opposite of the Tapajóz. Topotypes at hand of baptista from the right side of the lower Rio Madeira are as dark on upper and outer surfaces of body and limbs and tail as topotypical hoffmannsi. Their under parts and cheeks, however, are more saturate than those of either hoffmannsi or moloch and quite or nearly as deeply red as those from cupreus from the opposite side of the Madeira and higher up the Solimoes. That the two named forms may represent local colour varieties is indicated by 4 specimens from Villa Braga, Rio Tapajóz, examined by Thomas. The under parts of two were “pale yellowish like the type (of hoffmannsi) while the other two have under parts strong ochraceous buffy”. Inasmuch as there is no physical barrier between the titis of the left bank of the Tapajóz and those of the right bank of the Madeira, I follow Cabrera (1958) in treating baptista as a synonym of hoffmannsi.


Hershkovitz, 1988

Callicebus hoffmannsi baptista

Member of the moloch group.

Remarks: Pheomelanin dominated and partially replaced the primitive agouti in the east side populations, now C. moloch. In the west side populations, the present C. hoffmannsi, eumelanin dominated and partially replaced the primitive agouti. A few representatives of the species that were semi-isolated in the huge Tupinambaranas Island of the lower Río Madeira remained nearest the ancestral form in coloration and are now recognized as C. hoffmannsi baptista. The others, now C. hoffmannsi hoffmannsi, between the Ríos Madeira and Tapajós, differ consistently in paler tones of the shared derived pheomelanin pigment. In all other respect the two subspecies are the same except for the occasional appearance in baptista of a pheomelanin terminal tuft of the otherwise dominantly blackish tail.

With putative return of a warmer more humid climate, dominantly eumelanic C. hoffmannsi remained confined to the area bound by the Ríos Madeira, Tapajós, and Canuma. The dominantly pheomelanic C. moloch, however, spread freely southwardas broadleaf forest habitat succeeded scrub and savanna habitats. Representatives of C. moloch at the present southern border of the range average slightly paler than the northern members.

Hershkovitz, P. (1988) Origin, Speciation, and Distribution of South American Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus (Family Cebidae, Platyrrhini), by Philip Hershkovitz . Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 140 (1): 240-272.

Hershkovitz, 1990

Callicebus hoffmannsi baptista

Member of the moloch Group.

Synonym: Callicebus baptista (Lönnberg, 1939).

Type locality: Originally unspecified, restricted to Lago do Baptista by Hershkovitz (1963). None type specified; 17 syntypes of original description, all in the Royal Natural History Museum, Stockholm. An adult male, skin and skull, no. A611510, of the Lago do Baptista series, is here designated lectotype; the syntypes become lectoparatypes.

Distribution: Known only from the type locality and the nearby Lago do Tapaiuna, both localities on Isla Tupinambaranas of the lower Rio Madeira. The range may actually extend from between east bank lower Rio Madeira and west bank Rio Canuma from about 5°16’S, 59°45’W, northward through the chain of paranas to Rio Amazonas near Parintins, Amazonas, Brazil

Description: Upper and outer surface of head, trunk, and limbs greyish to blackish agouti; forehead like crown, whitish ear tufts absent; sideburns, under parts of body, and inner side of limbs sharply contrasted reddish or reddish-brown; tail dominantly blackish agouti to nearly entirely blackish, tail tip sometimes entirely buffy

Measurements: See publication.

Comparisons: Under parts and sideburns most saturate pheomelanin of moloch group, distinguished from Callicebus h. hoffmannsi and all other species by dark brownish or “greyish” agouti upper and outer parts of trunk, limbs, crown, and forehead, undifferentiated cheiridia, sharply contrasted dark reddish sideburns, and under parts and inner surface of limbs.

Specimens examined: Total 45. Brazil – Amazonas: Lago do Baptista; Lago Tapaiuna.

Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. Fieldiana Zoology 55: 1-109.

Kobayashi, 1995

Callicebus hoffmannsi baptista

Based on cranial measurements, the genus can be divided in five groups:

  • the donacophilus group (including modestus, olallae, d. donacophilus and d. pallescens)
  • the cupreus group (including caligatus, c. cupreus, c. discolor and c. ornatus)
  • the moloch group (including brunneus, h. hoffmannsi, h. baptista, moloch and cinerascens)
  • the personatus group (including p. personatus, p. nigrifrons, p. melanochir)
  • the torquatus group (including t. lucifer, t. lugens, t. medemi, t. regulus, t. purinus and t. torquatus).

The group position of C. dubius remains uncertain; C. oenanthe and C. barbarabrownae were not examined.

Kobayashi, S. (1995). A phylogenetic study of Titi Monkeys, Genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: 1. Phyletic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36(1): 101-120.

Groves, 2001

Callicebus baptista

Synonyms: Callicebus baptista (Lönnberg, 1939).

Distribution: Very restricted: Lago do Baptista and Lago do Tapaiuna, on Tupinambaranas Island, lower Rio Madeira.

Description: Body very dark brown; hairs with short grey-black base, shaft with two pairs of bands, pale tawny and black, and tip tawny. Crown grey; the hairs with very short white base, black shaft, white tip. Limbs as body, or a bit greyer, darkening toward hands and feet. Tail black, with tendency to have a white tip. Underside maroon-red, this tone broadly extending to inner aspects of limbs (including hands and feet), cheeks, and chin. Relatively large but short-tailed.

Remarks: I expected that when I was able to examine skins for myself, I would reduce all three (moloch, baptista and hoffmannsi) to subspecies under C. moloch; instead, study of the specimens in AMNH demonstrated to me that each is specifically distinct.


Roosmalen et al., 2002

Callicebus baptista

Type locality: Not specified, but restricted to Lago do Baptista by Hershkovitz (1963). The lake is located north of the Paraná do Urariá, south of the Rio Amazonas, and east of the town of Novo Olinda do Norte on the right bank of the Rio Madeira. The holotype is not specified; there are 17 syntypes in the Royal Natural History Museum of Stockholm, Sweden, collected in 1936 by A. M. Olalla along Lago do Baptista and Lago do Tapaiuna. Hershkovitz (1990) designated an adult male, skin and skull, no. A611510, from Lago do Baptista, as the lectotype.

Distribution: Central Amazonian Brazil, south of the Rio Amazonas and east of the Rio Madeira in the state of Amazonas east almost as far as the western limit of the state of Pará, and north of the Paraná do Canumã, Paraná do Urariá, and Paraná do Ramos. It was observed in the wild by the first author on the west (left) bank of the Rio Uíra-Curupá, and is believed to have crossed over the Paraná do Ramos west of the town of Parintins, forming an enclave population in the interfluve delineated by the lower Rio Uíra-Curupá and lower Rio Andirá. M. G. M. van Roosmalen also observed populations of entirely pale yellowish to almost white colour morphs of Callicebus hoffmannsi along the Rio Mamurú, one river further to the east, and classic yellowish-white and grey Callicebus hoffmannsi on both banks of the middle and upper Rio Andirá. These observations confirm the parapatry of Callicebus hoffmannsi and C. baptista, and therefore they are elevated to full species here, whereas Hershkovitz (1990) considers them subspecies of Callicebus hoffmannsi.

Description: Sideburns, under parts, and inner side of limbs bright to dark reddish, or reddish brown (saturate pheomelanin); upper and outer surface of head, trunk, and limbs greyish to blackish agouti; forehead like crown, whitish ear tufts lacking; tail dominantly blackish agouti to entirely blackish, often intermixed with buff and grey hairs. Distinguished from C. cinerascens and C. hoffmannsi by uniformly reddish or reddish brown sideburns, and under parts and inner surface of limbs; from C. bernhardi by lack of white ear tufts, white cheiridia and white tail tip; from C. moloch by dark brownish or greyish agouti upper and outer parts of trunk, limbs, crown and forehead, reddish or reddish brown instead of bright orange sideburns, and lacking the buffy upper surface of the cheiridia and buffy pencilled tip of tail.

van Roosmalen, G.M.; van Roosmalen, T. and  Mittermeier, R.A. (2002). A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10(Suppl.): 1-52.

Auricchio, 2010

Callicebus baptista

Localities: AM Lago do Batista right bank of Río Amazonas, I. Tupinambarana (03°15’S 58°15’W); AM Tapaiuna right bank of Río Amazonas, I. Tupinambarana (03°27’S 58°18’W).